Η παρούσα έκθεση αποτυπώνει τον αντίκτυπο της κρίσης COVID-19 στην ποιότητα ζωής των ηλικιωμένων πολιτών, συμπεριλαμβανομένων των επιπτώσεων στην ευημερία, τα οικονομικά, την απασχόληση και την κοινωνική τους ένταξη. Διερευνά τις επιπτώσεις στη χρήση υπηρεσιών φροντίδας και στην εξάρτηση των ηλικιωμένων από άλλες μορφές στήριξης. Η έκθεση παρουσιάζει μέτρα πολιτικής που έχουν εφαρμοστεί στα κράτη μέλη της ΕΕ για τη στήριξη των ηλικιωμένων σε όλες τις προαναφερθείσες διαστάσεις.
The first overview of minimum wage setting for 2022 shows that, while some negotiations are still ongoing, virtually all EU Member States have increased their nominal statutory rates. Compared to last year, when most countries settled for cautious increases against a background of deep uncertainty caused by the pandemic, growth in statutory rates for 2022 was stronger, reflecting an easing of the situation. This was especially the case in central and eastern European countries, where some increases were in double digits. Nevertheless, inflation is back in the picture and should be monitored in the coming months to get an insight into how the increases in nominal minimum wage rates translate into actual changes in the purchasing power of minimum wage earners.
This programming document describes Eurofound’s planned work over the programming period 2021–2024. It sets out the policy and institutional context for the programme, outlines the multiannual programme for the four-year period and sets out the work programme for 2022. Eurofound’s priorities for 2021–2024 are shaped by the key challenges for social cohesion and just transitions in a changing environment in the aftermath of the COVID-19 crisis. The Agency focuses on issues where it can draw on its core expertise in the areas of working conditions, industrial relations, employment and living conditions, to support its stakeholders, by providing evidence that can assist their policy action.
The European Union Agencies Network on Scientific Advice (EU-ANSA) consists of technical and regulatory agencies that provide scientific advice to EU policymakers. This report demonstrates how EU-ANSA member Agencies are addressing the socioeconomic effects of sustainable development. It is based on two surveys conducted among the member Agencies. The survey results show that the most researched areas include the economy, employment, skills and training, gender inequalities, health and safety, social aspects, the role of regulation and social dialogue.
Η ανοδική σύγκλιση βρίσκεται στο επίκεντρο του εγχειρήματος της ΕΕ. Τα κράτη μέλη και οι πολίτες τους προσχωρούν στην Ένωση, επειδή προσδοκούν ότι η συμμετοχή τους θα έχει ως αποτέλεσμα την ισόρροπη οικονομική ευημερία και την κοινωνική πρόοδο σε όλες τις χώρες. Οι αυξανόμενες ανισότητες μεταξύ των κρατών μελών, οι οποίες σημειώθηκαν κατά την οικονομική κρίση της περιόδου 2008-2013, είναι δυνατόν να θεωρηθούν ως αθέτηση της υπόσχεσης της ΕΕ και ενδεχομένως να σπείρουν τη δυσαρέσκεια και να προκαλέσουν τάσεις διάλυσης.
Η τεχνολογική αλλαγή επιταχύνεται καθώς διευρύνεται η ικανότητα των ηλεκτρονικών συσκευών να αποθηκεύουν, να επεξεργάζονται και να διαβιβάζουν πληροφορίες ψηφιακά. Η ψηφιοποίηση μετασχηματίζει την οικονομία και τις αγορές εργασίας της ΕΕ: σχεδόν το ένα τρίτο των χώρων εργασίας στην ΕΕ χαρακτηρίζονται ως χώροι υψηλού βαθμού ψηφιοποίησης. Ποιες είναι οι επιπτώσεις της ψηφιακής επανάστασης στην απασχόληση και την εργασία; Και πώς θα μπορούσε να επηρεάσει τον κοινωνικό διάλογο;
Μία από τις πιο εντυπωσιακές εξελίξεις των τελευταίων 50 ετών στις ευρωπαϊκές αγορές εργασίας υπήρξε η τεράστια αύξηση της συμμετοχής των γυναικών στην αγορά εργασίας. Δύο στις τρεις καθαρές νέες θέσεις εργασίας που δημιουργήθηκαν στην ΕΕ κατά τη διάρκεια των δυο τελευταίων δεκαετιών καλύφθηκαν από γυναίκες. Ταυτόχρονα, τα δραστικά αυξανόμενα ποσοστά απασχόλησης των εργαζομένων μεγαλύτερης ηλικίας λόγω της γήρανσης του πληθυσμού και των αλλαγών πολιτικής έχουν αυξήσει το μερίδιο των εργαζομένων μεγαλύτερης ηλικίας στην αγορά εργασίας.
