Representativeness of the European social partner organisations: Textiles and clothing sector

  • National Contribution:

  • Observatory: EurWORK
  • Topic:
  • Collective bargaining,
  • Relaciones laborales,
  • Representativeness,
  • Social partners,
  • Date of Publication: 15 Septiembre 2013



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This study provides information designed to aid sectoral social dialogue in the textile and clothing sector. The study is divided into three parts: a summary of the sector’s economic background; an analysis of the social partner organisations in all the EU Member States, including their membership, role in collective bargaining, social dialogue and public policy, and national and European affiliations; and an analysis of relevant European organisations, particularly their membership composition and capacity to negotiate. The aim of EIRO studies on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and supranational social partner organisations in the field of industrial relations in selected sectors. The impetus for these studies comes from the European Commission’s desire to recognise the representative social partner organisations to be consulted under the provisions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).

The study was compiled on the basis of individual national reports submitted by the EIRO correspondents. The text of each of these national contributions is available above. The national reports were drawn up in response to a questionnaire and should be read in conjunction with it.

Download the full report (2065KB PDF)
See also the executive summary

National contributions may be available


Objectives of study

The aim of this representativeness study is to identify the relevant national and supranational social actors – that is, the trade unions and employer organisations – in the field of industrial relations in the textile and clothing sector, and to show how these actors relate to the sector’s European interest associations of labour and business. The impetus for this study, and for similar studies in other sectors, arises from the European Commission’s aim of identifying the representative social partner associations to be consulted under the provisions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) (1.4 MB PDF). Hence, this study seeks to provide the basic information needed to set up sectoral social dialogue. The effectiveness of European social dialogue depends on whether its participants are sufficiently representative in terms of the sector’s relevant national actors across the EU Member States. Only European associations that meet this precondition will be admitted to the European social dialogue.

To accomplish these aims, the study first identifies the relevant national social partner organisations in the textile and clothing sector, subsequently analysing the structure of the sector’s relevant European organisations – in particular, their membership composition. This involves clarifying the unit of analysis at both the national and European level of interest representation. The study includes only organisations whose membership domain is ‘sector-related’ (Table 1).

Table 1: Determining the ‘sector-relatedness’ of an organisation
Scope Question in the standardised questionnaire to all correspondents Possible answers Notes and Explanations
Domain of the organisation within the sector

Does domain of union/employer organisation

...cover the whole textile and clothing sector in terms of economic activities, (that is, including all subactivities)?

Yes/No

This question refers to the economic subactivities of the NACE code chosen. Some organisations may limit their domain to some of the subactivities.

… cover employees in all (legal) forms of enterprises (for instance, public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies, and so on – of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

Yes/No

Some organisations may limit, for instance, their domain to public sector companies/employees only.

… cover employees in enterprises of all sizes in the textile and clothing sector?

Yes/No

Some organisations (notably employer organisations) may limit their domain to enterprises by size class (such as small and medium-sized enterprises – SMEs – only).

… cover the textile and clothing sector in all the regions?

Yes/No

This question refers to geographical coverage. Some organisations may not be national in scope and limit their domain to some of the regions.

...cover all occupations in the textile and clothing sector?

Yes/No

Some organisations (notably trade unions) delimit their domain to certain occupations only.

...cover blue-collar and white-collar employees in the textile and clothing sector?

Yes/No

Some organisations (notably trade unions) delimit their domain to either blue-collar or white-collar employees

.. cover employees with non-standard employment contracts in the textile and clothing sector? (self-employed, temporary agency workers, fixed-term contracts…)?

Yes/No

Some organisations (notably trade unions) potentially cannot cover certain types of workers, such as self-employed, free-lancers, temporary agency workers.

Domain of the organisation outside the sector

…also cover employees or enterprises outside the textile and clothing sector?

Yes/No

Some organisations may enlarge their domain to other activities not included in the textile and clothing sector.

Source: Standardised Excel-based questionnaire sent to EIRO national correspondents

At both national and European levels, many associations exist that are not considered social partner organisations as they do not deal with industrial relations. Thus, there is a need for criteria to define clearly the social partner organisations from other associations.

As regards the national-level associations, classification as a sector-related social partner organisation means that an association must fulfil one of the following three criteria:

  • be a party to ‘sector-related’ collective bargaining;
  • be a member of a ‘sector-related’ European association of business or labour that is on the Commission’s list of European social partner organisations consulted under Article 154 of the EU treaty;
  • participate in the sector-related European social dialogue.

Taking affiliation to a European social partner organisation as a sufficient criterion for determining a national association as a social partner does not necessarily imply that the association is involved in industrial relations in its own country. Although this selection criterion may seem odd at first glance, a national association that is a member of a European social partner organisation will become involved in industrial relations matters through its membership of the European organisation.

Furthermore, it is important to assess whether the national affiliates to the European social partner organisations are engaged in industrial relations in their respective countries. Affiliation to a European social partner organisation and/or involvement in national collective bargaining are of utmost importance to the European social dialogue, since they are the two constituent mechanisms that can systematically connect the national and European levels.

A European association is considered a relevant sector-related interest association if it meets the following criteria:

  • it is on the Commission’s list of interest organisations to be consulted on behalf of the sector under Article 154 TFEU;
  • it participates in the sector-related European Social Dialogue;
  • it has asked to be consulted under Article 154 TFEU.

National associations are considered a relevant sector-related interest association if their domain relates to the sector, and they are:

  • regularly involved in sector-related collective bargaining;
  • affiliated to a ‘sector-related’ European association of business or labour on the Commission’s list of European social partner organisations consulted under Article 154 of the TFEU;
  • participating in sector-related European social dialogue.

Thus, the aim of identifying the sector–related national and European social partner organisations applies both a ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ approach.

