Representativeness of the European social partner organisations: Metal

  • National Contribution:

  • Observatory: EurWORK
  • Topic:
  • Relaciones laborales,
  • Representativeness,
  • Diálogo social,
  • Social partners,
  • Date of Publication: 22 Diciembre 2010



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This report sets out to provide the necessary information for evaluating sectoral social dialogue in the metal industry. The study consists of three parts: a summary of the sector’s economic background; an analysis of the social partner organisations in all of the EU Member States, with special emphasis on their membership, their role in collective bargaining and public policy, and their national and European affiliations; and finally an analysis of the relevant European organisations, in particular their membership composition and their capacity to negotiate. The aim of the EIRO series of representativeness studies is to identify the relevant national and supranational social partner organisations in the field of industrial relations in selected sectors. The impetus for these studies arises from the goal of the European Commission to recognise the representative social partner organisations to be consulted under the EC Treaty provisions. Hence this study is designed to provide the basic information required to establish and evaluate sectoral social dialogue.

The study was compiled on the basis of individual national reports submitted by the EIRO correspondents. The text of each of these national reports is available below. The national reports were drawn up in response to a questionnaire and should be read in conjunction with it.

Download the full report (461KB PDF)

National contributions may be available


Objectives of study

The aim of this representativeness study is to identify the relevant national and supranational associational actors – that is the trade unions and employer organisations – in the field of industrial relations in the metal sector, and to show how these actors relate to the sector’s European interest associations of labour and business. The impetus for this study, and for similar studies in other sectors, arises from the aim of the European Commission to identify the representative social partner associations to be consulted under the provisions of the EC Treaty. Hence, this study seeks to provide basic information needed to set up sectoral social dialogue. The effectiveness of the European social dialogue depends on whether its participants are sufficiently representative in terms of the sector’s relevant national industrial relations actors across the EU Member States. Only European associations that meet this precondition will be admitted to the European social dialogue.

Against this background, the study will first identify the relevant national social partner organisations in the metal industry and go on to analyse the structure of the industry’s relevant European organisations, in particular their membership composition. This involves clarifying the unit of analysis at both the national and European level of interest representation. The study includes only organisations whose membership domain is ‘sector-related’ (see below). At both national and European levels, many associations exist that are not considered as social partner organisations as they essentially deal with industrial relations. Thus, there is a need for clear-cut criteria that will enable analysis to differentiate the social partner organisations from other associations.

As regards national-level associations, classification as a sector-related social partner organisation implies fulfilling at least one of two definitional criteria: the association must be either a party to ‘sector-related’ collective bargaining or a member of a ‘sector-related’ European association of business or labour that is on the Commission’s list of European social partner organisations consulted under Article 138 of the EC Treaty, or it must participate in the sector-related European Social Dialogue. Affiliation to a European social partner organisation and involvement in national collective bargaining are of utmost importance to the European social dialogue, since these are the two constituent mechanisms that can systematically connect the national and European level. Following the criteria for national organisations, this study includes those sector-related European organisations that are on the Commission’s list of consultation. In addition, the report considers any other sector-related European association with sector-related national social partner organisations under its umbrella. Thus, the aim of identifying the sector-related national and European social partner organisations applies both a ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ approach.

Definitions

For the purpose of this study, the metal industry is defined in terms of the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community (NACE), to ensure the cross-national comparability of the findings. More specifically, the metal sector considered in this report is defined as embracing C24 (manufacture of basic metals) with the exception of C24.10 (manufacture of basic iron and steel and of ferro-alloys), C24.20 (manufacture of tubes, pipes, hollow profiles and related fittings, of steel) and C24.30 (manufacture of other products of first processing of steel); as well as covering C25 (manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment), C26 (manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products), C27 (manufacture of electrical equipment), C28 ( manufacture of machinery equipment n.e.c.), C29 (manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers) and C30 (manufacture of other transport equipment).

The domains of the trade unions and employer organisations and scope of the relevant collective agreements are likely to vary from this precise NACE demarcation. The study therefore includes all trade unions, employer organisations and multi-employer collective agreements that are ‘sector-related’ in terms of any of the following four aspects or patterns:

  • congruence – the domain of the organisation or scope of the collective agreement must be identical to the NACE demarcation, as specified above;
  • sectionalism – the domain or scope covers only a certain part of the sector, as defined by the NACE demarcation, while no group outside the sector is covered;
  • overlap – the domain or scope covers the entire sector along with parts of one or more other sectors. However, it is important to note that the study does not include general associations that do not deal with sector-specific matters;
  • sectional overlap – the domain or scope covers part of the sector as well as parts of one or more other sectors.

At European level, the European social partners established a new sectoral social dialogue committee covering the metal, engineering and technology-based industries in January 2010, following 10 years’ of discussions. The European Metalworkers´ Federation (EMF) on the employees´ side and the Council of European Employers of the Metal, Engineering and Technology-based Industries (CEEMET) on the employers’ side participate in the sector’s European Social Dialogue. Thus, affiliation to either of these European organisations is one sufficient criterion for classifying a national association as a social partner organisation for the purpose of this study. However, it should be noted that the constituent definitional criterion is one of sector-related membership. This is important in the case of EMF due to its multi-sector domain. Thus, the study will include only those affiliates to EMF whose domain relates to the metal industry.

Collection of data

The collection of quantitative data, such as those on membership, is essential for investigating the representativeness of social partner organisations. Unless stated otherwise, this study draws on country studies provided by the EIRO national centres, based on a standard questionnaire. It is often difficult to find precise quantitative data and where there is none, rough estimates are provided rather than leaving a question blank, because of practical and political relevance of this study. However, if there is any doubt over the reliability of an estimate, this will be noted.

In principle, quantitative data may stem from three sources:

  • official statistics and representative survey studies;
  • administrative data, such as membership figures provided by the respective organisations, which are then used for calculating the density rate on the basis of available statistical figures on the potential membership of the organisation;
  • personal estimates made by representatives of the respective organisations.

While the data sources of the economic figures cited in the report are generally statistics, the figures in respect of the organisations are usually either administrative data or estimates. Furthermore, it should be noted that several country studies also present data on trade unions and business associations that do not meet the above definition of a sector-related social partner organisation, in order to give a complete picture of the sector’s associational ‘landscape’. For the above substantive reasons, as well as for methodological reasons of cross-national comparability, such trade unions and business associations will not be considered in this report.

Structure of report

The study consists of three main parts, beginning with a brief summary of the metal industry’s economic background. The report then analyses the relevant social partner organisations in all EU Member States. The third part of the analysis considers the representative associations at European level. Each section will contain a brief introduction explaining the concept of representativeness in greater detail, followed by the study findings. As representativeness is a complex issue, it requires separate consideration at national and European level for two reasons. Firstly, the method applied by national regulations and practices to capture representativeness has to be taken into account. Secondly, national and European organisations differ in their tasks and scope of activities. The concept of representativeness must therefore be suited to this difference.

Finally, it is important to note the difference between the research and political aspects of this study. While providing data on the representativeness of the organisations under consideration, the report does not reach any definite conclusion on whether the representativeness of the European social partner organisations and their national affiliates is sufficient for admission to the European social dialogue. The reason for this is that defining criteria for adequate representativeness is a matter for political decision rather than an issue of research analysis.


Economic background

The European metal sector comprises at least 10 million workers in around 200,000 enterprises, according to a European Commission report from 14 January 2010. It includes large parts of many European industries such as automotive, shipbuilding, electronics, machine tools, non-ferrous metals and many others. The sector is characterised by high export shares (for example the metal processing sector in Slovenia). The properties of the labour force echo the archetype of industrial manufacturing – predominantly male and blue-collar. This is mainly due to the heavy nature of the production work. Features of the metal industry are large fluctuations in demand along with business cycles and a strong dependence on world market developments such as metal and energy prices.

Like other sectors the metal industry has also been heavily affected by the Europe-wide economic crisis. In 2008 the first signs of the crisis were starting to show, with announcements of reduced production and consequent job losses. The segments most affected have been the production of motor vehicles and other transport equipment, the manufacture of basic metals and the manufacture of machinery. The volume of job losses in the sector so far resulting from the crisis has been estimated to amount to a million jobs.

Irrespective of the recent economic crisis, the European metal industry has undergone considerable restructuring over the last few decades caused by technological innovation, privatisation, internationalisation and market concentration. These fundamental changes within the sector have intensified competition and led to dramatic job losses – albeit more markedly in the iron and steel industry than the metal sector in general. In the metal sector the effects on employment have been mixed, depending on the branch. The data set used in this study stems from before 2008, when the economic downturn hit the sector, and therefore does not illustrate how employment has been affected since then.

Table 1 gives an overview of developments from the mid 1990s to the mid 2000s, presenting a few indicators that are important to industrial relations and the social dialogue. The figures indicate that employment in the metal sector has been affected by several trends with contradicting effects. In countries like Belgium and Slovenia, employment declined between 1996 and 2007; it remained relatively stable in Germany, Denmark and Portugal and even increased in countries like the Czech Republic, Finland, Italy, Slovakia and Spain.

Available data suggest that the employment composition by gender remained relatively stable in the period between 1996 and 2007 in most countries. The Czech Republic, France and the Netherlands experienced a growth in the proportion of female employment in the metal industry in the respective period by approximately 3–4%; in Finland, on the contrary, the female share of total employment fell from 22% to 20%. In 2007, the proportion of women employed in the sector ranged from 1% in Slovakia, to 14% in Belgium and 33% in the Czech Republic.

Table 1: Total employment in metal industry, 1996 and 2007*
  Number of employers Aggregate employment Male employment Female employment
1996 2007 1996 2007 1996 2007 1996 2007
AT

n.a.

97321

n.a.

289179

n.a.

231379

n.a.

57800

BE

n.a.

54992

2460116

2254582

2120366

1940912

339756

313672

BG

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

CY

n.a.

12801,3

n.a.

41803

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

CZ

96456

1074252

514800

6811002

363100

4648002

151700

216300

DE

n.a.

87161

4261000

4248000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

DK

58811,8

60991

247760

242238

184199

180033

63561

61995

EE

n.a.

18021

n.a.

35100

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

GR

n.a.

107951

n.a.

100348

n.a.

87761

n.a.

12587

ES

415139

572302

10736309

11494482

9034929

9526612

1701389

1967872

FI

101321

82801

162648

199340

127390

159358

35258

39982

FR

n.a.

5710

n.a.

n.a.

88%

84%

12%

16%

HU

5256

5380

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

IE

n.a.

17761

n.a.

92404

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

IT

113658

133636

1499810

1788290

1229845

1466398

269965

321892

LT

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

LU

n.a.

2632

n.a.

~300002

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

LV

35

12

25695

4122

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

MT

n.a.

~600

n.a.

~9200

n.a.

~6800

n.a.

~2400

NL

14115

162854

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

PL

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

739500

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

PT

8629

118084

233000

2430004

173000

1800004

60000

630004

RO

63851,6

127401

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

SE

13151

14780

287069

292054

224339

229244

62730

62810

SI

8869

8252

145403

102996

n.a.

74745

n.a.

28251

SK

3065

5811

213407

257867

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

UK

n.a.

~100000

n.a.

1237940

n.a.

