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research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, regular articleson working life in Europe, presentations, working papers providing background material to ongoing or already concluded research, and reports arising from ad hoc requests by policymakers. Other corporate publications include annual reports, brochures and promotional publications. Web databases and online resources such as data visualisation applications are available in Data and resources.
The Research Institute for Vocational Training and Adult Education (Institut
für Berufs- und Erwachsenenbildungsforschung, IBE ) at the Johannes
Kepler University in the north-central city of Linz conducted a quantitative
survey to identify the main risk factors that contribute to young people aged
15–24 years leaving education after compulsory schooling. For this purpose,
the survey compared young people with an educational attainment level that
does not exceed the nine years of compulsory schooling in Austria with higher
educated youths. According to the International Standard Classification of
Education (ISCED), nine years of compulsory schooling corresponds to ISCED 2,
that is, less than upper secondary level education. The comparison between
the two groups of young people was based on a number of socio-demographic,
educational, occupational and behavioural aspects, as well as on their social
and cultural origins.
In 2006, almost 25% of the Norwegian population aged between 16 and 66 years
was regarded as belonging to the population group of non-working individuals.
Reasons for not working were classified into six categories: disability,
unemployment, having an old-age or early retirement pension, acting as a
homemaker, studying or military service. While students constitute the
largest proportion of the non-working group (8.4%), disabled persons and
unemployed people represent the second and third largest shares (8.2% and 3%
The article on Labour market trends during the crisis (146Kb PDF)  by
Statistics Estonia (Statistikaamet ) analyses the current labour market
problems and trends in unemployment, concluding with proposals on how to
tackle the situation. The analysis is based on quarterly data of the Labour
Force Survey (LFS) from 2008 and 2009, as well as registry data of the
Estonian Unemployment Insurance Fund (Töötukassa, EUIF ).
This report examines the responses, initiatives and activities undertaken by national governments and the social partners in the EU Member States plus Norway in working towards a greener economy and maximising the job creation potential of this new area. The report looks specifically at various measures
undertaken by governments with a view to stimulating the economy in the current context of the global economic crisis. It also charts the growing awareness of the importance of reducing carbon dioxide emissions and developing alternative energy sources, showing that both governments and social partners in most countries in this study are active in trying to promote the ‘green agenda’.The scope of such initiatives includes renewable energy production (including tidal, solar and wind power), energy efficiency, sustainable transport, water supply, waste management and sustainable agriculture. The report also aims to identify particularly interesting and successful initiatives that can be shared and disseminated as good practice examples.
The autonomous agreement on combating negative effects of the economic
slowdown reached by the peak national social partners in March 2009 received
public praise and was considered a success of social dialogue . The social
partners’ anti-crisis package was then presented to the government, which
was to incorporate the agreement’s provisions into draft legislation in
order to submit it to the parliament (Sejm) for adoption (*PL0906019I* ).
In early July, the government put forward two draft bills, which were
subsequently passed into law without much delay – despite trade union
concerns (*PL0907019I* ).
Established 80 years ago, the company LOT Polish airlines (Polskie Linie
Lotnicze LOT, PLL LOT ) is owned by three stockholders: the State Treasury
with a 67.97% share, a private owner the ‘Silesia’ Financial Society
(Towarzystwo Finansowe ‘Silesia’ Sp.z o. o. ) with a 25.1% share, and
the company’s employees who own 6.93% of the shares. Since 2003, PLL LOT
has been a member of the Star Alliance  global airline network. Last year,
the company had a net loss of nearly PLN 733 million (about €178.6 million
as at 17 November 2009). The company also recorded a financial loss in the
first quarter of 2009. However, in the second quarter of this year, the
airline reported a modest profit.
Data from the Department of Labour Inspection  (Τμήμα
Επιθεώρησης Εργασίας) of the Ministry of Labour and Social
Insurance (Υπουργείου Εργασίας και Κοινωνικών
Ασφαλίσεων, MLSI ) show that, during 2008, there was a
substantial increase in workplace accidents (12.4%) in Cyprus, compared with
2007. In total, some 2,367 occupational accidents occurred in 2008, compared
with 2,105 cases in the previous year. According to a sectoral analysis of
the available data on workplace accidents provided by the Department of
Labour Inspection, the construction sector still has the highest number of
accidents, with a rate of 27.42% in 2008 compared with 26.75% in 2007
(*CY0707029I* ). The frequency of accidents in the construction sector is
more than twice the average in the economy as a whole, and the proportion of
fatal accidents is even higher.
On 23 July 2009, the French parliament (Assemblée nationale ) adopted a
law on mobility and career paths in the civil service. The law aims to
promote the mobility of civil servants, whose departments are being
reorganised, and also to make staff management easier. It is thus part of the
process of the general revision of public policies (/Révision générale des
politiques publiques/, RGPP ) launched by the government in July 2007. The
law aims to increase the performance of public services through a general
process of reorganisation. It has already led to the restructuring of certain
government ministries (such as the ministries of finance and labour, social
relations, family affairs, solidarity and urban affairs) (*FR0904039I* )
and public establishments (such as the meteorological office Météo France).
At the same time, the government has confirmed the rule of not replacing half
of all civil servants who retire by 2013.
The new Employment Contracts Act took effect on 1 July 2009. This brought
about several changes in the regulation of redundancies with the aim of
providing for greater flexibility. For instance, the term of the advance
notice period was reduced by 30 calendar days to between two weeks and three
months, depending on the length of the employment contract. To ease the
financial burden of redundancies for employers, the payment of redundancy
benefits will be shared by the employer and the Estonian Unemployment
Insurance Fund (Eesti Töötukassa ).
The Bulgarian trade union confederations organised a number of events
throughout the country in support of the World Day for Decent Work 
organised by the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC ). Part of
the events in Bulgaria was a national working meeting with the Minister of
Labour and Social Policy, Totyo Mladenov, and the Executive Director of the
General Labour Inspectorate Executive Agency (Изпълнителна
Агенция-Главна инспекция по труда, GLI-EA ),
Roumyana Michailova. Trade union representatives expressed serious concerns
about the new realities posed by the economic crisis in the country. They
placed particular emphasis on an increasing number of cases of wage arrears
and non-payment of overtime by employers. Further, they highlighted the
continuing and intensifying violations of labour law and social security
legislation, in addition to the threat of positive results that have been
achieved in actions against the informal economy being reversed (BG0307101F
, BG0607069I , BG0711039I , BG0809039I ; see also Bulgarian case
studies  on tackling undeclared work ).
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