The European Union Agencies Network on Scientific Advice (EU-ANSA) consists of technical and regulatory agencies that provide scientific advice to EU policymakers. This report demonstrates how EU-ANSA member Agencies are addressing the socioeconomic effects of sustainable development. It is based on two surveys conducted among the member Agencies. The survey results show that the most researched areas include the economy, employment, skills and training, gender inequalities, health and safety, social aspects, the role of regulation and social dialogue.
Η ανοδική σύγκλιση βρίσκεται στο επίκεντρο του εγχειρήματος της ΕΕ. Τα κράτη μέλη και οι πολίτες τους προσχωρούν στην Ένωση, επειδή προσδοκούν ότι η συμμετοχή τους θα έχει ως αποτέλεσμα την ισόρροπη οικονομική ευημερία και την κοινωνική πρόοδο σε όλες τις χώρες. Οι αυξανόμενες ανισότητες μεταξύ των κρατών μελών, οι οποίες σημειώθηκαν κατά την οικονομική κρίση της περιόδου 2008-2013, είναι δυνατόν να θεωρηθούν ως αθέτηση της υπόσχεσης της ΕΕ και ενδεχομένως να σπείρουν τη δυσαρέσκεια και να προκαλέσουν τάσεις διάλυσης.
Η τεχνολογική αλλαγή επιταχύνεται καθώς διευρύνεται η ικανότητα των ηλεκτρονικών συσκευών να αποθηκεύουν, να επεξεργάζονται και να διαβιβάζουν πληροφορίες ψηφιακά. Η ψηφιοποίηση μετασχηματίζει την οικονομία και τις αγορές εργασίας της ΕΕ: σχεδόν το ένα τρίτο των χώρων εργασίας στην ΕΕ χαρακτηρίζονται ως χώροι υψηλού βαθμού ψηφιοποίησης. Ποιες είναι οι επιπτώσεις της ψηφιακής επανάστασης στην απασχόληση και την εργασία; Και πώς θα μπορούσε να επηρεάσει τον κοινωνικό διάλογο;
Μία από τις πιο εντυπωσιακές εξελίξεις των τελευταίων 50 ετών στις ευρωπαϊκές αγορές εργασίας υπήρξε η τεράστια αύξηση της συμμετοχής των γυναικών στην αγορά εργασίας. Δύο στις τρεις καθαρές νέες θέσεις εργασίας που δημιουργήθηκαν στην ΕΕ κατά τη διάρκεια των δυο τελευταίων δεκαετιών καλύφθηκαν από γυναίκες. Ταυτόχρονα, τα δραστικά αυξανόμενα ποσοστά απασχόλησης των εργαζομένων μεγαλύτερης ηλικίας λόγω της γήρανσης του πληθυσμού και των αλλαγών πολιτικής έχουν αυξήσει το μερίδιο των εργαζομένων μεγαλύτερης ηλικίας στην αγορά εργασίας.
Despite the increasing participation of women in the labour market and a higher share of women than men being hired into well-paid jobs in recent years, a gender pay gap exists across all EU Member States. Pay differentials between women and men have been shown to be significantly influenced by the economic sector where people work and the occupation they hold.
Digital transformation is changing the world of work. This report looks at how social partners – the actors involved in the regulation of employment relationships – are increasingly adopting technological solutions to improve the services that they provide to their members and facilitate collective bargaining processes. Technological tools offer social partners the opportunity to enhance consultation, engage with their members through digitised processes, improve services and increase networking activities, as well as addressing the issue of membership decline.
Η παρούσα έκθεση αποσκοπεί στη στήριξη των ευρωπαϊκών επιχειρήσεων για την αντιμετώπιση των προκλήσεων της πανδημίας COVID-19. Έμφαση δίνεται στις πρακτικές και τα χαρακτηριστικά των χώρων εργασίας που βοήθησαν τις επιχειρήσεις σε ολόκληρη την ΕΕ να αναπτύξουν επιχειρησιακή ανθεκτικότητα, διατηρώντας παράλληλα την ασφάλεια των εργαζομένων και των πελατών.
This report analyses and compares the industrial relations landscape in several sectors and activities that form a public service cluster across the 27 EU Member States and the UK – altogether employing over 57 million workers and representing 25% of the total workforce in the economy. It is based on Eurofound’s representativeness studies on the central government administration (CGA), education, human health, local and regional government (LRG), and social services sectors.
The advent of AI has far more consequences for how work is organised, performed and valued than any previous technological revolution. In order to make the most of this digital transformation we need inclusive and nuanced policy debates on its employment effects and how to future-proof policies: we need to talk about AI.
We need to study and understand the blow Europe’s youth have suffered from the COVID-19 pandemic, in order to adjust recovery and resilience measures to their needs: without prioritising young people in the present, we have little hope for the future.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
Building on previous work by Eurofound, this report will investigate intergenerational dynamics over time. During the 2008 double-dip recession, worrying intergenerational divides appeared in many Member States, and while some of the economic and social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is universal, early data suggests disparities across demographic cohorts. Eurofound will examine how different age groups may have been affected in terms of their health, labour market participation, quality of life and financial needs, both in the short term and in the long term.
Adequate, affordable housing has become a matter of great concern, with an alarming number of Europeans with low or lower household incomes unable to access any, especially in capital cities. Housing was a key factor in people’s experience of the COVID-19 pandemic: its quality and level of safety significantly affected how lockdowns and social distancing measures were experienced, with those who had no access to quality housing at higher risk of deteriorating living conditions and well-being.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an extraordinary level of provision of social services across the EU. Healthcare and care providers carried much of the burden and, together with essential services, played a crucial role in getting citizens through the crisis. This report explores how public services adapted to the new reality and what role was played by the digital transformation of services. The aim is to contribute to the documentation and analysis of changes in funding, delivery and use of healthcare and social services during the pandemic.
The use of artificial intelligence, advanced robotics and the Internet of Things technologies in the workplace can bring about fundamental changes in work organisation and working conditions. This report analyses the ethical and human implications of the use of these technologies at work by drawing on qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders, input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents and Delphi expert surveys, and case studies.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in European sectoral social dialogue taking place at cross-sectoral level. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations at cross-sectoral level in the EU Member States.