1001716

n.a.

236224

1companies 2 2008 3 2005 4 2006 5 1997 6 2004 7 2003 8 2000 9 2001

* National sector definitions are not fully identical with the definitions of this study in some cases. For details, see the country reports.

Table 2 underscores the huge differences in the relative weight of the sector across countries. In 2007, the span of sectoral employment as a percentage of total employment ranged from approximately 12–13% in some countries, such as the Czech Republic and Slovenia, to as little as 2% or less in Cyprus and Greece.

Table 2: Total employees in metal industry, 1996 and 2007*
  Aggregate employees Male employees Female employees Total sectoral employment as % of total employment in economy Total sectoral employees as % of total employees in economy
  1996 2007 1996 2007 1996 2007 1996 2007 1996 2007
AT

n.a.

283000

n.a.

225981

n.a.

57019

n.a.

7.2

n.a.

8.2

BE

2390916

2189992

2052916

1877952

338006

312042

5.96

5.02

6.86

5.82

BG

143336

141131

97400

90685

45936

50446

n.a.

n.a.

6.3

5.8

CY

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

1.23

n.a.

n.a.

CZ

491800

6448002

342600

4322002

149200

2126002

10.4

13.62

11.5

15.42

DE

n.a.

40231242

n.a.

32796002

n.a.

7435242

n.a.

10.52

n.a.

14.52

DK

185162

178449

137750

132656

47412

45793

9.3

8.6

7.6

6.3

EE

n.a.

33800

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

5.4

n.a.

5.7

EL

n.a.

88247

n.a.

75928

n.a.

12319

n.a.

2.3

n.a.

2.7

ES

9701709

10226422

8125059

8439622

1576659

1786802

6.79

6.32

7.59

6.92

FI

156047

192573

121228

153137

34759

39436

8.3

8.6

9.2

9.3

FR

1680000

1580000

1478232

1327042

201768

252958

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.8

HU

297069

319350

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

10.8

11.6

IE

n.a.

92404

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

4.4

n.a.

4.4

IT

1302384

1597927

1062419

1310301

234429

287626

6.8

7.7

8.1

9.3

LT

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

LU

n.a.

~270002

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

~8.52

n.a.

~8.12

LV

25695

4116

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

0.35

0.4

0.35

0.4

MT

n.a.

8600

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

5.0

n.a.

5.0

NL

370000

352000

325000

299000

45000

53000

n.a.

n.a.

6.0

5.0

PL

n.a.

808500

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

7.5

n.a.

5.9

PT

215000

2210004

162000

1690004

53000

520004

6.3

4.74

6.8

5.04

RO

5379636,7

4608807

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

SE

275498

278982

215054

217688

60444

61294

7.5

6.6

7.8

7.0

SI

125568

92731

n.a.

65744

n.a.

26987

18.9

12.3

19.8

13.1

SK

191756

216787

198083

214513

2673

2274

10.1

10.6

9.7

10.4

UK

n.a.

1186120

n.a.

955988

n.a.

230132

n.a.

4.3

n.a.

4.7

1companies 22008 32005 42006 51997 62004 72003 82000 92001

* National sector definitions are not fully identical with the definitions of this study in some cases. For details, see the country reports.

In many Member States, statutory regulations explicitly refer to the concept of representativeness when giving unions or employer organisations certain rights of interest representation and public governance. The most important rights addressed by such regulations include:

  • formal recognition as a party to collective bargaining;
  • extension of the scope of a multi-employer collective agreement to employers not affiliated to the signatory employer organisation;
  • participation in public policy and tripartite bodies of social dialogue.

Under these circumstances, representativeness is normally measured by the membership strength of the organisations. For instance, statutory extension provisions usually allow for an extension of collective agreements to unaffiliated employers only when the signatory trade union and employer association represent 50% or more of the employees within the agreement’s domain.

As outlined, the representativeness of national social partner organisations is of interest to this study in terms of the capacity of their European umbrella organisations to participate in European social dialogue. Hence, the role of national actors in collective bargaining and public policy-making constitutes another important component of representativeness. The effectiveness of European social dialogue tends to increase with the growing ability of the national affiliates of the European organisations to regulate employment terms and influence national public policies affecting the sector.

A cross-national comparative analysis shows a generally positive correlation between the bargaining role of the social partners and their involvement in public policy (see Traxler, 2004). Social partner organisations that are engaged in multi-employer bargaining are incorporated in state policies to a significantly greater extent than their counterparts in countries where multi-employer bargaining is lacking. This can be attributed to the fact that only multi-employer agreements matter in macroeconomic terms, giving governments an incentive to seek the cooperation of the social partner organisations. If single-employer bargaining prevails in a country, none of the collective agreements will have a noticeable effect on the economy due to their limited scope. As a result, the basis for generalised tripartite policy concertation will be absent.

In summary, representativeness is a multi-dimensional concept that embraces three basic elements; the membership domain and strength of the social partner organisations, their role in collective bargaining and their role in public policymaking.

Membership domains and strength

The membership domain of an organisation, as formally established by its constitution or name, distinguishes its potential members from other groups that the organisation does not claim to represent. As already explained, this study considers only organisations whose domain relates to the metal sector (excluding iron and steel). However, there is insufficient room in this report to delineate the domain demarcations of all the organisations. Instead, the report notes how they relate to the sector by classifying them according to the four patterns of ‘sector-relatedness’, as specified earlier. Regarding membership strength, a differentiation exists between strength in terms of the absolute number of members and strength in relative terms. Research usually refers to relative membership strength as the density – in other words, the ratio of actual to potential members.

Furthermore, a difference also arises between trade unions and employer organisations in relation to measuring membership strength. Trade union membership simply means the number of unionised persons. In addition to taking the total membership of a trade union as an indicator of its strength, it is also reasonable to break down this membership total according to sex. However, measuring the membership strength of employer organisations is more complicated, since they organise collective entities, namely companies, rather than individual employees. In this case, therefore, two possible measures of membership strength may be used – one that refers to the companies themselves, and the other to the employees working in the member companies of an employer organisation.

For a sector study such as this, measures of membership strength of both trade unions and employer organisations also have to consider how the membership domains relate to the sector. If a domain is not congruent with the sector demarcation, the organisation’s total density (the density referring to its overall domain) may differ from its sector-specific density, (the organisation's density referring to the sector). This report will first present the data on the domains and membership strength of the trade unions and will then consider those of the employer organisations.

Table 3 presents data on the domains and membership strength of trade unions. The table lists all trade unions that meet at least one of the two definitional criteria for classification of a sector-related social partner organisation, as defined earlier. Of the 108 unions listed in Table 3, overlapping domains, sectionalist overlaps and sectionalism account for 55, 42 and six unions, respectively. There are five unions with a domain congruent with the sector definition. Membership of all unions in the table is voluntary.

Table 3: Trade unions, 2005-06

Country and trade union name

Domain comprehensiveness

Membership

Density (%)

Collective bargainingc

Consultation e

National and European affiliationsd

Members Sectoral Members Female member-ship (% of total membership) Do-main Sector (sectoral domain)
AT                  

GMTN

SO

2300001

1160001

16-171

n.a.

41.0 (69.0)

Yes

Yes

ÖGB, EFFAT, EMF, ETUF:TCL, EMCEF

GPA-DJP

SO

246001

306001

43.51

20

10.8 (26.6)

Yes

Yes

ÖGB, UNI-Europa, EFFAT, EMCEF, EPSU

BE                  

MWB/FGTB

SO

80000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

FGTB/ABVV, EMF

ABVV-metaal

SO

80000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

FGTB/ABVV, EMF

CSC métal/ ACV metaal

SO

220000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

CSC/ACV, EMF

BBTK/SETCa

SO

360000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

FGTB/ABVV, EMF

LBC/NVK

SO

300000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

CSC/ACV, EMF, ETF

CNE/GNC

SO

150000

n.a.

64.5

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

CSC/ACV, EMF

CGSLB/ ACLVB

O

265000

n.a.

51.0

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

 
BG                  

NTUF Metal-Electro

C

10417

10417

45

7.4

7.4 (7.4)

Yes

No

CITUB, EMF

TUFMW

C

6028

6028

43

4.3

4.3 (4.3)

Yes

No

Podkrepa CL, EMF (to be confirmed)

NFTINI

O

985

880

55

n.a.

0.6 (0.6)

Yes

No

Podkrepa CL, EMF

TUFOEMI

O

2169

1624

50

n.a.

1.2 (1.2)

Yes

No

CITUB, EMF

FTUMIC

C

2971

2971

60

2.1

2.1 (2.1)

Yes

No

CITUB

CY                  

OBIEK

O

86252

~45002

~ 302

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

SEK, EMF

SEMMHK

O

38012

n.a.

~ 13.52

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

PEO

CZ                  

OS KOVO

O

171250

~152000

25.7

37

24 (24)

Yes

Yes

ČMKOS, EMF

DE                  

IG Metall

O

23005632

n.a.

17.72

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

DGB, EMF

CGM

O

910001

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

CGB, CESI

DK                  

3F

SO

292533

62350

33

70

35 (n.a.)

Yes

No

CO-Industri, LO, EFBWW, EFFAT, ETF, UNI-Europa, EPSU, (EMF)

Dansk Metal

O

95530

87000

4,4

80

48.8 (48.8)

Yes

No

CO-Industri, LO, EFBWW, EFFAT, ETF, UNI-Europa, EPSU, (EMF)

DEF

SO

23236

~1200-1400

1

85

0.8 (85)

Yes

No

CO-Industri, LO, EMCEF, (EMF), EFBWW,UNI-Europa

HK (HK/Private)

SO

226981 (130000)

n.a.

75

50 (50)

<10 (45)

Yes

No

CO-Industri, LO, ETF, UNI-Europa, (EMF)

TL

SO

22267

n.a.

44.7

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

CO-Industri, LO, UNI-Europa, EPSU, (EMF)

IDA

SO

43475

3188

17.5

60

18 (53)

No

No

EMF

EE                  

EMAF

O

20502

n.a.

~30

6

6 (6)

Yes

Yes

EAKL

EL                  

POEM

O

~30000

10

25

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

GSEE, EMF

ES                  

FI-CCOO

O

1781291

102414

~11

17

14.5 (14.5)

Yes

Yes

CCOO, EMF, EMCEF

MCA-UGT

O

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

EMF

USO

O

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

EMF

LAB

SO

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

––

FTM-ELA

SO

315712

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

ELA, EMF

CIG-metal

SO

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

n.a.

Intersindical Canaria

SO

18000

3000

45

15

0.3 (n.a.)