Definitions

For the purpose of this study, the textile and clothing sector is defined in terms of the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community (NACE), to ensure the cross-national comparability of the findings. More specifically, the textile and clothing sector is defined as embracing NACE (Rev. 2) 13 and 14. This includes the following activities:

NACE Rev.2  
13

Manufacture of textile

14

Manufacture of wearing apparel

The domains of the trade unions and employer organisations and the scope of the relevant collective agreements are likely to vary from this precise NACE definition. The study therefore includes all trade unions, employer organisations and multiemployer collective agreements that are ‘sector-related’ in terms of any of the following four patterns:

  • congruence: the domain/purview is identical to the NACE classification;
  • sectionalism: the domain/purview only covers a certain part of the sector as demarcated by NACE classification, while no group outside the sector is covered;
  • overlap: the domain/purview covers the entire sector plus (parts of) one or more other sectors;
  • sectional overlap: the domain/purview covers part of the sector plus (parts of) one or more other sectors.

Organisations are considered ‘sector related’ if their membership domain relates to the sector in one of the ways displayed in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Sector-relatedness of social partner organisations: Domain patterns

Figure 1: Sector-relatedness of social partner organisations: Domain patterns

According to this definition, the organisations listed by the European Commission as social partner organisations consulted under Article 154 of the TFEU are:

  • (on the employees’ side) IndustriAll;
  • (on the employers’ side) The European Apparel and Textile Confederation (EURATEX).

In addition, the study will consider any other sector-related European associations with sector-related national associations – as defined below – under its umbrella.

Collective bargaining

To delineate the bargaining system, two further indicators are used. The first refers to the relevance of multiemployer bargaining compared with single-employer bargaining. The second indicator considers whether statutory extension schemes have been applied to the sector. For reasons of brevity, this analysis is confined to extension schemes that widen the scope of a collective agreement to employers not affiliated to the signatory employer organisation. Extension regulations targeting the employees are therefore not included in the research. Regulations concerning the employees are not significant to this analysis for two reasons.

  • Extending a collective agreement to employees who are not unionised in a company covered by the collective agreement is a standard rule of the International Labour Organization, aside from any national legislation.
  • If employers did not extend a collective agreement concluded by them, even when not formally obliged to do so, they would set an incentive for their workforce to unionise.

Collection of data

The collection of quantitative data is essential for investigating the representativeness of the social partner organisations, and is done through a bottom-up approach (by correspondents of Eurofound’s European Industrial Relations Observatory – EIRO) and also a top-down one (a list of members of European social partners at national level).Unless cited otherwise, this study draws on country studies provided by EIRO, which is a network of national industrial relations experts. They complete a standard questionnaire by contacting the sector-related social partner organisations in their countries. The contact is generally first made via telephone interviews, but can also be established via email. In the case of unavailability of any representative, the national correspondents are asked to fill out the relevant questionnaires based on secondary sources, such as information given on the social partner’s website, or derived from previous research studies.

It is often difficult to find precise quantitative data. In such cases, the EIRO national centres are requested to provide rough estimates rather than leaving a question blank, given the practical and political relevance of this study. However, if there is any doubt over the reliability of an estimate, this will be noted.

In principle, quantitative data may stem from three sources:

  • official statistics and representative survey studies;
  • administrative data, such as membership figures provided by the respective organisations, which are then used for calculating the density rate on the basis of available statistical figures on the potential membership of the organisation;
  • personal estimates made by representatives of the respective organisations.

Quality control

In order to ensure the quality of the information gathered, several verification procedures and feedback loops have been used with the different parties involved (European- and national-level social partner organisations, the European Commission, Eurofound).

  • First, the coordinators, in collaboration with Eurofound staff, check the consistency of the national contributions.
  • Second, Eurofound sends the national contributions to the national members of its Governing Board, as well as to the European-level sector-related social partner organisations. The peak-level organisations then ask their affiliates to verify the information. Feedback received from the sector-related organisations is then taken into account, if it is in line with the methodology of the study.
  • Third, the complete study is finally evaluated by the European-level sectoral social partners and Eurofound’s Advisory Committee on Industrial Relations, which consists of representatives from both sides of industry, governments and the European Commission.


Employment and economic trends

The textile and clothing sector accounts for approximately 4.5% of EU manufacturing production and 7.5% of manufacturing employment. The vast majority of companies in the sector are micro companies, with more than 85% of them employing fewer than 10 people, and fewer than 5% employing more than 50.

The textile and clothing industry is one of the most globalised sectors, and the EU27 is the largest world market for textile and clothing products. According to the EURATEX Annual Report 2010, the European industry is the world’s second-largest exporter of textiles and third-largest of clothing.

According to Eurostat’s 2011 European Union Labour Force Survey (LFS) (137 KB PDF) the sector employed more than 2,033,500 people in the EU27 in 2011. Manufacture of wearing and apparels is the most important activity in terms of employment, employing 1,302,700 workers and representing 64% of total employment in the sector).

Average employment losses in recent years came to about 120,000 posts per year (-5%). This accelerated in 2008 to -7%, and the trend has continued (European Commission, 2010). From 2008 to 2011, there was a loss of 602,000 jobs. However, the average employment loss has slowed in recent years, from -8% in 2010 to -2% in 2011 (LFS, data from 2010 and 2011).

Now, European industry is competitive in areas such as technical and industrial textiles, non-woven products and high-quality fashion, where demand is growing. The current economic crisis is having a greater impact on the textiles area than on the clothing sector, because clothing is oriented towards private consumption. Besides, in terms of production, textile and clothing are very different sectors. Thus, the textile sector requires major capital investment while clothing requires significant human resources. Recent developments suggest that the textile sector will continue to suffer more than the clothing sector in the near future (European Commission, 2010).

Employment characteristics

Women make up the majority of the workforce in the sector, representing 71% in both subsectors, according to LFS data for 2011. There are more men employed in the manufacture of textiles (48%) than in manufacture of wearing apparels (29%). Moreover, the composition of the workforce by age group is very similar in both activities. Most people in the workforce are aged 25 and 49 years (66% in the manufacture of textiles and 72.4% in the manufacture of clothing). Self-employment and other non-employee relationships (such as apprenticeships and freelancing) is not very common in the textile and clothing sector, with the exception of Germany (more than 30%), Greece (more than 30%) and Finland (more than 20%).

Long-term trends

The European textile and clothing industry was already undergoing restructuring well before the start of the economic crisis, due to the following factors:

  • changing consumer demand;
  • technological advances;
  • changes in production costs;
  • growth in retailers’ purchasing power;
  • environmental issues.

