One of the most striking developments of the last half-century has been the huge rise in female labour market participation in advanced economies. More than two out of every three net new jobs created over the last two decades in the EU have been taken up by women, who now account for 46% of the workforce in the EU27. In 2002, the comparable figure was less than 43% and in the early 1990s it was less than 40%. This is a reflection of growing opportunities for women as well as the consolidation of a broader trend towards dual earner households.
This paper provides a context for the questions to be explored within the Foundation Forum 2022. Europe is emerging from the COVID-19 crisis having managed to protect its economy in the face of a major shock and prevent mass unemployment. However, challenges remain. While the Member States up to now appear to have diverged only moderately, at most, on key economic and social indicators, it seems that the pandemic has widened many social inequalities. The mass shift to telework has raised questions over how the world of work will look in the future.
The informal meeting of EU ministers responsible for employment and social policy (EPSCO) took place in Bordeaux on 14–15 February 2022. The meeting focused on the challenges posed by the major green and digital transitions to the labour market, and the way in which the European Union can support these transitions within the framework of the construction of a new European model of growth.
Τα τελευταία χρόνια, εκτός από ορισμένες ενδιάμεσες ξαφνικές ανόδους, καταγράφηκε γενική μείωση των εργασιακών κινητοποιήσεων σε όλα τα κράτη μέλη της ΕΕ. Κατά τη διάρκεια της πανδημίας COVID-19, αυτή η τάση συνεχίστηκε, ενώ οι σημαντικότερες εργασιακές διαφορές προέκυψαν, όπως ήταν αναμενόμενο, στον κλάδο της υγείας και των κοινωνικών υπηρεσιών, τον κλάδο της εκπαίδευσης και τον κλάδο των μεταφορών και της εφοδιαστικής.
Η παρούσα έκθεση αποτυπώνει τον αντίκτυπο της κρίσης COVID-19 στην ποιότητα ζωής των ηλικιωμένων πολιτών, συμπεριλαμβανομένων των επιπτώσεων στην ευημερία, τα οικονομικά, την απασχόληση και την κοινωνική τους ένταξη. Διερευνά τις επιπτώσεις στη χρήση υπηρεσιών φροντίδας και στην εξάρτηση των ηλικιωμένων από άλλες μορφές στήριξης. Η έκθεση παρουσιάζει μέτρα πολιτικής που έχουν εφαρμοστεί στα κράτη μέλη της ΕΕ για τη στήριξη των ηλικιωμένων σε όλες τις προαναφερθείσες διαστάσεις.
The first overview of minimum wage setting for 2022 shows that, while some negotiations are still ongoing, virtually all EU Member States have increased their nominal statutory rates. Compared to last year, when most countries settled for cautious increases against a background of deep uncertainty caused by the pandemic, growth in statutory rates for 2022 was stronger, reflecting an easing of the situation. This was especially the case in central and eastern European countries, where some increases were in double digits. Nevertheless, inflation is back in the picture and should be monitored in the coming months to get an insight into how the increases in nominal minimum wage rates translate into actual changes in the purchasing power of minimum wage earners.
This programming document describes Eurofound’s planned work over the programming period 2021–2024. It sets out the policy and institutional context for the programme, outlines the multiannual programme for the four-year period and sets out the work programme for 2022. Eurofound’s priorities for 2021–2024 are shaped by the key challenges for social cohesion and just transitions in a changing environment in the aftermath of the COVID-19 crisis. The Agency focuses on issues where it can draw on its core expertise in the areas of working conditions, industrial relations, employment and living conditions, to support its stakeholders, by providing evidence that can assist their policy action.
The European Union Agencies Network on Scientific Advice (EU-ANSA) consists of technical and regulatory agencies that provide scientific advice to EU policymakers. This report demonstrates how EU-ANSA member Agencies are addressing the socioeconomic effects of sustainable development. It is based on two surveys conducted among the member Agencies. The survey results show that the most researched areas include the economy, employment, skills and training, gender inequalities, health and safety, social aspects, the role of regulation and social dialogue.
Η ανοδική σύγκλιση βρίσκεται στο επίκεντρο του εγχειρήματος της ΕΕ. Τα κράτη μέλη και οι πολίτες τους προσχωρούν στην Ένωση, επειδή προσδοκούν ότι η συμμετοχή τους θα έχει ως αποτέλεσμα την ισόρροπη οικονομική ευημερία και την κοινωνική πρόοδο σε όλες τις χώρες. Οι αυξανόμενες ανισότητες μεταξύ των κρατών μελών, οι οποίες σημειώθηκαν κατά την οικονομική κρίση της περιόδου 2008-2013, είναι δυνατόν να θεωρηθούν ως αθέτηση της υπόσχεσης της ΕΕ και ενδεχομένως να σπείρουν τη δυσαρέσκεια και να προκαλέσουν τάσεις διάλυσης.
Η τεχνολογική αλλαγή επιταχύνεται καθώς διευρύνεται η ικανότητα των ηλεκτρονικών συσκευών να αποθηκεύουν, να επεξεργάζονται και να διαβιβάζουν πληροφορίες ψηφιακά. Η ψηφιοποίηση μετασχηματίζει την οικονομία και τις αγορές εργασίας της ΕΕ: σχεδόν το ένα τρίτο των χώρων εργασίας στην ΕΕ χαρακτηρίζονται ως χώροι υψηλού βαθμού ψηφιοποίησης. Ποιες είναι οι επιπτώσεις της ψηφιακής επανάστασης στην απασχόληση και την εργασία; Και πώς θα μπορούσε να επηρεάσει τον κοινωνικό διάλογο;
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.