Yes

No

 
FI                  

TEK

SO

68000

20000

19

70

10.4 (75)

(Yes)

No

AKAVA, UNI-Europa, EMF, EMCEF

SA

SO

32000

2500

4

88

1.3 (98)

Yes

No

SAK, EMF, EMCEF, UNI-Europa, EFBWW

UIL

SO

73000

17000

14

70

8.8 (70)

(Yes)

No

AKAVA, EMF, EMCEF, UNI-Europa

Metalliliitto

O

167300

128000

20

88

66.5 (66.5)

Yes

Yes

SAK, EMF

TU

SO

125000

26000

49

79

13.5 (70)

Yes

No

STTK, EFFAT, UNI-Europa, EFBWW, ETUF:TCL, ETF, EMF, EMCEF

SEFE

SO

47000

3500

52

65

1.8 (70)

(Yes)

No

AKAVA, UNI-Europa

FR                  

FTM-CGT

O

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

CGT, EMF

FO-Métaux

O

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

FO, EMF

FM-CFTC

O

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

CFTC, EMF

FNTE-CGT

SO

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

CGT, EMF

FO-Défense

SO

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

FO, EMF

FGMM-CFDT

O

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

CFDT, EMF

CFDT-FEAE

SO

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

CFDT, EMF

CFE-CGC

SO

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

––

HU                  

Vasas

O

22000

20000

38

n.a.

6.3 (6.3)

Yes

No

MSZOSZ, EMF

LIGA VFS

O

15000-18000

15000

15-20

n.a.

4.7 (4.7)

Yes

No

LIGA

FGMOSZ

O

4000-4500

4000

25-30

n.a.

1.3 (1.3)

Yes

No

MOSZ

IE                  

SIPTU

O

225000

2000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

(Yes)

Yes

ICTU, EMF

UNITE

O

50000

622

n.a.

n.a.

0.7 (0.7)

(Yes)

Yes

ICTU, EMF

TEEU

SO

45000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

(Yes)

Yes

ICTU

IT                  

FIOM

SO

359828

n.a.

15.5

17.6

n.a.

Yes

Yes

CGIL, EMF

FIM

SO

200848

n.a.

16.5

9.8

n.a.

Yes

Yes

CISL, EMF

UILM

SO

100000

n.a.

32.0

4.9

n.a.

Yes

Yes

UIL, EMF

UGL ME-TALMEC-CANICI

SO

183672

180127

23.0

11.3

11.3 (n.a.)

Yes

Yes

UGL

FISMIC

O

n.a.

26723

34.0

n.a.

1.7 (1.7)

Yes

Yes

––

FAILMS

SO

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

CISAL

MET, SAVT/MET

SO

574

258

15.0

23.0

0.02 (n.a.)

Yes

Yes

SAVT

USAS/ASGB

O

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

n.a.

LT                  

LMPSS

O

1600

1200

~ 50

10

n.a.

(Yes)

Yes

LPSK

MPPSS

O

1200

1100

~ 20

10

n.a.

(Yes)

Yes

LDF

LU                  

OGB-L

O

63000

5000

33

7.9

18.7 (18.7)

Yes

Yes

CGT-L, EMF, CES, CSI

LCGB

O

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

EMF

NGL/SNEP

O

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

0

––

LV                  

LMA

O

1900

n.a.

n.a.

14

46 (46)

(Yes)

Yes

LBAS

MT                  

AAE

SO

75

30-50

0

8

0.3-0.6 (n.a.)

Yes

Yes

––

GWU

O

413432

3855

18

26

45 (45)

Yes

Yes

EMF, EFBWW, UNI-Europa, EFFAT, FERPA, Eurocadres, ETF, EPSU

UHM

O

262462

560

32

16

6.5 (6.5)

Yes

Yes

CMTU, EUROFEDOP, FERPA

NL                  

FNV Bond-genoten

O

470000

95000

n.a.

n.a.

30 (30)

Yes

Yes

FNV, EMF

CNV Bedrij-venbond

O

90000

22500

n.a.

n.a.

6.4 (6.4)

Yes

Yes

CNV, EMF

De Unie

O

85000

6000

n.a.

n.a.

1.7 (1.7)

Yes

Yes

MHP, EMF

VHP Metal-elektro

S

950

950

n.a.

n.a.

0.3 (n.a.)

Yes

Yes

MHP, EMF

PL                  

SM-NSZZ Solidarnosc

O

 

45000

< 10

n.a.

6.1 (6.1)

Yes

No

NSZZ Solidarnosc, EMF

KZZMP-OPZZ

O

 

35000

< 10

n.a.

4.7 (4.7)

Yes

No

OPZZ, EMF

ZZIT-FZZ

SO

 

1500

< 10

n.a.

0.2 (n.a.)

Yes

No

––

PT                  

SITESE

SO

10000

n.a.

68

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

FETESE, UGT

SINDEL

O

9200

3600

11

3.4

1.6 (1.6)

Yes

No

UGT, EMCEF, EPSU

SITESC

SO

4000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

UGT

SERS

S

2500

160

<5

n.a.

0.07 (80)

Yes

No

Federacao dos Engenheiros

SQTD

S

950

400

<30

n.a.

0.2 (n.a.)

Yes

No

CGTP-IN

SEMM

S

700

n.a.

0

n.a.

n.a.

(Yes)

No

FE, FESMAR, UGT, ETF

SIMA

O

650003

300003

30

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

EMF

FIEQUI-METAL

O

72000

50500

17

22.6

22.9 (22.9)

Yes

No

CGTP, EMF

RO                  

FSS Metarom

O

~ 22500

~ 1200

28.4

65

10 (10)

Yes

Yes

Cartel Alfa, EMF

FSLMN

C

3000

3000

10

25

0.7 (0.7)

Yes

Yes

Cartel Alfa

FSCM

C

30000

30000

n.a.

n.a.

6.5 (6.5)

Yes

Yes

CNSLR Frãtia

FNSS Metal

O

20000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

BNS, EMF

FSLI Metal

O

11000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

BNS, EMF

FSI Braşov

SO

3000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

BNS

Automobilul Românesc

S

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

BNS

Metal Henri Coandǎ

O

3000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

CNSLR Frãtia

Electron M III

O

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

BNS

SE                  

IF Metall

SO

385000

180000

23

~ 80

64.5 (~ 75)

Yes

Yes

LO, EMF, EMCEF, ETUF:TCL

Ledarna

SO

77000

4000

19

25

1.4 (n.a.)

Yes

Yes

PTK, OFR, CEC

SI

SO

121000

8800

22.6

62

3.2 (25)

Yes

Yes

SACO, PTK, NFS, EMCEF, EMF, Eurocadres, FEANI, UNI-Europa

Unionen

SO

403000

99000

45

47

35.5 (n.a.)

Yes

Yes

TCO, PTK, NFS, Eurocadres, EMF

SI                  

SKEI

O

42000

12000

40

40

12.9 (12.9)

Yes

No

ZSSS, EMF

SKEM

O

10000

3000

50

15

3.2 (3.2)

Yes

No

KNSS

NSS-SKI

O

6000

2000

30

8

2.2 (2.2)

Yes

No

––

KS90-SKEIE

O

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

KS90

ZDSS-SDPMVPP

S

2300

2300

20

5

2.5 (~ 60)

Yes

No

SOLDARNOST

SK                  

OZ KOVO

O

700002

62000

32

28

30 (30)

Yes

(Yes)

KOZ SR, EMF

UK                  

GMB

O

590069

n.a.

44.8

2.3

n.a.

Yes

Yes

TUC, STUC, ICTU, CSEU, GFTU, EPSU, EMF, EFFAT, EFBWW, ETF, EMCEF, UNI-Europa, ETUF:TCL, EPSU

Unite

O

1892491

29000

22.6

7.5

2.4 (2.4)

Yes

Yes

TUC, ETF, EPSU, EMCEF, EMF, EFBWW, EFFAT, ETUF:TCL

Community

O

31886

< 30000

17.0

1.2

< 2.5 (< 2.5)

Yes

Yes

TUC, Wales TUC, STUC, GFTU, EMF, ETUF:TCL

cparenthesis means indirect involvement in bargaining via lower-level affiliates or higher-level affiliations;

dnational affiliations put in italics; for the national level, only cross-sectoral (i.e. peak-level) associations are listed; for the European level sector-related associations only; affiliations put in parenthesis are indirect via lower-level affiliates or higher-level affiliations

eparenthesis means consultation takes place only indirectly via higher-level affiliations

through higher order union (CO-Industri) 1 2009 2 2008 3 figures probably inflated

Source: Membership data stem from the European peak associations in some cases

The standard case of an overlapping domain is represented by an industrial union that embraces the metal industry in the broad sense, but often also covers iron and steel. Sectionalist overlaps happen when certain employee groups specialise across sectors and are then organised by the respective unions also across sectors. Typical examples of sectionalist overlaps are unions that are specialised in white-collar employees or blue collar-employees. Sectionalist overlaps based on specialisation in certain occupations (e.g. graduate engineers, electrical workers, managerial staff) are rather rare and can be found only in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Sweden). In nine out of the 27 countries there are no more than two sector-related unions, whereas in the remaining 18 countries a multi-union system exists. In most of the countries with a multi-union system the trade unions tend to cooperate rather than compete.

In matters of collective bargaining and participation in public policy, rivalries are reported in the following countries:

  • Spain at province level in the Basque region
  • Germany, between IG Metall (IGM) and the Christian Metalworkers’ Union (CGM), for their capacity to conclude collective agreements;
  • Ireland, where there is moderate competition between SIPTU and the UK-based union UNITE, which has about 100,000 members in Ireland;
  • Italy, between the Italian Metalworkers’ Federation (FIM) and Italian Metalworkers’ Union (UILM) on one side and the Federation of white-collar and blue-collar Metalworkers (FIOM) on the other side regarding the renewal of the economic part of the national collective agreement;
  • Portugal;
  • Rivalries over membership are also reported for Finland, Malta, Poland and Sweden.

Looking at the trade union membership data, it becomes apparent that female membership varies widely between countries – it ranges from very low at 1-5%, right up to 75%. At first glance, this finding is quite remarkable, since the sector’s employment is clearly dominated by male employees. However, closer consideration shows that almost all unions that record a female membership share of more than 50% overlap the sector in one way or another. Hence, the predominance of female members in these unions is likely to come from areas other than the metal sector.

Trade union membership is voluntary for all unions covered by this study.

The absolute numbers of the unions’ members differ widely. Their records range from more than two million members in Germany’s IG Metall to around five hundred in Italy’s MET, or even less than one hundred in Malta’s Association of Airline Engineers (AAE). This considerable variation reflects differences in the size of economies and the comprehensiveness of the membership domain, rather than the ability of unions to attract members.

Density is the measure of membership that is more appropriate to a comparative analysis, as it corrects for differences in country size. Sectoral density indicates the quantitative importance of the trade unions as the voice of labour voice in the sector. Again, the trade unions show high differences in density across the EU. For instance, Finland’s Metalliliitto and Sweden’s IF Metall register a sectoral density of 66.5% and 64.5%, respectively, while the corresponding figures for the Engineers’ Union of the Southern Region in Portugal (SERS) and the Irish section of Unite are 0.07% and 0.7%, respectively.

In the case of domain density these differences are less accentuated but still considerable. A comparison between domain density and sectoral domain density gives an indication of the relative strength of the trade union in the metal industry compared to its membership domain in general. For all cases where data on both density measures are documented, the following pattern can be found: In 16 cases, domain density exceeds sectoral domain density; in 11 cases, domain density is smaller than sectoral domain density and in seven cases, the density measures are equal. This means that in the metal industry, as defined in this study, unionisation tends to be lower than in the trade unions’ overall domain. That is because the domains of most of the sector-related trade unions also cover the well-organised steel and iron industry.