Moreover, as a Eurofound report from 2008 points out, as a labour-intensive sector, with a lower added value per person employed than a number of other activities, it faces strong competition from low-cost economies and has been strongly affected by the liberalisation of international trade. In response, European industry has undertaken extensive sub-contracting, or relocation to low-cost countries; this has resulted in a diminishing skilled labour force and accelerating technological change.

Tables 2 and 3 give a general overview of the development of the sector from 2001 to 2011. They present figures on companies, employment and employees in the sector and in relation to the national economy.

The number of enterprises decreased in 16 out of the 21 countries where data were available for 2001 and 2011. In all cases with available data, the decrease in the number of enterprises is linked to a drop in employment (see, for example, Belgium, Denmark, Finland and Italy). Indeed, in every country the drop in the number of companies has meant a subsequent drop in employment.

However, in the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Spain, employment fell even though the number of companies increased. Apparently, in these countries, the sector is fragmented into enterprises with fewer employees.

Table 2: Employment in the EU textile and clothing sector, 2001 and 2011
  Year Number of companies Total employment Female employment Male employment Sectoral employment as % of total employment
AT

2001

n.a.

41,100

25,900

15,200

1.11

AT

2010

1,341

17.124

10,017

7,107

0.42

BE

2001

5,402

50,577

24,981

25,596

0.90

BE

2011

4,204

28,400

13,346

15,054

0.70

BG

2001

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

BG

2011

4,893

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

CY

2001

819

3,985

n.a.

n.a.

1.30

CY

2011

343

1,252

860

392

0.30

CZ

2001

35,202

125,400

93,300

32,100

2.70

CZ

2011

36,327

56,500

42,600

13,900

1.20

DE

2001

n.a.

292,000

176,000

116,000

0.70

DE

2011

9,179 (2010)

175,000

106,000

69,000

0.40

DK

2001

1,023

13,297

7,425

5,872

0.50

DK

2011

730 (2010)

5,468

2,888

2,580

0.20

EE

2001

595 (2005)

26,400

n.a.

n.a.

4.50

EE

2011

546 (2010)

13,500

n.a.

n.a.

2.20

EL

2008

15,597

65,113

32,170

32,943

1.40

EL

2011

11,107

33,312

15,217

18,095

0.80

ES

2001

27,121

242,354

149,345

93,009

1.50

ES

2011

33,600

112,300

63,700

48,600

0.60

FI

2001

3,660

14,508

10,695

3,813

0.60

FI

2010

1,867

7,055

4,890

2,165

0.30

FR

2002

6,832

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

FR

2011

4,182

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

HU

2001

9,479

100,000

90,000

10,000

2.60

HU

2011

7,211

71,900

59,677

12,223

1.30

IE

2002

n.a.

13,100

n.a.

n.a.

0.70

IE

2012

n.a.

5,500

n.a.

n.a.

0.30

IT

2001

73,344

609,629

400,023

209,606

2.80

IT

2010

48,804

376,900

220,241

142,409

1.60

LT

2001

1,106 (2006)

41,900 (2008)

n.a.

n.a.

2.8 (2008)

LT

2011

805 (2012)

36,000

N.a.

n.a.

2.90

LU

2000

n.a.

800

n.a.

n.a.

0.30

LU

2011

n.a.

1,400

n.a.

n.a.

0.40

LV

2001

552

25,579

15,814

20,044

5.10

LV

2011

1,290

13,337

n.a.

n.a.

2.50

MT

2001

230 (2002)

3,603

2,464

1,014

2.50

MT

2011

205

736

346u*

390u*

0.40

NL

2001

2,940

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

NL

2011

3,305

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

PL

2001

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

PL

2011

41,179

229,900

171,100

47,800

1.40

PT

2000

9,674

224,656

n.a.

n.a.

8.60

PT

2010

7,494

159,110

n.a.

n.a.

5.70

RO

2002

7,096

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

RO

2012

5,979

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

SE

2008

763

7,000

n.a.

n.a.

0.15

SE

2011

740

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

SI

2001

528

25,970

n.a.

n.a.

4.00

SI

2011

371

8,262

n.a.

n.a.

1.10

SK

2001

7,191

73,200

62,800

10,400

3.50

SK

2011

7,719

31,100

26,400

4,700

1.30

UK

2001

10,545

238,486

129,387

109,089

0.90

UK

2011

7,245

95,672

50,706

44,966

0.30

Note: *u = under-represented;as can be seen data for the two years 2001 and 2011 has not been provided for all countries – where it was not available, alternative years were chosen.

n.a.= not available or not applicable

Source: EIRO national contributions (2012), national statistics. For detailed description of sources please refer to the national reports.

Table 3: Employees in the textile and clothing sector, 2001 and 2011
 

Year

Total Employees

Female Employees

Male Employees

Sectoral employees as a % of total employees

AT

2001

28,292

17,184

11,108

0.90

AT

2010

16,044

10,001

6,043

0.48

BE

2001

46,909

22,969

23,940

2.40

BE

2011

25,280

11,415

13,865

0.80

BG

2001

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

BG

2011

114,479

98,820

15,659

5.48

CY

2001

3,518

n.a.

n.a.

1.40

CY

2011

1,127

789

338

0.30

CZ

2001

113,200

83,400

29,800

2.80

CZ

2011

47,800

35,400

12,400

1.20

DE

2001

196,791

114,127

82,664

0.70

DE

2011

112,630

61,918

50,712

0.80

DK

2001

12,188

6,651

5,538

0.50

DK

2011

4,726

2,335

2,391

0.20

EE

2001

24,300

n.a.

n.a.

4.60

EE

2011

13,200

n.a.

n.a.

2.30

EL

2008

46,285

23,294

22,991

1.60

EL

2011

20,423

9,547

10,876

0.80

ES

2001

205,093

125,771

79,322

1.60

ES

2011

98,725

56,425

42,300

0.60

FI

2001

12,022

8,651

3,371

0.60

FI

2010

5,438

3,591

1,847

0.30

FR

2001

191,360

116,701

74,659

n.a.

FR

2011

67,574

65,984

45,178

n.a.