Despite the increasing participation of women in the labour market and a higher share of women than men being hired into well-paid jobs in recent years, a gender pay gap exists across all EU Member States. Pay differentials between women and men have been shown to be significantly influenced by the economic sector where people work and the occupation they hold.
Digital transformation is changing the world of work. This report looks at how social partners – the actors involved in the regulation of employment relationships – are increasingly adopting technological solutions to improve the services that they provide to their members and facilitate collective bargaining processes. Technological tools offer social partners the opportunity to enhance consultation, engage with their members through digitised processes, improve services and increase networking activities, as well as addressing the issue of membership decline.
Η παρούσα έκθεση αποσκοπεί στη στήριξη των ευρωπαϊκών επιχειρήσεων για την αντιμετώπιση των προκλήσεων της πανδημίας COVID-19. Έμφαση δίνεται στις πρακτικές και τα χαρακτηριστικά των χώρων εργασίας που βοήθησαν τις επιχειρήσεις σε ολόκληρη την ΕΕ να αναπτύξουν επιχειρησιακή ανθεκτικότητα, διατηρώντας παράλληλα την ασφάλεια των εργαζομένων και των πελατών.
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
Given that compliance with lockdown measures is a first line of defence against COVID-19, maintaining trust in institutions is vital to ensure a coordinated, comprehensive and effective response to the pandemic. This report investigates developments in institutional and interpersonal trust across time, with a particular emphasis on the COVID-19 pandemic period and its impact. It examines the link between trust and discontent and investigates the effect of multidimensional inequalities as a driver of distrust.
This paper provides an analytical summary of state of the art academic and policy literature on the impact of climate change and policies to manage transitions to a carbon neutral economy on employment, working conditions, social dialogue and living conditions. It maps the key empirical findings around the impact of climate change and the green transitions on jobs, sectors, regions and countries in Europe, identifying the opportunities and risks that climate change policies bring to European labour markets.
Between 2021 and 2023 Eurofound is carrying out a pilot project on minimum wage on behalf of the European Commission. The question of how minimum wages and other forms of pay can be fixed for the self-employed is investigated as a part of this project through mapping national and sectoral approaches. Out of concern for the challenging conditions that the self-employed face, some Member States have established or are discussing establishing statutory forms of minimum pay for certain categories of self-employed.
The civil aviation sector has been deeply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is one of the most severe crises the sector has ever experienced, giving rise to a number of significant challenges for companies and workers alike. This study will explore the role of social dialogue and collective bargaining in how the sector is adapting to the pandemic. What kinds of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?
Lockdown measures and the economic shift following the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a widening of the gender divide between men and women, putting at risk some of the gender equality gains that had been made in previous years. This report analyses changes in the distribution of paid and unpaid work, along with care and domestic responsibilities, among men and women during the crisis. It also explores the impact of the pandemic on the well-being of women and men.
The report provides an overview of the scale of teleworking before and during the COVID-19 crisis and gives an indication of ‘teleworkability’ across sectors and occupations. Building on previous Eurofound research on remote work, the report investigates the way businesses introduced and supported teleworking during the pandemic, as well as the experience of workers who were working from home during the crisis. The report also looks at developments in regulations related to telework in Member States and provides a review of stakeholders’ positions.
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have varied across sectors, occupations and categories of worker (for instance, according to gender, age or employment status). Hours worked have declined the most in sectors such as accommodation services and food and beverage services, and in occupations heavily reliant on in-person interaction, such as sales work. At the same time, it’s in these sectors that labour shortages have become increasingly evident as labour markets have begun to normalise.
The COVID-19 crisis has increased inequality between social groups in health, housing, employment, income and well-being. While a small part of society was able to hold on to or increase its wealth, other groups such as women, young people, older people, people with disabilities, low- and middle-income earners and those with young children were acutely affected by the pandemic. Drawing on current research on how to best measure multidimensional inequality, this report highlights recent trends in inequality in the context of the COVID-19 crisis.
This report analyses how working conditions, job quality and working life outcomes – such as work–life balance, health and well-being, and sustainability of work – changed between February 2020 and spring 2021. Following up on responses to the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) 2020, it explores the differences between three distinct groups of workers: those teleworking during the COVID-19 pandemic, those who continued to work on their employers' premises as frontline staff, and those who were furloughed or worked reduced hours.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in European sectoral social dialogue taking place at cross-sectoral level. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations at cross-sectoral level in the EU Member States.