In general, it is worth noting that all these figures should be treated with caution, since for a considerable number of trade unions at least, part of the relevant data is not available.

Employer organisations

Table 4 presents membership data for employer organisations. 24 out of 27 countries register employer organisations – 12 of them have more than one in the sector. In three countries (Hungary, Luxembourg and Malta) there is no employer organisation that meets the definition of a sector-related industrial-relations actor, as introduced above. However, this does not mean that business has remained unorganised. Generally, business interest organisations may also deal with interests other than those related to industrial relations.

Table 4: Employer organisations

Country

Employer Association

Domain comprehensiveness

Membership

Density

Collective Bargaining

Consultation

National and European Affiliations

Companies Employees
Type Companies in the sector Employees in the sector Domain (%) Sector/sectoral domain (%) Domain (%) Sector/sectoral domain (%)
AT

FMMI

SO

0

9021 (> 800)

1179661 (>100000)

100

7-10/ 100

100

30-40/100

Yes

Yes

WKÖ, (CEEMET), ORGALIME

 

FVG

S

0

361 (361)

75371 (75371)

100

0.41/ 100

100

2.7/ 100

Yes

Yes

WKÖ, (CEEMET)

 

FV NE-Metall

S

0

592 (592)

52053 (52053)

100

0.63/ 100

100

1.8/ 100

Yes

Yes

WKÖ, (CEEMET)

 

FFI

S

0

601 (601)

298861 (298861)

100

0.61/ 100

100

10.6/ 100

Yes

Yes

WKÖ, (CEEMET)

 

FEEI

SO

0

1871 (> 150)

> 40000 (> 40000)

100

1-2/ 100

100

15/ 100

Yes

Yes

WKÖ, (CEEMET), ORGALIME

BE

AGORIA

O

1

1600 (n.a.)

300000 (n.a.)

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

FEB/VBO, CEEMET

 

VLAMEF

S

1

812 (812 for NACE 27, 28, 29)

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

-Yes

 

AGORIA, UNIZO, EMU

BG

BCMB

O

1

320 (260)

83000 (80000)

n.a.

n.a.

69

57/57

Yes

Yes

BIA, BICA

 

BCE

S

1

35 (35)

700 (700)

n.a.

n.a.

4.3

0.5/ 3.9

Yes

No

BIA

 

NCEEB

S

1

~150 (~150)

~13000 (~13000)

n.a.

n.a.

85

8.9/ 82

Yes

No

BIA

CY

SYMEBIK

C

1

60 (60)

40004 (40004)

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

––

CZ

AFC

SO

1

141 (98)

22000 (17500)

n.a.

0.1/ n.a.

n.a.

03-Jul

Yes

Yes

SP ČR, CAEF, MEGI

 

CMEEA

SO

1

56 (48)

35650 (33500)

n.a.

0.04/~0.2

n.a.

05-Feb

Yes

Yes

SP ČR, ORGALIME, INTER-ELEKTRO

 

AAM

SO

1

40 (34)

10000 (n.a.)

n.a.

0.03/ n.a.

n.a.

2/n.a.

Yes

Yes

SP ČR, ASD

DE

Gesamt-metall

C

1

63663 (63663)

21014713 (21014713)

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

BDA, CEEMET

DK

DI

O

1

1100 (850)0

1000000 (95000)

n.a.

14/14

n.a.

54/54

Yes

Yes

DA, CEEMET, BIAC

 

DS

SO

1

2399 (916)

23108 (13501)

n.a.

15/ n.a.

n.a.

13/n.a.

Yes

No

HVR

EE

EML

O

1

88 (88)

6700 (6700)

5

05-May

20

20/20

Yes

Yes

ETTK, EK-T, CEEMET

EL

EN.E.-EPE.M

O

1

65 (n.a.)

n.a.

43

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

SEV, EUROPUMP

ES

CONFE-METAL

O

1

~90000 (n.a.)

~1500000 (~700000)

n.a.

90/90

90

~68.5/~68.5

Yes

Yes

CEOE, CEPYME, CEEMET, ORGALIME

FI

FFTI

O

1

1470 (1360)

250000 (200000)

13

16/16

83

n.a.

Yes

Yes

EK, CEEMET, EICTA, ORGALIME

FR

UIMM

O

1

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

MEDEF, CEEMET

HU

––

––

––

––

––

––

––

––

––

––

––

––

IE

IBEC

O

1

7500 (1554)

n.a. (52519)

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

IEEF

LT

FEDER-MECCA-NICA

SO

1

~17300 (17213)

~919000 (~880000)

28.9

12.9/ 29.3

56.6

55.1/ n.a.

Yes

Yes

CONFIN-DUSTRIA, CEEMET

 

UNION- MECCA-NICA

S

1

20000 (n.a.)

n.a.

14.8

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

CONFAPI

 

CMP

SO

1

30000 (n.a.)

84000 (n.a.)

30

n.a.

30

n.a.

Yes

Yes

CONFARTI-GIANI, UEAPME

 

CNA PRODU-ZIONE

SO

1

40000 (23000)

~150000 (~100000)

40

17.2/ ~30.7

53.6

6.2/ n.a.

Yes

Yes

CNA, EMU

 

CASA

SO

1

84663 (13215)

35587 (~5555)

5.8

9.9/ ~17.6

5.8

0.3/ n.a.

Yes

Yes

––

 

CLAAI

SO

1

115976 (n.a.)

48749 (n.a.)

8

n.a.

8

n.a.

Yes

Yes

––

 

ANCPL

SO

1

859 (71)

12595 (2700)

n.a.

0.06/ n.a.

n.a.

0.2/ n.a.

Yes

Yes

Legacoop, CECOP/ CICOPA Europe

 

FeS

SO

1

5083 (n.a.)

183982 (n.a.)

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

CONF-COOPERA-TIVE, CECOP/ CICOPA Europe

 

AGCI

SO

1

6463 (55)

20100 (1086)

n.a.

0.04/ n.a.

n.a.

0.07/ n.a.

Yes

Yes

CECOP/ CICOPA Europe

 

Asso-lombarda

SO

1

62293 (18283)

3260503 (885733)

n.a.

4.73/ n.a.

n.a.

5.53/ 45.63

Yes6

Yes

ConfindustriaCEEMET

LT

LINPRA

C

1

100 (100)

25000 (25000)

6

06-Jun

50

50/50

No

Yes

LPK, CEEMET, ORGALIME

LU

––

––

––

––

––

––

––

––

––

––

––

––

LV

MASOC

O

1

172 (7)

328173 (33653)

n.a.

58/58

n.a.

82/82

Yes2

Yes

LDDK, [CEEMET], Eurometaux, ORGALIME

MT

––

––

––

––

––

––

––

––

––

––

––

––

NL

FME-CWM

O

1

2850 (1550)

260000 (189000)

755

n.a.

905

n.a.

Yes

Yes

VNO-NCW, CEEMET, ORGALIME

 

Metal Union

S

1

13000 (13000)

n.a. (125000)

85

n.a.

85

n.a./ 85

Yes

Yes

MKB

 

Bovag

S

1

11000 (11000)

n.a. (81000)

80

n.a.

80

n.a./ 80

Yes

Yes

VNO-NCW, CECRA

 

Uneto-Vni

S

1

5300 (5300)

n.a. (10700)

60

n.a.

82

n.a./ 82

Yes

Yes

VNO-NCW, MKB, AIE, GCI-UICP

PL

ZPPOil

S

1

33 (33)

~15000 (~15000)

n.a.

n.a./ 65

n.a.

n.a./ 80

Yes

Yes

––

PT

ANEMM

S

1

~1000 (~1000)

40500 (40500)

10

8.5/10

18.3/ n.a.

n.a.

-Yes

No

FENAME, CIP, ORGALIME,CEEMET

 

AIM

SO

1

10 (8)

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

FENAME, CIP, CESA, SMRCG

 

AIMinho Industrial Association

SO

1

2000 (235)

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

FENAME, CIP

 

ANIMEE

S

1

105 (105)

28500 (28500)

n.a.

0.9/ n.a.

57

12.9/ n.a.

Yes

No

CIP, CEMEP

 

AFAL

S

1

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

-

 

ACAP

SO

1

2000 (n.a.)

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

n.a.

 

ABIMOTA

SO

1

90 (n.a.)

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

No

-

RO

ARGOS

O

1

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Yes

Yes

CON-PIROM

 

F Metal-urgia

O

1

245 (185)

48000 (4000)

n.a.

1.5/ 1.5

n.a.

0.9/ 0.9

Yes

Yes

CON-PIROM, EUROFER, ESTA

 

FEPA CM

S

1

n.a.

315052 (315052)

n.a.

n.a.

95

68.4/ n.a.

Yes

Yes

CON-PIROM

 

APREL

S

1

n.a.

70000 (70000)

n.a.

n.a.

40

15.2/ n.a.

Yes

Yes

CON-PIROM

SE

IK-G

O

1

1200 (80)

85000 (10000)

n.a.

0.5/ 0.5

n.a.

3.6/ 3.6

Yes

Yes

SN, ECEG

 

SMA

O

1

200 (<200)

40000 (<40000)

~ 100

1.4/ 1.4

~ 100

14/14

Yes

Yes

SN, MetallgruppenEUROFER

 

Teknik-företagen

SO

1

3400 (2074)

300000 (220000)

~21

14/21

~70

79/85

Yes

Yes

SN, Industri-kommittén, CEEMET, ORGALIME

SI

GZS

O

1

13396 (312)

290000 (55000)

3.5

3.5/ 3.5

47.6

59/59

Yes

No

[CEEMET], (ORGALIME)

 

ZDS

O

1

1500 (193)

205000 (52000)

2.3

2.3/ 2.3

45

56/56

Yes

No

 
SK

ZSP SR

SO

1

693(60)

23742 (23000)

10

7-8/ 8-9

n.a.

11/ 18-20

Yes

Yes

 
 

ZEP SR

S

1

82 (82)

30000 (30000)

35

Aug-35

42

14/42

Yes

Yes

 
UK

EEF

C

1

5400 (5400)

958000 (958000)

n.a.

5.4/ 5.4

n.a.

81/81

n.a.

Yes

CEEMET

a= voluntary membership = 1, obligatory membership = 0

b= yes = 1, no = 0; yes for collective bargaining put in parenthesis means indirect involvement in bargaining via lower-level affiliates or higher-level affiliations

c= national affiliations put in italics; only affiliations to sectoral European associations listed; affiliations put in parenthesis are indirect via lower-level affiliates or higher-level affiliations; affiliations put in brackets are observer members

d= consultation put in parenthesis takes place only indirectly via higher-level affiliations

*= Domain overlap

O = Overlap, SO = Sectional overlap, S = Sectionalism, C = Congruence, n.a. = not available

1= 2007, 2 = 2009, 3 = 2008, 4 = 2000, 5 Large-company segment of membership

6undersigns only local collective agreements

Source: Membership data stem from the European peak associations in some cases

Organisations specialised in matters other than industrial relations are commonly designated as trade associations (see TN0311101S). Sector-level trade associations usually outnumber sector-level employer associations (see Traxler, 1993). However, this is not the case for the associations in the metal industry covered in this study, since all of them except for one are involved in industrial relations. The association of Lithuania, which is not engaged in collective bargaining, resembles a trade association rather than an employer association. Regardless of this, it is covered by this study because of its affiliation to the Council of European Employers of the Metal, Engineering and Technology-based Industries (CEEMET).