HU

2008

100,000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

HU

2011

71,900

n.a.

n.a.

0.30

IE

2001

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

IE

2011

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

IT

2001

502,453

345,505

156,948

3.20

IT

2010

313,173

194,843

118,330

1.80

LT

2006

55,800 (2006)

n.a.

n.a.

6.50

LT

2012

27,600

n.a.

n.a.

3.40

LU

2000

700

n.a.

n.a.

0.30

LU

2011

1,400

n.a.

n.a.

0.40

LV

2001

25,555

n.a.

n.a.

5.20

LV

2011

12,697

n.a.

n.a.

2.50

MT

2001

3,416

2,402

1,014

2.70

MT

2011

725

346u*

379u*

0.50

NL

2001

28,000

12,000

16,000

n.a.

NL

2011

16,000

6,000

10,000

n.a.

PL

2001

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

PL

2011

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

PT

2000

214,810

159,687

55,123

9.10

PT

2010

153,495

107,554

45,941

5.90

RO

2002

413,039

355,214

57,825

8.40

RO

2012

188,646

n.a.

n.a.

4.20

SE

2008

7,357

n.a.

n.a.

0.18

SE

2011

5,983

n.a.

n.a.

0.15

SI

2001

25,970

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

SI

2011

8,262

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

SK

2001

69,600

59,700

9,900

3.60

SK

2011

27,900

24,100

3,800

1.40

UK

2001

209,399

112,681

96,718

0.90

UK

2011

80,085

40,581

39,504

0.30

Note: *u - under-represented;as can be seen data for the two years 2001 and 2011 has not been provided for all countries – where it was not available, alternative years were chosen.

n.a.= not available or not applicable

Source: EIRO national contributions (2012), national statistics. For detailed description of sources please refer to the national reports.

The data in Tables 2 and 3 also show that female employment is lower than the European sectoral average of 71% in Belgium (where it is 47%), Denmark (53%), Spain (56%), Greece (46%), Italy (58%) and the UK (52%). It is higher than the European sectoral average in three countries that have available data (Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia).

The tables also show that only one country (Luxembourg) out of the 22 countries with available information recorded an increase in overall employment from 2001 to 2011. Data on the development of employment from 2001 to 2011 show a similar trend. Thus, only one Luxembourg, out of 24 countries with available information, shows a rise in the number of employees in the sector (although the sector here is very small). Moreover, this country does not report sector-related social partners. None of the countries records an increase in employment and a decrease in employees.

Data provided by national centres in Figure 2 show the change in the number of employees working in the sector from 2001 to 2011. According to available data, the proportion of employees in the sector has remained very stable in the majority of countries. The exception to this is Austria, where the proportion of employees rose from 69% in 2001 to 94% in 2010. Eight out of 19 countries with available data have recorded an increase in employees; in nine countries, this has slightly decreased. In Sweden and Hungary the proportion of employees has remained stable at 100%.

Figure 2: Proportion of employees in textile and clothing sector 2001–2011

Figure 2: Proportion of employees in textile and clothing sector 2001–2011

Source: Author’s own interpretation of data from EIRO national contributions (2012). For a detailed description of sources please refer to national reports.

Recent developments

The financial crisis has had a considerable impact on the textile and clothing industry. As seen in Figure 3, employment began to decrease in the first quarter of 2008 and followed a negative trend until 2011. Since the third quarter of 2008 there has been a substantial loss of employment. Indeed, from 2008 to the last quarter of 2010 there was a loss of 644,500 jobs. In the last quarter of 2010, the fall in employment stopped, only to be followed by a new drop in the second quarter of 2011. These figures show that employment levels have not yet recovered.

Figure 3: Fall in employment, 2008–2011 (thousands)

Figure 3: Fall in employment, 2008–2011 (thousands)

Source: Labour Force Survey (2012)

Generally, a negative employment trend caused by the financial crisis is observed in the countries with available data. As seen in Figure 4, most of the countries show a drop in employment from 2009 to 2010, notably Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Finland, Greece, Poland and Slovakia, all with an employment loss of more than 10%. In this period only two countries (Denmark and Hungary) recorded an increase of employment in the sector, although, in the case of Denmark the increase is very small (1%).

From 2010 to 2011 the negative trend persists, although more countries (7 out of 24 with available data) show a trend towards employment recovery, especially the Czech Republic and Finland. It is worth noting that Denmark is the only country that records an increase in employment during both periods.

Figure 4: Differences in employment, 2009–2011 (%)

Figure 4: Differences in employment, 2009–2011 (%)

Source: Labour Force Survey (2012), annual differences 2009–2010, 2010–2011

Figure 5 illustrates the proportion of employees in the sector in the countries with available data for 2011. The figure shows that self-employment and other non-employee relationships (such as apprenticeships and freelancing) are rare in most countries except for Germany and Greece (both more than 30%) and Finland (more than 20%).

Figure 5: Proportion of employees in sector, 2011 (%)

Figure 5: Proportion of employees in sector, 2011 (%)

Source: Author’s interpretation of EIRO national contributions (2012). For a detailed description of sources please refer to national reports.


National level of interest representation

The analysis of the national level of interest representation will focus on three key elements:

  • membership domain and the strength of organisations;
  • their role in collective bargaining;
  • their role in public policy-making.

Membership domain and strength

This study will focus on the following quantitative data on membership and relative strength within the textile and clothing sector, which were collected through the EIRO network of correspondents.

Table 4: Definitions of membership
Type of organisation Membership Density
Trade union

Number of active members in employment

Number of active members in employment in the textile and clothing sector

Sectoral density: number of active members in employment in the textile and clothing sector divided by the total textile and clothing sector.

Employer organisation

Number of member companies

Number of employees working in member companies

Number of member companies in the textile and clothing sector

Number of employees working in member companies in the textile and clothing sector

Sectoral density (companies): number of member companies in textile and clothing sector divided by the total number of companies in the textile and clothing sector.

Sectoral density (employees): number of employees working in member companies in the textile and clothing sector divided by the total number of employees in the textile and clothing sector

Trade unions and employee interest representations

Tables 5, 6 and 7 present the employee organisations’ data on their domains and membership strength. The tables list all sector-related organisations that are either involved in collective bargaining and/or affiliated to one of the European-level organisations.