As regards domain demarcation, four out of a total of 59 business associations are congruent with the sector definition, while the majority of associations listed in Table 4 demarcated their domain in a way that overlaps the sector. Sectionalist overlaps and overlaps account for 35% and 30%, respectively, of the total number of associations. Overlaps typically ensue from domains which encompass broader areas of the metal industry. Sectionalist overlaps are most frequently based on differentiation by firm size in combination with a broader domain in terms of business activity. In particular, this pattern which equips small and medium-sized firms with separate associations has given rise to a comparatively large number of associations in Italy. If there is more than one association in a country, then these associations have managed to arrive at non-competing relationships. Their activities are complementary to each other because of differentiation by either membership demarcation or functions and tasks. No case of inter-associational rivalry is recorded in the country studies.

Bargaining refusals among companies and/or business associations are reported for seven countries:

  • in Bulgaria, BCE and NCEEB refuse to conclude branch collective agreements;
  • in the Czech Republic, some companies and employer associations refuse to enter collective bargaining;
  • in Germany, this is the case for individual companies, especially in the capital goods sector;
  • in Hungary and Luxembourg, some companies have withdrawn from collective bargaining;
  • in the UK, refusal occurs in particular among smaller firms;
  • in Portugal, AIMMAP has withdrawn from all larger collective agreements in the metal industry, while FENAME has done so with regard to collective agreements with FIEQUIMETAL and SIMA. ANIMEE has quit the agreement with FIEQUIMETAL in the electrical industries of Northern Portugal, but maintained the other agreements.

The figures on density in Table 4 show that membership strength in terms of companies varies with respect to both the membership domain in general and the sector-related densities. Domain density in terms of companies tends to be relatively low, except for Austria and the Netherlands. Also membership strength in terms of employees is diverse for both the membership domain in general and the sector-related densities.

The densities of companies tend to be lower than the densities of employees for most associations for which data is available, something which indicates a higher propensity of the larger companies to associate, compared to their smaller counterparts. Only a few associations register a density of less than 50% of employees. This is especially the case for several Italian associations, which are characterised by very low densities at 6-8%, caused by the high degree of fragmentation of the associational system there. Also Bulgaria displays a low density for one association, which organises small and medium-sized enterprises.

This situation contrasts with a large number of associations in other countries that register densities from 80-95% of the employees up to 100%, even though in most of these cases membership is voluntary. Overall, there is little difference between the density of domains and the sector-related densities. In the case of employees, high levels of domain density usually coincide with high sectoral density and sectoral domain density. This means that employers are highly organised both in the metal industry and across their overall domain. In particular, this pattern applies to density in terms of employees. Again, it should be noted that for a considerable number of employer organisations density data are lacking, so the findings should be treated cautiously.

Collective bargaining and its actors

Table 5 gives an overview of the system of sector-related collective bargaining in the 27 countries under consideration. The importance of collective bargaining as a means of employment regulation is measured by calculating the total number of employees covered by collective bargaining as a proportion of the total number of employees within a certain segment of the economy (see Traxler, Blaschke and Kittel, 2001). Accordingly, the sector’s rate of collective bargaining coverage is defined as the ratio of the number of employees covered by any kind of collective agreement to the total number of employees in the sector.

To delineate the bargaining system, two further indicators are used: The first indicator refers to the relevance of multi-employer bargaining, compared with single-employer bargaining. Multi-employer bargaining is defined as being conducted by an employer organisation on behalf of the employer side. In the case of single-employer bargaining, the company or its divisions is the party to the agreement. This includes cases where two or more companies jointly negotiate an agreement. The relative importance of multi-employer bargaining, measured as a percentage of the total number of employees covered by a collective agreement, therefore provides an indication of the impact of the employer organisations on the overall collective bargaining process.

The second indicator considers whether statutory extension schemes have been applied to the sector. For reasons of brevity, this analysis is confined to extension schemes that widen the scope of a collective agreement to employers not affiliated to the signatory employer organisation. Extension regulations targeting employees are not significant to this analysis for two reasons.

Firstly, extending a collective agreement to employees who are not unionised in a company covered by a collective agreement is a standard of the International Labour Organisation (ILO), regardless of any national legislation.

Secondly, employers have good reason to extend a collective agreement concluded by them, even when they are not formally obliged to do so; otherwise, they would be giving an incentive to their workforce to unionise.

In comparison with employee-related extension procedures, schemes that target employers have far more effect on the strength of collective bargaining in general and multi-employer bargaining in particular. This is because employers can refrain from joining an employer organisation and from entering single-employer bargaining in a purely voluntary system. Therefore, employer-related extension practices increase the coverage of multi-employer bargaining.

When it is pervasive, an extension agreement may also encourage more employers to join the controlling employer organisation; such a move then enables them to participate in the bargaining process and benefit from the organisation’s related services in a situation where the respective collective agreement will bind them in any case (see Traxler, Blaschke and Kittel, 2001).

Table 5: The system of sectoral collective bargaining (2005/06)

Country

Collective bargaining coverage (CBC) – employees covered as % of total employees in sector

Share of Multi-employer bargaining (MEB) as a percentage of total CBC

Extension practicesa

AT

100

100

(2)

BE

~ 100

~ 1003

2

BG

1001 (182)

1001 (02)

2

CY

95

90

0

CZ

~50

9.5

0

DE

n.a.

MEB prevailing

1

DK

85

n.a.

n.a.

EE

27

93

0

EL

100

100

2

ES

~ 100

90

2

FI

100

100

2

FR

95

100

0

HU

15

0

0

IE

n.a.

MEB prevailing

1

IT

100

1003

(2)

LT

15

0

0

LU

37

0

0

LV

n.a.

MEB prevailing

0

MT

> 50

0

0

NL

100

100

2

PL

24

n.a.

0

PT

n.a.

MEB prevailing

2

RO

95

100

2

SE

100

90

1

SI

100

100

2

SK

15-20

n.a.

1

UK

60

n.a.

0

Extension practices (including functional equivalents to extension provisions, i.e. obligatory membership and labour court rulings):

a0 = no practice, 1 = limited/exceptional, 2 = pervasive. Cases of functional equivalents are put in parentheses.

1cross-sectoral regulating minimum social insurance thresholds 2sector-specific

3complementary single-employer wage bargaining on a notable scale

4MEB only

Collective bargaining coverage

On aggregate, the sector’s collective bargaining coverage is relatively high, with 12 out of the 23 countries for which data are available registering a very high coverage rate of 90% and more (Table 5). In seven of these countries, the coverage rate amounts to or comes close to 100%.

In contrast, five countries register a coverage rate of less than 20%, with Poland’s rate as the lowest at only 2%. One can infer from these findings that in more than half of the 27 countries under consideration, the sector’s industrial relations structures are well-established, while they appear to be underdeveloped in a minority of countries.

Closer consideration regarding the different countries reveals that collective bargaining coverage rates tend to be high in the ‘old’ EU-15 (with the notable exceptions of Luxembourg and the UK), while sectoral bargaining standards vary widely from one of the 2004/7 accession countries to the other. The low levels in Hungary and Lithuania combine with single-employer bargaining, while no sufficient information regarding the prevailing bargaining type is available for Poland and Slovakia, which also record low collective bargaining coverage rates.

Several factors, sometimes interacting with each other, account for the generally high coverage rates: In the majority of countries where coverage peaks at 95%-100%, the predominance of multi-employer bargaining coincides with pervasive extension practices. While coverage in countries with prevalent multi-employer bargaining is generally high, there is more variance across countries which have predominant single-employer bargaining. In such circumstances, coverage ranges from 15% (Hungary, Lithuania) to more than 50% (Malta). Total coverage in single-employer bargaining systems is usually contingent on trade union density, which is low at least with regard to the sector-related trade unions of Hungary, while no data are available for those of Lithuania.

In spite of the relative strength of collective bargaining, employers unwilling to enter or continue collective bargaining are not completely absent in the sector (see section employer organisations above).

A rough picture can be drawn regarding the relative importance of multi-employer bargaining. This type of bargaining prevails in 17 countries, as compared to six countries characterised by predominant single-employer bargaining. No data are available for four countries (Denmark, Poland, Slovakia and the UK). The distinction between multi- and single-employer bargaining, however, does not fully describe the complexity of the bargaining systems. Belgium and Italy are countries for which a mixed system of single- and multi-employer bargaining is documented. In Belgium, company bargaining is the main level of negotiation for wages and working conditions, while multi-employer bargaining covers aspects such as early retirement, training and social benefits. In Italy, single-employer agreements exist for large companies, e.g. in the automobile (Fiat), metalworking (Piaggio) and naval (Fincantieri) sector, whereas the rest of the sector’s companies are covered by multi-employer bargaining.

Pervasive extension practices in the metal industry are reported for Belgium, Bulgaria, Estonia, Finland, Greece, the Netherlands, Romania and Slovenia. Referring to the aim of extension provisions – making multi-employer agreements generally binding – the provisions of obligatory membership in the chamber system of Austria should also be noted. Obligatory membership creates an extension effect, since the Austrian Federal Economic Chamber (WKÖ) and its sectoral divisions are parties to multi-employer bargaining. Another functional equivalent to a statutory extension scheme can be found in Italy. According to the country’s constitution, minimum conditions of employment must apply to all employees. The country’s labour court rulings relate this principle to multi-employer agreements, to the extent that they are regarded as generally binding.

Participating in public policy-making

Interest associations may partake in public policy in two basic ways: Firstly, they may be consulted by the authorities on matters affecting their members; and secondly, they may be represented on tripartite committees and boards of policy concertation. This study considers only cases of consultation and corporatist participation that explicitly relate to sector-specific matters.

Consultation processes are not necessarily institutionalised and, therefore, the organisations consulted by the authorities may vary according to the issues to be addressed and also over time, depending on changes in government. Moreover, the authorities may initiate a consultation process on an occasional rather than a regular basis. Given this variability, Tables 3 and 4 list only those sector-related trade unions and employer organisations that are consulted usually and regularly. Depending on country-specific regulations and practices, the sector-related associations may directly or indirectly participate in public policy. Indirect participation takes place via their affiliation to a peak-level association which obtains participatory rights.

Trade unions

Trade unions are consulted by the authorities in 19 out of 27 countries. If such consultation occurs, this process usually involves all of the existing trade unions, except for two countries. In Spain, only two out of seven trade unions are consulted (FI-CCOO and MCA-UGT) and in Finland only one out of six trade unions (Metalliliitto). In 17 countries where trade unions are consulted, organised business is consulted as well. For Luxembourg and Malta where unions are consulted, no data on business associations is available.

Employer organisations

Similarly, the sector-related employer organisations are involved in consultation procedures in most countries. Business associations are usually consulted in 20 out of the 27 countries. In Bulgaria, Denmark and Poland business associations are consulted while trade unions are not. Still, the general pattern is that each of the two sides of industry is either consulted or not consulted on a regular basis. It is worth noting that in countries without regular consultation practices, the two sides of industry are often consulted on an ad hoc basis (for example in Slovenia, Portugal and Cyprus).