Table 5: Domain coverage and membership of employee organisations in the textile and clothing sector, 2012
  Trade union Domain coverage Type of membership Active members, total Active members in the sector
AT

PRO-GE

sectional overlap

voluntary

232,226

10,280

AT

GPA-djp

sectional overlap

voluntary

172,000

1,000

BE

ABVV-TKD FGTB-TVD*

sectional overlap

voluntary

14,500

14,000

BE

ABVV-BBTK/FGTB-SETCA*

sectional overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

BE

ACV-CSC METEA*

sectional overlap

voluntary

n.a.

18,000

BE

LBC-NVK*

sectional overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

BE

ACLVB/CGSLB*

overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

BE

CNE

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

BG

FLI*

overlap

voluntary

3,000

1,200

BG

FITULI*

overlap

voluntary

7,150

5,200

CY

OBIEK*

overlap

voluntary

9,156

475

CY

SEVETTYK*

overlap

voluntary

13,840

150

CZ

OS TOK

overlap

voluntary

4,728

4,268

DE

IG Metall

overlap

voluntary

2,245,760

n.a.

DK

CO-industri

overlap

voluntary

239,891

4,100

DK

3F

sectional overlap

voluntary

280,756

1,900

DK

HK/Privat

sectional overlap

voluntary

199,085

800

DK

TL

sectional overlap

voluntary

20,348

1,500

EE

ETTAF

overlap

voluntary

880

451

EL

OEKIDE

sectional overlap

voluntary

5,286

4,274

EL

PSPKM

sectional overlap

voluntary

150

70

ES

FITEQA-CCOO*

overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

ES

FITAG-UGT*

overlap

voluntary

130,000

5,500

ES

FGAMT-CIG*

sectional overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

FI

TEAM

sectional overlap

voluntary

34,000

3,500

FI

Ammattiliitto Pro, Pro

sectional overlap

voluntary

110,000

1,200

FI

Sähköalojen ammattiliitto

sectional overlap

voluntary

21,000

30

FR

THC-CGT*

overlap

voluntary

5,000

4,000

FR

CFDT Services*

overlap

voluntary

80,000

4,000

FR

Fédération CFTC CMTE *

overlap

voluntary

n.a.

500

FR

Fédéchimie CGT-FO*

sectional overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

FR

FO Pharma-Cuir-Habillement*

sectional overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

FR

CFE-CGC Chimie*

sectional overlap

voluntary

10,000

1,000

HU

BDSZ

overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

HU

HVDSZ 2000

overlap

voluntary

8,975

152

HU

MOSZTRA

congruence

voluntary

200

200

IE

SIPTU

n.a.

voluntary

199,881

n.a.

IT

FILCTEM*

overlap

voluntary

233,000

100,000

IT

FEMCA*

overlap

voluntary

140,000

65,000

IT

UILTA*

overlap

voluntary

41,638

31,835

IT

UGL CHIMICI SINDACATO TESSILI*

congruence

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

IT

FESICA CONFSAL*

overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

LT

LPĮPS ‘Solidarumas

overlap

voluntary

784

700

LU

No sector-related trade union recorded for Luxembourg.

LV

LIA

overlap

voluntary

4,410

300

MT

GWU

overlap

voluntary

35,719

273

NL

FNV Bondgenoten*

overlap

voluntary

470,000

2,400

NL

CNV Vakmensen*

overlap

voluntary

135,000

1,200

NL

De Unie/MHP*

overlap

voluntary

62,000

300

PL

FNSZZPL*

overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

PL

MNSZZP z Siedzibą w FFiK ‘Haft’ S.A. w Kaliszu

congruence

voluntary

45

45

PL

Sekcja Krajowa Pracowników Przemysłu Lekkiego NSZZ ‘Solidarność’*

overlap

voluntary

1,050

525

PT

Têxtil Minho / FESETE*

n.a.

voluntary

6,000

n.a.

PT

SINTEVECC / FESETE*

n.a.

voluntary

3,000

n.a.

PT

SINPICVAT*

n.a.

voluntary

1,750

n.a.

PT

Vestuário Norte / FESETE*

n.a.

voluntary

1,500

n.a.

PT

TÊXTIL Beira Baixa / FESETE*

n.a.

voluntary

1,500

n.a.

PT

TÊXTEIS Sul / FESETE*

n.a.

voluntary

1,500

n.a.

PT

TÊXTIL Aveiro / FESETE*

n.a.

voluntary

1,300

n.a.

PT

TÊXTIL Centro / FESETE*

n.a.

voluntary

1,000

n.a.

PT

TÊXTIL Beira Alta / FESETE*

n.a.

voluntary

1,000

n.a.

PT

Bordados Madeira / FESETE*

n.a.

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

PT

SINDEQ*

overlap

voluntary

7,000

n.a.

RO

CONFTEX*

congruence

voluntary

5,000

5,000

RO

CRAIMODEX*

congruence

voluntary

3,600

3,600

RO

PELTRICONTEX -FRĂŢIA*

overlap

voluntary

3,000

2,000

RO

CONFPELTEX*

overlap

voluntary

4,500

3,500

RO

UNICONF*

congruence

voluntary

1,500

1,500

SE

Unionen*

sectional overlap

voluntary

520,000

620

SE

The Swedish Association of Graduate Engineers*

sectional overlap

voluntary

138,000

850

SE

Ledarna*

sectional overlap

voluntary

88,000

170

SE

IF Metall*

sectional overlap

voluntary

272,000

3,500

SI

STUPIS

overlap

voluntary

3,500

2,380

SK

IOZ

overlap

voluntary

1,995

1,486

UK

Community*

overlap

voluntary

22,340

1,310

UK

GMB*

overlap

voluntary

610,116

n.a.

UK

Unite the Union *

overlap

voluntary

1,510,026

n.a.