Tripartite participation

Turning to tripartite participation in Table 6, one finds that tripartite bodies are established only in Estonia, Spain, Finland, Romania and the UK. Their legal basis is either a statute or an agreement between the parties involved. Their scope of activity most frequently concentrates on issues of skill formation.

Several countries – the Czech Republic, Romania, Finland and Poland – have sector-unspecific, or cross-sectoral, tripartite bodies for concertation of economic and social policy. They may also address the sector, depending on circumstances and issues.

Table 6: Tripartite sector-specific boards of public policy (2005/06)

Country

Name of the body and scope of activity

Origin

Unions participating

Business associations participating

EE

Professional Council of Engineering, Metal and Machine Industry; skill formation

Statutory

EMAF

EML, EK-T

ES

Metal Sector Industrial Observatory;

Agreement

FI-CCOO, MCA-UGT

CONFEMETAL

FI

Trio Programme; industrial policy

Agreement

TEK, UIL, TU, Metalliliitto

FFTI

RO

Commission for Social Dialogue within the Ministry of Economy

Statutory

FSS Metarom, FSLMN, FNSS Metal, FSI Brasov, Metal Henri Coanda, Electron M III

F Metalurgia, FEPACM, APREL, ARGOS

 

Committee for ferrous and non-ferrous metalworking and for refractory products industries; skill formation

Statutory

FNS Metarom, FSLMN

F Metalurgia

 

Committee for machine building industry, fine mechanical equipment and machines; skill formation

Statutory

FNSS Metal, Automobilul Românesc

FEPA CM

 

Committee for electronics, automatic and electro technics; skill formation

Statutory

FNSS Metal, Electron M III

APREL

UK

Semta; skill formation

Agreement

Confederation of Shipbuilding and Engineering Unions CSEU

EEF

+Membership list confined to the sector-related associations of the countries under consideration.

*Not involved in collective bargaining **Indirectly involved in collective bargaining via higher- or lower-level affiliations.

Associations put in parentheses are sector-related unions listed in Table 3 which are indirectly affiliated via national higher-order associations or lower-level affiliates.


European level of interest representation

At European level, eligibility for consultation and participation in social dialogue is linked to three criteria, as defined by the European Commission. Accordingly, a social partner organisation must have the following attributes:

  • be cross-industry or relate to specific sectors or categories, and be organised at European level;
  • consist of organisations which are themselves an integral and recognised part of Member States’ social partner structures and which have the capacity to negotiate agreements, as well as being representative of all Member States, as far as possible;
  • have adequate structures to ensure their effective participation in the consultation process.

Regarding social dialogue, the constituent feature is the ability of such organisations to negotiate on behalf of their members and to conclude binding agreements. Accordingly, this section on European associations of the metal sector will analyse these organisations’ membership domain, the composition of their membership and their ability to negotiate.

There is one single European association each on the side of labour and business whose membership domain is sector-related in the way as delineated above. Regarding labour, this association is the European Metalworkers' Federation (EMF), which is affiliated to the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC). Sector-related business interests are organised by the Council of European Employers of the Metal, Engineering and Technology-Based Industries (CEEMET), which is a recognised consultation body and discussion partner of the European Institutions and BusinessEurope. Both EMF and CEEMET are listed by the European Commission as a social partner organisation consulted under Article 138 of the EC Treaty. Hence, the following analysis will concentrate on these two organisations, while providing supplementary information on other European organisations which are linked to the sector’s national industrial relations actors.

Membership domain

Since EMF organises the metal industry in the broad sense (including iron and steel), its membership domain overlaps with the metal sector. The membership domain of CEEMET is more or less congruent with the sector.

Membership composition

In terms of membership composition, it should be noted that the countries covered by EMF and CEEMET go beyond the 27 EU Member States examined in this study. However, the report will only consider the members of the EU-27. Furthermore, the study will be confined to those affiliates to EMF whose members are sector-related insofar as they gather employees of the metal sector, as demarcated above.

Following these specifications, Table 7 documents the list of membership of the European associations of labour. Accordingly, EMF organises 24 of the 27 EU Member States under consideration. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are not covered. Membership of CEEMET is composed exclusively of business organisations rather than individual companies. A number of CEEMET members are federations, which means that their members (subunits) are either autonomous regional associations (as in France, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom) or professional branch groups (as in Austria, Denmark, Italy and the Netherlands). On aggregate, associations affiliated to CEEMET comprise 16 of the 27 countries. Out of these 16 countries, Latvia and Slovenia are observer members. No members are recorded for Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, Poland, Romania and Slovakia.

Table 7: EMF Membership+ (2009)

Country

Membership

AT

GMTN

BE

ABVV-Metaal, MWB-FGTB, CSC metal/ACV metaal, BBTK-SETCa, LBC-NVK, CNE/GNC, CGSLB-AGLVB

BG

TUFMW (Metallurgy), TUFOEMI, NFTINI, NTUF Metal-Electro

CY

OBIEK

CZ

OS KOVO

DE

IG Metall

DK

CO-Industri (3F, Dansk Metal, DEF, HK, TL), IDA*

EE  
EL

POEM

ES

FI-CCOO, MCA-UGT, FTM-ELA, USO

FI

TEK**, SA, UIL**, TU, Metalliliitto

FR

FTM-CGT, FO-Métaux, FM-CFTC, FNTE-CGT, FO-Défense, FGMM-CFDT, CFDT-FEAE

HU

Vasas

IE

SIPTU, UNITE

IT

FIOM, FIM, UILM

LT  
LU

OGB-L, LCGB

LV  
MT

GWU

NL

FNV Bondgenoten, CNV Bedrijvenbond, De Unie, VHP Metalelektro

PL

SM-NSZZ Solidarnosc, KZZMP-OPZZ

PT

FIEQUIMETAL, SIMA

RO

FSS Metarom, FNSS Metal, FSLI Metal

SE

IF METALL, SI, UNIONEN

SI

SKEI

SK

OZ KOVO

UK

GMB, Unite, Community

Negotiating mandate

General mandate, conferred by the members

+Membership list confined to the sector-related associations of the countries under consideration.

*Not involved in collective bargaining **Indirectly involved in collective bargaining via higher- or lower-level affiliations.

Associations put in parentheses are sector-related unions listed in Table 3 which are indirectly affiliated via national higher-order associations or lower-level affiliates. In addition to the territorial remit of the European associations, the weight of their affiliates in the national industrial relations systems is another criterion for evaluating their membership structure. This weight can be measured in two respects: involvement of the national affiliates in collective bargaining and their membership strength. Table 7 also summarises the bargaining role of the affiliates to EMF. All member unions of EMF except for the Danish IDA conduct collective bargaining. Two Finnish unions (TEK and UIL) are only indirectly involved in collective bargaining via higher level affiliations. Table 8 documents whether the members of CEEMET are a signatory party to a collective agreement of major importance to the national bargaining systems. In all countries except for the UK, for which associational members are registered, they are parties to collective bargaining.

As far as the sector-specific weight of the national affiliates in terms of membership strength is concerned, the appropriate measures are the members in the sector and sectoral domain density. For the unions, this measure is documented in Table 3. As far as available data on membership of the national unions provide sufficient information on their relative strength (Table 3), one can conclude that EMF tends to organise the largest national unions of the sector in the EU Member States. It is evident from these data that EMF represents the vast majority of the sector’s unionised employees across Europe. In almost half of the countries covered by associational members of CEEMET (7 out of 16), its national affiliate is the one and only voice of business which covers the majority of employees in the sector (Table 4). In Estonia, the CEEMET member association also holds a monopoly-like position, but represents less than a quarter of the employees of the sector. In four countries (Austria, Denmark, Sweden and Slovenia) with multi-associational systems, the affiliates to CEEMET record a sectoral domain density of more than 50% of the employees. The Italian affiliates to CEEMET record a sectoral domain density of less than 50%. For the remaining countries with affiliates to CEEMET (Belgium, the Netherlands and Portugal), data on sector-related membership strength are lacking.

Capacity to negotiate

The third criterion of representativeness at the European level refers to the capacity to negotiate on behalf of one’s own members. Information on this issue is included in Table 7 for the unions and in Table 8 for business associations. EMF has obtained a general negotiating mandate by its members. CEEMET can be equipped by its members with an ad-hoc mandate for negotiating on a case-by-case basis.

Table 8: CEEMET Membership+ (2009)

Country

Membership

AT

WKÖ

BE

AGORIA

BG

 

CY

 

CZ

 

DE

Gesamtmetall

DK

DI

EE

EML

EL

 

ES

CONFEMETAL

FI

FFTI

FR

UIMM

HU

 

IE

 

IT

Assolombarda, FEDERMECCANICA

LT

LINPRA

LU

 

LV

MASOC – observer member

MT

 

NL

FME-CWM

PL

 

PT

ANEMM

RO

 

SE

Teknikföretagen

SI

GZS – observer member

SK

 

UK

EEF – not involved in collective bargaining

Negotiating mandate

Ad hoc mandate, conferred by the members on a case-by-case basis

+Membership list is confined to the sector-related associations of the countries under consideration.

As a final proof of the sector-related importance of EMF and CEEMET, one also has to look for other European associations that may be important representatives of the sector. This can be done by reviewing membership of the national associations to sector-specific European associations. For the unions, these affiliations are shown in Table 3. As a consequence of the multiplicity of the unions listed in Table 3, there are also numerous affiliations to European organisations other than EMF. For reasons of brevity, only those European organisations are mentioned here which cover at least three countries. They are:

  • the European Mine, Chemical and Energy Worker’s Federation (EMCEF), with 13 associations in seven countries;
  • UNI Europa, with 14 associations in six countries;
  • the European Transport Worker’s Federation (ETF), with six associations in six countries;
  • the European Federation of Food, Agriculture and Tourism Trade Unions (EFFAT), with eight associations in five countries;
  • the European Federation of Building and Woodworkers (EFBWW), with eight associations in four countries;
  • the European Federation of Public Service Unions (EPSU), with seven associations in four countries;
  • the European Trade Union Federation Textiles, Clothing and Leather (ETUF:TCL), with six associations in four countries.
  • affiliations do not necessarily relate to the sector. In principle, this relationship depends on how national unions demarcate their domains. In many cases, the affiliations to European associations other than EMF result from overlapping and rather broadly defined membership domains of the national unions and thus involve member groups outside the metal industry. Linkages to the metal industry are most plausible in the case of UNI Europa, EPSU and EFBWW, since their domains crosscut sectoral demarcations and this may include certain parts of the sector. At any rate, each of these European associations covers only a minority of the 27 countries. Even though the list of affiliations in Table 3 may be incomplete, this review clearly confirms that the sector-related national unions are most frequently affiliated to the EMF.

An analogous review of the membership of national business associations can be derived from Table 4. Most of them entertain rather few affiliations to European associations other than CEEMET. There is only one European association that covers at least three countries. This involves the European Engineering Industries Association representing the interests of the Mechanical, Electrical, Electronic, Metalworking & Metal Articles Industries ( ORGALIME), with 11 associations in 10 countries. In terms of both the number of affiliations as well as territorial coverage, however, ORGALIME remains far behind CEEMET.

In conclusion, EMF and CEEMET are obviously the most important sector-related European organisations.