Note: * Domain overlap with other sector-related trade unions

n.a. = not available

Table 6: Density, collective bargaining, consultation and affiliations of employee organisations in the textile and clothing sector, 2012
  Trade union Sectoral density (%) Collective bargaining Consultation National, European and international affiliations
AT

PRO-GE

64.1

Yes, multiemployer bargaining only

Yes, both

On an ad hoc basis and on a regular basis

IndustriAll Global Union, ILO, ITUC-CSI-IGB, IUF – UITA – IUL, TUAC, IndustriAll European Trade Union, EFFAT, ETUC, ÖGB

AT

GPA-djp

6.2

Yes, multiemployer bargaining only

No

 

ITUC-CSI-IGB, UNI global union, WOW, ETUC, EPSU, EFFAT, EFJ, UNI Europa, ÖGB

BE

ABVV-TKD – FGTB-TVD

55.4

Yes, both single-employer and multiemployer bargaining

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

IndustriAll, IndustriAll Europe, ABVV/FGTB

BE

ABVV-BBTK/

FGTB-SETCA

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes

n.a.

ABVV/FGTB

BE

ACV-CSC METEA

71.2

Yes, both

Yes

On a regular basis

IndustriAll, IndustriAll Europe, ACV-CSC

BE

LBC-NVK

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes

n.a.

Eurocadres, ACV/CSC

BE

ACLVB/CGSLB

n.a.

Yes both

Yes

n.a.

ETUF: TCL, Eurocadres

BE

CNE

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

BG

FLI

1

Yes, both

Yes

n.a.

IndustriAll European Trade Union

BG

FITULI/

FOSIL

4.5

Yes, both

Yes

n.a.

IndustriAll European Trade Union, CITUB

CY

OBIEK

42.1

Yes, multiemployer bargaining

No

 

IMF, IUF, ITGLWF, IFG, ICEM, EMF, ECF, ETUF/TCL, IndustriAll EGF, EFFAT, SEK

CY

SEVETTYK

13.3

Yes, multiemployer bargaining

No

 

PEO

CZ

OS TOK

8.9

Yes, both

No

 

IndustriAll European Trade Union –TFL, ČMKOS

DE

IG Metall

n.a.

Yes, both

n.a.

 

IndustriAll European Trade Union, DGB

DK

CO-industri

86.8

Yes, multiemployer bargaining

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

IndustriAll Global, IUL, IndustriAll Europe, EFFAT, LO

DK

3F

40.2

Yes, both

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

IndustriAll Global union – indirectly, via CO-industri, BWI; UNI-Global. IndustriAll European union – indirectly, via the CO-industri, ETF; NTF; EFFAT; EPSU; EFBWW; UNI-Europa, LO

DK

HK/Privat

16.9

Yes, both

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

UNI-Global, IndustriAll Europe – indirectly, via CO-industri, UNI- Europa, LO

DK

TL

31.7

Yes, both

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

UNI Global, IndustriAll – indirectly, via CO-industri, UNI Europa, LO

EE

ETTAF

3.4

Yes, both

Yes, but not directly

On an ad hoc basis

IndustriAll Global Union, IndustriAll European Trade Union, Estonian Trade Union Confederation, Estonian Qualifications Authority

EL

OEKIDE

20.9

Yes, multiemployer bargaining

No

 

GSEE

EL

PSPKM

0.3

Yes, multiemployer bargaining

No

 

None

ES

FITEQA-CCOO

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

Global Union, IndustriAll

ES

FITAG-UGT

5.6

Yes, both

Yes

On a regular basis (usually twice a year)

Global Union, UITA, IndustriAll, EFFAT, EPSU, AESCOOMED

ES

FGAMT-CIG

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

IndustriAll

FI

Industrial Union TEAM

64.4

Yes, multiemployer bargaining

Yes

On a regular basis

ICEM, IndustriAll –EX-ETUF :TCL, SAK

FI

Ammattiliitto Pro, Pro

22.1

Yes, multiemployer bargaining

Yes

On a regular basis

ICEM, IndustriAll –EX-ETUF :TCL, STTK

FI

Sähköalojen ammattiliitto

22.1

Yes, multiemployer bargaining

Yes

On an ad hoc basis (not too often)

BWI, IndustriAll Global Union, EFBWW, IndustriAll European Trade Union, SAK

FR

THC-CGT

5.9

Yes, both

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

IndustriAll Global Unions, IndustriAll European Trade Unions, CGT

FR

CFDT Services

5.9

Yes, both

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

IndustriAll Global Union, UNI Global Union, IUF, IndustriAll Europe Trade Union, EFFAT, UNI Europa, CFDT

FR

Fédération CFTC CMTE

0.7

Yes, both

n.a.

n.a.

CFTC

FR

Fédéchimie CGT-FO

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

IndustriAll Global Union, IndustriAll Europe Trade Union, CGT-FO

FR

FO Pharma-Cuir-Habillement

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

IndustriAll Global Union, IndustriAll Europe Trade Union, CGT-FO

FR

CFE-CGC Chimie

1.5

Yes, both

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

FICCIA, - IndustriAll FECCIA, – IndustriAll European Trade Union, CFE-CGC

HU

BDSZ

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining

No

 

Global IndustriAll, IndustriAll, MSZOSZ

HU

HVDSZ2000

0.2

Yes, single-employer bargaining

No

 

PSI, EPSU

HU

MOSZTRA

0.3

No

No

 

IndustriAll, Workers Councils (Munkástanácsok)

IE

SIPTU

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

 

UNI Global, ETUC, ICTU

IT

FILCTEM

31.9

Yes, both

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

IndustriAll Global Union, PSI, ITGLW, IndustriAll, EPSU, CGIL

IT

FEMCA

20.8

Yes, both

Yes

On an ad hoc basis and on a regular basis

IndustriAll Global Union, PSI, ITGLW, IndustriAll, EPSU, CGIL, IndustriAll, EPSU, CISL

IT

UILTA

10.2

Yes, both

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

IndustriAll Global Union, ITGLW, IndustriAll, UIL

IT

UGL CHIMICI SINDACATO TESSILI

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

UGL

IT

FESICA CONFSAL

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

CONFSAL

LT

LPĮPS ‘Solidarumas

0.2

Yes, single-employer bargaining

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

LPS ‘Solidarumas’

LU

No sector-related trade union recorded for Luxembourg.