Commentary

Despite thorough restructuring of the European non-ferrous metal sector during the past 10–20 years, industrial relations still tend to be quite well organised in this industry. This can be seen in the relatively high unionisation rates, a strong presence of employer associations and a high level of collective bargaining coverage in most countries. These findings do not come as a surprise, given the long tradition of European metal manufacturing with its tradition of male blue-collar employment and usually strong workplace representation.

Examining the figures on cross-sectoral collective bargaining coverage in the 25 EU Member States (the EU25, prior to the accession of Bulgaria and Romania), shows that the metal industry’s bargaining coverage is higher than the country average in 11 of the 16 countries for which comparable data are available (see Marginson and Traxler, 2005). Closer examination shows that collective bargaining coverage rates tend to be high in the ‘old’ EU15 – with the exception of Luxembourg and the UK, where about 30% and 60% of the employees, respectively, are covered – while sectoral bargaining standards vary widely among the ‘new’ Member States. In Hungary, Lithuania and Poland, sectoral bargaining takes place only scarcely. Conversely, collective bargaining settlements cover a major part of the sector in Cyprus, Romania and Slovenia. Generally, high collective bargaining coverage rates in the sector are strengthened by the predominance of multi-employer arrangements and a significant use of extension practices.

However, despite the sector’s relatively advanced position in terms of industrial relations standards, the metal industry has encountered a series of major problems due to restructuring caused by privatisation, globalisation and market concentration. Moreover, in the wake of the 2008/9 global economic downturn, a significant part of the workforce was made redundant. These developments have stimulated associational action on the employer side as well as its cooperation with organised labour.

In order to cope with these challenges, the sector’s social partners at European level – CEEMET on the employers’ side and EMF on the employees’ side – have set up a joint social dialogue committee, with the inauguration ceremony held on 14 January 2010. While these two European actors are still in the process of establishing formal social dialogue, they have to be regarded as by far the most important, if not the only, EU-wide representatives of the sector’s employers and employees.


References

Marginson, P. and Traxler, F., ‘After enlargement: Preconditions and prospects for bargaining coordination’, Transfer, Vol. 11, No. 3, 2005, pp423—438.

Traxler, F., ‘Business associations and labour unions in comparison’, British Journal of Sociology, No. 44, 1993.

Traxler, F., ‘The metamorphoses of corporatism’, European Journal of Political Research, Vol. 43, No. 4, 2004.

Traxler, F., Blaschke, S. and Kittel, B., National labour relations in internationalised markets, Oxford University Press, 2001.

European Commission, http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?langId=en&catId=89&newsId=664&furtherNew, last accessed on 7 April 2010.

Laura Dörfler and Georg Adam, Department of Industrial Sociology, University of Vienna

Annex: List of Abbreviations

Country

Abbreviation

Full name

AT

FEEI

Association of the Austrian Electrical and Electronics Industries

 

FFO

FFO - Fachverband der Fahrzeugindustrie Österreichs (Austria) Industry

 

FMMI

Association of Austrian Machinery and Metalware Industries

 

FVG

Association of the Casting Industry

 

FV NE-Metall

Association of the non-ferrous Metal Industry

 

GMTN

Metalworking, Textiles, Agriculture and Food-processing Union

 

ÖGB

Austrian Trade Union Federation

 

WKÖ

Austrian Federal Economic Chamber

BE

ABVV-metaal

Belgian General Federation of Metal

 

AGORIA

Multisector Federation for the Technology Industry

 

BBTK-SETCa

Belgian Union of White-collar Workers

 

CGSLB/ACLVB

Federation of Liberal Trade Unions of Belgium

 

CNE-GNC

National Federation of White-collar Workers

 

CSC-ACV

General Christian Trade Union

 

CSC métal/ACV metaal

General Christian Trade – Metal

 

FEB/VBO

Belgian Federation of Employers

 

FGTB/ABVV

Belgian General Federation of Labour

 

LBC-NVK

Landelijke Bedienden Centrale - Nationaal Verbond voor Kaderpersoneel

 

MWB-FGTB

Metalworkers’ Wallonnie Brussels – Belgian General Federation of Labour

 

UNIZO

Organisation for the Self-Employed and SMEs

 

VLAMEF

Belgium Metal Federation for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

BG

BCE

Branch Chamber of Electronics

 

BCMB

Branch Chamber – Machine Building

 

BIA

Bulgarian Industrial Association

 

BICA

Bulgarian Industrial Capital Association

 

CITUB

Confederation of Independent Trade Unions in Bulgaria

 

FTUMIC

Federation of Trade Unions of the Military Industrial Complex

 

NCEEB

National Chamber of Electrical Engineering in Bulgaria

 

NFTINI

 
 

NTUF Metal-Electro

National Trade Union Federation Metal-Electro

 

TUFMW

Trade Union Federation of Metal Workers

 

Podkrepa CL

Confederation of Labour ‘Podkrepa’

 

TUFOEMI

Confederation of Independent Trade Unions in Bulgaria

CY

OBIEK

Federation of Industrial Workers of Cyprus

 

PEO

Pancyprian Federation of Labour

 

SEK

Cyprus Workers’ Confederation

 

SEMMHK

Cyprus Metalworkers, Mechanics and Electricians’ Trade Union

 

SYMEBIK

Cyprus Metalworking Industry Employers’ Association

CZ

AAM

Association of the Aviation Manufacturers

 

AFC

Association of Foundries of the Czech Republic

 

CMEEA

Czech and Moravian Electrical and Electronic Association

 

ČMKOS

Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions

 

OS KOVO

Czech Metalworkers´ Federation KOVO

 

SP ČR

Czech Confederation of Industry

DE

BDA

German Confederation of Employers’ Associations

 

CGB

Christian Trade Union Federation

 

CGM

Christian Metalworkers' Union

 

DGB

Confederation of German Trade Unions

 

Gesamtmetall

Employers’ Associations for the Metal and Electrical Industry

 

IG Metall

German Metalworkers’ Union

DK

3F

United Federation of Danish Workers

 

CO-Industri

Central Organisation of Industrial Employees in Denmark

 

DA

Confederation of Danish Employers

 

Dansk Metal

Danish Metalworkers’ Union

 

DEF

Danish Unions of Electricians

 

DI

Confederation of Danish Industries

 

DS

DS Trade and Industry

 

HK

Union of Commercial and Clerical Employees in Denmark

 

HVR

The Danish Federation of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

 

IDA

Danish Society of Engineers

 

LO

Danish Confederation of Trade Unions

 

TL

Danish Association of Professional Technicians

EE

EAKL

Confederation of Estonian Trade Unions

 

EKT

Estonian Chamber of Commerce and Industry

 

EMAF

Estonian Metalworkers' Trade Union Federation

 

EML

Federation of Estonian Engineering Industry

 

ETTK

Estonian Employers' Confederation

EL

EN.E.EPE.M

Association of Metal Processing Companies

 

GSEE

Greek General Confederation of Labour

 

POEM

Hellenic Federation of Metalworkers

 

SEV

Hellenic Federation of Enterprises

ES

CC.OO

Trade Union Confederation of Workers’ Commissions

 

CEOE

Spanish Federation of Employer Organisations

 

CEPYME

Spanish Confederation of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

 

CIG-metal

Inter-union Galician Confederation – Metal Federation

 

CONFEMETAL

Spanish Confederation of Metal Industries

 

ELA-STV

Basque Workers Solidarity

 

FI-CCOO

?

 

FTM-ELA

Basque Workers Solidarity, Metal

 

Intersindical Canaria

Canary Islands Labour Federation

 

LAB

Patriot Workers Commissions

 

MCA-UGT

Metal, Construction and Allied Workers’ Federation – General Workers’ Confederation

 

USO

Workers Trade Unionist Confederation

FI

AKAVA

Confederation of Unions for Academic Professionals

 

EK

Confederation of Finnish Industries

 

Teknologiateollisuus

Federation of Finnish Technology Industries

 

Metalliliitto

Finnish Metalworkers' Union

 

SA

Finnish Electrical Workers' Union

 

SAK

Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions

 

SEFE

Finnish Association of Business School Graduates

 

STTK

Finnish Confederation of Salaried Employees

 

TEK

Finnish Association of Graduate Engineers

 

TU

Union of Salaried Employees

 

UIL

Union of Professional Engineers in Finland

FR

CFDT

French Democratic Confederation of Labour

 

CFDT-FEAE

French Democratic Confederation of Labour – Public Sector Defence Workers’ Federation

 

CFE-CGC

French Confederation of Professional and Managerial Staff – General Confederation of Professional and Managerial Staff

 

CFTC

French Christian Workers’ Confederation

 

CGT

General Confederation of Labour

 

FGMM-CFDT

Metalworking and Mining Workers’ Federation – French Democratic Confederation of Labour

 

FM-CFTC

National Trade Union Federation for the Metalworking Industry and Related Activities – French Christian Workers’ Confederation

 

FNTE-CGT

State Employees’ Federation – General Confederation of Labour

 

FO

Force Ouvrière

 

FO-Défense

Force Ouvrière - Defence

 

FO-Métaux

Force Ouvrière – Metal

 

FTM-CGT

Metalworkers’ Federation – General Confederation of Labour

 

MEDEF

Movement of French Enterprises

 

UIMM

Union of Metallurgy and Mining Industries

HU

FGMOS

National Alliance of Workers’ Councils in Metal and Machinery Industries

 

LIGA

Democratic League of Independent Trade Unions

 

LIGA VFS

LIGA Metal and Iron Industry Association

 

MOSZ

National Federation of Workers’ Councils

 

MSZOSZ

Association of Hungarian Trade Unions

 

Vasas

Metalworkers' Union

IE

IBEC

Irish Business and Employers Confederation

 

ICTU

Irish Congress of Trade Unions

 

IEEF

Irish Engineering Enterprises Federation

 

SIPTU

Services, Industrial, Professional and Technical Union

 

TEEU

Technical Electrical and Engineering Union

 

UNITE

General UK Trade Union

IT

AGCI

General Association of Italian Cooperatives

 

ANCPL-Legacoop

National Co-operative Association of Production and Labour - Legacoop

 

Assalombarda

Largest territorial association of the entire entrepreneurial system in Italy

 

CASA/ CASARTIGIANI

Autonomous Confederation of Artisan Unions

 

CECOP/CICOPA

The European Confederation of Workers' Co-operatives, Social Co-operatives and Social and Participative Enterprises

 

CGIL

General Confederation of Italian Workers

 

CISAL

Italian Confederation of Free Workers’ Unions

 

CISL

Italian Confederation of Workers’ Trade Union

 

CLAAI

Confederation of Free Italian Artisan Associations

 

CMP

General Italian Federation of Artisans – Metalworking production

 

CNA

National Confederation of Artisans and of the Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

 

CNA Produzione

National Confederation of Artisans and of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises – Production

 

CONFAPI

Italian Confederation of Small and Medium-sized Industry

 

CONFARTIGIANI

General Italian Confederation of Artisans

 

CONFCOOPERATIVE

Confederation of Italian Cooperatives

 

CONFINDUSTRIA

General Confederation of Italian Industry

 

FAILMS

Autonomous Italian Federation of Metal and Steel Workers and Services

 

FEDERMECCANICA

Federation of Metalworking Employers’ Federation

 

FeS

National Co-operative Federation of Production and Labour, Artisans and Service Cooperatives

 

FIM

Italian Federation of Metalworkers

 

FIOM

Federation of Metallurgical Employees and Workers

 

Fismic

Autonomous Trade Union of Metalworkers and Related Industries

 

Legacoop

Lega Nazionale delle Cooperative e mutue

 

SAVT

Autonomous Trade Union of Valle D’Aosta 'Travailleurs'

 

SAVT/MET

Autonomous Trade Union of Valle D’Aosta 'Travallieurs' / MET

 

UGL

General Union of Work

 

UGL METALMECCANICI

General Union of Italian Workers, Metalworkers

 

UIL

Union of Italian Workers

 

UILM

Italian Metalworkers' Union

 

Union Meccanica

National Union of Small and Medium-sized Metalworking Enterprises

 

USAS/ASGB

Sud-Tirol Autonomous Trade Unions

LT

LDF

Lithuanian Labour Federation

 

LINPRA

Engineering Industries Association of Lithuania

 

LMPSS

Union of Lithuanian Metalworkers Trade Unions

 

LPK

Lithuanian Confederation of Industrialists

 

LPSK

Lithuanian Trade Union Confederation

 

MPPSS

Union of Metal Industry Trade Unions

LU

CGT-L

General Confederation of Labour of Luxembourg

 

NGL/SNEP

Neutral Union of Luxembourg Workers / National Union of Private Sector White-Collar Employees

 

OGB-L

Independent Trade Union Confederation of Luxembourg

 

LCGB

Luxembourg Christian Trade Union Confederation

LV

LBAS

Free Trade Union Confederation of Latvia

 

LDDK

Latvian Employers’ Confederation

 

LMA

Metalworkers’ Trade Union

 

MASOC

Association of Mechanical Engineering and Metalworking Industries in Latvia

MT

AAE

Association of Airline Engineers

 

CMTU

Confederation of Malta Trade Unions

 

GWU

General Workers' Union

 

UHM

Union of United Workers

NL

CNV Bedrijvenbond

Industry, Food and Transport Workers’ Union

 

FNV Bondgenoten

Federation of Dutch Trade Union Allied Unions

 

Bovag

Employers’ organisation for the automobile industry

 

CNV

Christian Trade Union Federation

 

De Unie

Union for Intermediate and Higher Personnel

 

FME-CWM

Federation for the Metal and Electrical Industry – Contact Group of Employers in the Metal Industry

 

FNV

Dutch Trade Union Federation

 

Metal Union

Royal Metal Union

 

MHP

Federation of Managerial and Professional Staff Unions

 

MKB

Federation of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

 

Uneto-Vni

Association of Dutch Electromechanical Service Facilities

 

VHP Metalektro

Union for Higher Personnel in the Metal and Electrical Engineering Sector

 

VNO-NCW

Confederation of Netherlands Industries and Employers

PL

KZZMP-OPZZ

Confederation of Metalworking Trade Unions in Poland

 

NSZZ Solidarnosc

Independent and Self -Governing Trade Union Solidarity

 

OPZZ

All-Poland Alliance of Trade Unions

 

SM-NSZZ Solidarnosc

National Metalworking Section – Metalworkers’ Secretariat of the Independent and Self-Governing Trade Union ‘Solidarity’

 

ZZIT-FZZ

National Metalworking Section of the Trade Union of Engineers and Technicians

PT

ABIMOTA

National Association of Manufacturing of Two-Wheel Vehicles, Fittings, Furniture and related services

 

ACAP

Portuguese Vehicle Trade Association

 

AFAL

Association of Manufacturers of Luminous Advertising

 

AIM

Association of Maritime Industries

 

AIM

Industrial Association of the Minho Region

 

ANEMM

National Association of Metal and Electromechanical Companies

 

ANIMEE

Portuguese Association of the Electrical and Electronic Sector

 

CGTP

General Confederation of Portuguese Workers

 

CGTP-IN

General Confederation of Portuguese Workers

 

CIP

Confederation of Portuguese Industry

 

Federacao dos Engenheiros (FE)

Federation of Engineers

 

FENAME

National Federation of Metal Industries

 

FESMAR

Federation of Sea Workers

 

FETESE

Federation of Commerce, Offices and Services’ Unions

 

Fiequimetal

Federation of Metalworking, Mining, Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Petroleum and Gas Workers’ Unions

 

SEMM

Union of Engineers in the Merchant Marine

 

SERS

Engineers Union of the Southern Region

 

SIMA

Union of Metal Industries and Correlative Industries and Services

 

SINDEL

National Industry and Energy Trade Union

 

SITESC

Union of Qualified Employees, Administrative Staff, Services and New Technologies

 

SITESE

Union of Service Workers and Technicians

 

SQTD

Union of Draughtsmen

 

UGT

General Worker’s Confederation

RO

APREL

Romanian Employer Organisation from Electronics, Electroctechnics, Information and Communication Technologies

 

ARGOS

Employer Organisation representing non-ferrous metal industry manufacturers

 

Federaţia Automobilul Românesc

Romanian Car Federation

 

BNS

National Trade Union Bloc

 

Cartel Alfa

National Trade Union Confederation ‘Cartel Alfa’

 

CNSLR Frãtia

National Confederation of Free Trade Union Fraternity of Romania

 

CONPIROM

Employer Confederation of Romanian Industry

 

FS Electron M III

Trade Unions Federation Electron M III

 

FEPA CM

Employers Federation of the Machine-Building Industry

 

F Metalurgia

Employers Federation of the Ferrous Nonferrous and Refractory Materials Industries

 

FNS Metarom

National Trade Union Federation 'Metarom'

 

FNSS Metal

National Trade Union Federation Solidaritatea Metal

 

Înfrăţirea Braşov

Trade Unions Federation Fraternity Braşov

 

FSCM

Machine Building Trade Unions Federation

 

FSLI Metal

Industry Workers Trade Union Federation Metal

 

FSLMN

Free Trade Unions Federation of Non-ferrous Metallurgy

 

FS Metal Henri Coandă

Trade Unions Federation Henri Coandă

SE

IF Metall

Union of Metalworkers

 

IK-G

Swedish Industrial and Chemical Employers’ Association

 

Industrikommittén

Industry Committee. Consists of senior representatives of Swedish employers and workers in the industrial sector.

 

Ledarna

Confederation of Executives and Managerial Staff

 

LO

Swedish Trade Union Confederation

 

Metallgruppen

No English translation

 

OFR

Public Employees’ Negotiation Council

 

PTK

Federation of Salaried Employees in Industry and Services

 

SACO

Swedish Confederation of Professional Associations

 

SI

Swedish Association of Graduate Engineers

 

SMA

Steel and Metal Employers´ Association

 

SN

Confederation of Swedish Enterprises

 

TCO

Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees

 

Teknikföretagen

Association of Swedish Engineering Industries

 

Unionen

Union of White-collar Workers

SI

GZS

Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Slovenia

 

KNSS

Independent Confederation of New Trade Unions of Slovenia

 

KS90

Confederation of Trade Unions ΄90 of Slovenia

 

KS90-SKEIE

Trade Union of the Metal, Electro and Electronic Industry

 

NSS-SKI

Independent Trade Union of Slovenia - Trade Union of the Metal Industry

 

SKEI

Trade Union of the Metal and Electro-industry of Slovenia

 

SKEM

Metal, Electro and Metallurgy Industries Trade Union

 

SOLIDARNOST

The Union of Worker’s Trade Unions of Slovenia – Solidarity

 

ZDS

Slovenian Employers' Association

 

ZDSS-SDPMVPP

Workers' Trade Union of Slovenia – Solidarity for the Activity of Manufacturing Motor Vehicles, Trailers and Semi-Trailers

 

ZSSS

Association of Free Trade Unions of Slovenia

SK

KOZ SR

Confederation of Trade Unions

 

OZ KOVO

Metal Trade Union Association

 

ZEP SR

Association of Electrical Industry

 

ZSP SR

Association of Mechanical Engineering

UK

Community

General Trade Union

 

CSEU

Confederation of Shipbuilding and Engineering Unions

 

EEF

Engineering Employers' Federation

 

GFTU

General Federation of Trade Unions

 

GMB

General, Municipal, Boilermakers and Allied Trade Union

 

ICTU

Irish Congress of Trade Unions

 

STUC

Scottish Trades Union Congress

 

TUC

Trades Union Congress

 

Wales TUC

Trades Union Congress of Wales

 

Unite

Unite the Union

EUROPE

AIE

Industrial Agency of the State

 

ASD

AeroSpace and Defence Industries Association of Europe

 

BIAC

Business and Industry Advisory Council

 

CAEF

European Foundry Association

 

CECOP/CICOPA Europe

European Confederation of Workers’ Co-operatives, Social Co-operatives and Social and Participative Enterprises

 

CECRA

European Motor Trades and Car Repair Association

 

CEEMET

Council of European Employers of the Metal, Engineering and Technology-based Industries

 

CEMEP

European sector committee of Manufacturers of Electrical Machines and Power Electronics

 

CES

Economic and Social Council

 

CESA

Community of European Shipyards´ Association

 

CESI

European Confederation of Independent Trade Union

 

CSI

Conféderation Syndicale Internationale

 

ECEG

European Chemical Employers’ Group

 

EFBWW

European Federation of Building and Wood Workers

 

EFFAT

European Federation of Food, Agriculture and Tourism Trade Unions

 

EICTA

European Information, Communications and Consumer Electronics Industry Technology Association

 

EMCEF

European Mine, Chemical and Energy Workers' Federation

 

EMF

European Metalworkers’ Federation

 

EMU

European Metal Union

 

EPSU

European Federation of Public Service Unions

 

ESTA

European Steel Tube Association

 

ETF

European Transport Workers' Federation

 

EFBWW

European Federation of Building and Wood Workers

 

EFFAT

European Federation of Food, Agriculture and Tourism Trade Unions

 

EICTA

European Information, Communications and Consumer Electronics Industry Technology Association

 

EMCEF

European Mine, Chemical and Energy Workers' Federation

 

EMF

European Metalworkers’ Federation

 

EMU

European Metal Union

 

EPSU

European Federation of Public Service Unions

 

ESTA

European Steel Tube Association

 

ETF

European Transport Workers' Federation

 

ETUF-TCL

European Trade Union Federation – Textile Clothing and Leather

 

Eurocadres

Council of European Professional and Managerial Staff

 

EUROFER

European Confederation of Iron and Steel Industries

 

EUROFEDOP

European Federation of Public Service Employees

 

Eurometaux

European Association of Metals

 

EUROPUMP

European Committee of Pump Manufacturers

 

FEANI

European Federation of National Engineering Associations

 

FERPA

Federation of Europe Retired Personnel Association

 

CEETB

European Technical Contractors Committee for the Construction Industry

 

MEGI

Central European Foundry Initiative

 

NFS

Council of Nordic Trade Unions

 

ORGALIME

European Engineering Industries Association

 

SMRCG

Ship Maintenance, Repair and Conversion Group

 

UEAPME

European Association of Craft, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

 

UNI-Europa

Union Network International Europe

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