LV

LIA

2.4

Yes, multiemployer bargaining

Yes

On a regular basis

ICEM, ITGLWF, IUF, IndustriAll, EFFAT, LBAS

MT

GWU

37.7

Yes, single-employer bargaining

No

 

ITGLWF -, IndustriAll-European Trade Union

NL

FNV Bondgenoten

15

Yes, both

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

ILO; IndustriAll Global; ETUC; IndustriAll Europe; FNV

NL

CNV Vakmensen

7.5

Yes, both

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

ILO; IndustriAll - Global; ETUC, IndustriAll - Europe; CNV,

NL

De Unie/MHP

1.9

Yes both multiemployer and single-employer bargaining

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

MHP

PL

FNSZZPL

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

Yes

On an ad hoc basis, at least quarterly

IndustriAll – European Trade Union, OPZZ

PL

MNSZZP z Siedzibą w FFiK ‘Haft’ S.A. w Kaliszu

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

No

 

FNSZZPL

PL

Sekcja Krajowa Pracowników Przemysłu Lekkiego NSZZ ‘Solidarność’

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining

Yes

On an ad hoc basis, at least quarterly

NSZZ ‘Solidarność’

PT

Têxtil Minho/ FESETE

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer bargaining

n.a.

n.a.

IndustriAll (via FESETE), FESETE and CGTP

PT

SINTEVECC/ FESETE

n.a.

Yes,multiemployer bargaining

n.a.

n.a.

IndustriAll (via FESETE), FESETE and CGTP

PT

SINPICVAT

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer bargaining

n.a.

n.a.

IndustriAll (via FESETE), FESETE and CGTP

PT

Vestuário Norte/FESETE

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer bargaining

n.a.

n.a.

IndustriAll (via FESETE), FESETE and CGTP

PT

TÊXTIL Beira Baixa/FESETE

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer bargaining

n.a.

n.a.

IndustriAll (via FESETE), FESETE and CGTP

PT

TÊXTEIS Sul/FESETE

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer bargaining

n.a.

n.a.

IndustriAll (via FESETE), FESETE and CGTP

PT

TÊXTIL Aveiro/FESETE

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer bargaining

n.a.

n.a.

IndustriAll (via FESETE), FESETE and CGTP

PT

TÊXTIL Centro/FESETE

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer bargaining

n.a.

n.a.

IndustryALL (via FESETE), FESETE and CGTP

PT

TÊXTIL Beira Alta/FESETE

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer bargaining

n.a.

n.a.

IndustriAll (via FESETE), FESETE and CGTP

PT

Bordados Madeira/FESETE

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer bargaining

n.a.

n.a.

IndustriAll (via FESETE), FESETE and CGTP

PT

SINDEQ

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer bargaining

n.a.

n.a.

IndustriAll, UGT

RO

CONFTEX

2.7

Yes, both

Yes, as member of CSDR

On an ad hoc basis

IndustriAll – European Trade Union, CSDR

RO

CRAIMODEX

1.9

Yes, both

Yes. As member of BNS

On an ad hoc basis

IndustriAll – European Trade Union, BNS

RO

PELTRICONTEX -FRĂŢIA

1.1

Yes, both

Yes. As member of CNSLR Frăţia

On an ad hoc basis

IndustriAll – European Trade Union, CNSLR Frăţia

RO

CONFPELTEX

1.9

Yes, both

Yes. As member of CNS Cartel Alfa.

On an ad hoc basis

IndustriAll – European Trade Union, CNS Cartel Alfa

RO

UNICONF

0.8

Yes, both

Yes. As member of CNS Cartel Alfa

On an ad hoc basis

IndustriAll – European Trade Union, CNS Cartel Alfa

SE

Unionen

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes, but consultation mostly occurs via TCO

On an ad hoc basis

UNI Global Union (UNI), IndustriAll Global Union, TCO, PTK

SE

The Swedish Association of Graduate Engineers

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes

On a regular basis

IndustriAll Global Union, CEC, FEANI, ICEM, IMF. UNI Global Union, ANE, IN, TCO

SE

Ledarna

n.a.

Yes,multiemployer bargaining

No

 

CEC, EUROCADRES, PTK

SE

IF Metall

n.a.

Yes,multiemployer bargaining

Yes

On a regular basis

IndustriAll Global Union, LO

SI

STUPIS

28.8

Yes, both

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

IndustriAll, the Union of Free Trade Unions of Slovenia

SK

IOZ

5.3

Yes, single-employer bargaining

Yes

On a regular basis

ITGLWF, IndustriAll - European Trade Union, KOZ SR

UK

Community

1.6

Yes both

Yes

On a regular basis

IndustriAll Global Union, IndustriAll European Trade Union, TUC, GFTU

UK

GMB

n.a.

Yes both

n.a.

n.a.

IndustriAll Global Union, BWI, ITF, IUF, PSI, UNI Global Union, IndustriAll European Trade Union, EFBWW, EFFAT, EPSU, ETF, UNI Europa, TUC

UK

Unite the Union

n.a.

Yes both

n.a.

n.a.

IndustriAll Global Union, BWI, ITF, IUF, PSI, UNI Global Union, IndustriAll European Trade Union, EFBWW, EFFAT, EPSU, ETF, UNI Europa, TUC

Note: n.a. = not available

Table 7: Employee organisations, domain coverage and domain description in relation to the textile and clothing sector, 2012
  Employee organisation Domain coverage Domain description
AT

PRO-GE

sectional overlap

Blue-collar workers in the sector and in metalworking, mining, energy, electric power, agriculture, food-processing, tobacco, chemicals, glass production, paper, vulcanisation, mineral oil and gas, waste and temporary agency workers.

AT

GPA-djp

sectional overlap

White-collar employees in all private sectors

BE

ABVV-TKD – FGTB-TVD

sectional overlap

Blue-collar workers in the sector and in the diamond sector

BE

ABVV-BBTK/FGTB-SETCA

sectional overlap

White-collar employees across all sectors

BE

ACV-CSC METEA

sectional overlap

Blue-collar workers in the sector and in the metal sector

BE

LBC-NVK

sectional overlap

White-collar employees in the Dutch-speaking and bilingual region

BE

ACLVB/CGSLB

overlap

Workers across all sectors

BE

CNE

n.a.

 
BG

FLI

overlap

All workers in textiles, clothing, leather, shoes, glass and porcelain/faience industries, paper and cellulose, woodworking

BG

FITULI

overlap

All workers in wool and silk textiles, cotton and linen/hemp textiles, knitwear, tailoring, leather and fur, shoe and haberdashery, glass and porcelain/faience industries, machine building, children’s toys and custom goods

CY

OBIEK

overlap

Workers in all private and semi-public sectors.

CY

SEVETTYK

overlap

All workers in the textile and clothing sector, plus those in footwear, tanning and leather, paper, press and printing, chemical, tobacco, food and drink.

CZ

OS TOK

overlap

All workers in the textile and clothing sector. Plus one trade union in a municipal transport company, two company trade unions in two community centres and a few company trade unions in automotive textile companies

DE

IG Metall

overlap

Workers across all sectors

DK

CO-industri

overlap

Eight unions with members in all manufacturing industry sectors

DK

3F

sectional overlap

Blue-collar workers in different sectors including textile and clothing

DK

HK/Privat

sectional overlap

White-collar workers in most sectors

DK

TL

sectional overlap

Technicians in most sectors.

EE

ETTAF

overlap

All workers in the sector plus those in the chemistry, food, leather and footwear sectors

EL

OEKIDE

sectional overlap

Blue-collar workers, including those in the leather sector

EL

PSPKM

sectional overlap

Licensed engineers including those in the chemical industry (colour and dye manufacturing), as well as professionals in related training and public institutions

ES

FITEQA-CCOO

overlap

All workers in the sector plus those in the chemical sector

ES

FITAG-UGT

overlap

Industrial and farm workers

ES

FGAMT-CIG

sectional overlap

All workers in the sector plus those in the clothing, fisheries and the transport sectors in Galicia

FI

TEAM

sectional overlap

Blue-collar workers in 13 different industrial sectors.

FI

Ammattiliitto Pro, Pro

sectional overlap

White-collar workers in the sector plus those in technology industries

FI

Sähköalojen ammattiliitto

sectional overlap

Electrical workers

FR

THC-CGT

overlap

All workers in the sector, plus those in leather activities

FR

CFDT Servives

overlap

All workers in the sector plus textile retailers, laundries, leather goods, the shoe industry, tanneries and cobblers

FR

Fédération CFTC CMTE

overlap

All workers in the sector plus chemical industry, mining and energy industries

FR

Fédéchimie CGT-FO

sectional overlap

All the workers in textile, and leather production

FR

FO Pharma-Cuir-Habillement

sectional overlap

All workers in clothing, fashion design, leather goods (cobblers, shoe industry); pharmaceuticals (medical and biology laboratories)

FR

CFE-CGC Chimie

sectional overlap

Managers and technicans including those in chemical and pharmaceutical industries, plus laundry, rubber, glass, chemists, camping, plastics industry

HU

BDSZ

overlap

All workers, plus those in the mining sector

HU

HVDSZ2000

overlap

All workers plus municipal management, and employers of disabled workers

HU

MOSZTRA

congruence

All workers

IE

SIPTU

n.a.

 
IT

FILCTEM

overlap

All workers plus those in chemical and energy sectors

IT

FEMCA

overlap

All workers plus those in chemicals, energy, textiles, clothing, footwear/tanning and leather, fashion

IT

UILTA

overlap

All workers plus those in footwear, leather, glasses, pens and pencils, brushes, toys, games, hobby and models, industrial laundry, headwear, umbrellas and handles for umbrellas, beach umbrellas, fishing nets

IT

UGL CHIMICI SINDACATO TESSILI

congruence

All workers in the sector

IT

FESICA CONFSAL

overlap

All workers in the sector and in other, non-specified sectors

LT

LPĮPS ‘Solidarumas

overlap

All workers in the sector and in the footwear sector

LV

LIA

overlap

All workers in the sector and in other non-specified sectors

MT

GWU

overlap

Workers across all sectors

NL

FNV Bondgenoten

overlap

All workers in the sector and in other non-specified sectors

NL

CNV Vakmensen

overlap

All workers in the sector and in other non-specified sectors

NL

De Unie/MHP

overlap

All workers in the sector and in other non specified sectors

PL

FNSZZPL

overlap

All workers in the sector and in leather industry

PL

MNSZZP z Siedzibą w FFiK ‘Haft’ S.A. w Kaliszu

congruence

Single-company trade union

PL

Sekcja Krajowa Pracowników Przemysłu Lekkiego NSZZ ‘Solidarność’

overlap

All workers in the sector and in leather industry

PT

Têxtil Minho/FESETE

n.a.

n.a.

PT

SINTEVECC/FESETE

n.a.

n.a.

PT

SINPICVAT

n.a.

n.a.

PT

Vestuário Norte/FESETE

n.a.

n.a.

PT

TÊXTIL Beira Baixa/FESETE

n.a.

n.a.

PT

TÊXTEIS Sul/FESETE

n.a.

n.a.

PT

TÊXTIL Aveiro/FESETE

n.a.

n.a.

PT

TÊXTIL Centro/FESETE

n.a.

n.a.

PT

TÊXTIL Beira Alta/FESETE

n.a.

n.a.

PT

Bordados Madeira/FESETE

n.a.

n.a.

PT

SINDEQ

overlap

All the workers in the sector and in chemical, pharmaceutical and other industries

RO

CONFTEX

congruence

All the workers in the sector

RO

CRAIMODEX

congruence

All the workers in the sector

RO

PELTRICONTEX -FRĂŢIA

overlap

Workers in the sector and in the leather and footwear sectors

RO

CONFPELTEX

overlap

Workers in the sector and in the leather and footwear sectors

RO

UNICONF

congruence

All the workers in the sector

SE

Unionen

sectional overlap

White-collar workers in all the sectors

SE

The Swedish Association of Graduate Engineers

sectional overlap

White-collar workers (graduate engineers) in all sectors

SE

Ledarna

sectional overlap

White-collar workers (managers) in all sectors

SE

IF Metall

sectional overlap

Blue-collar workers plus those in engineering and plastics, building components, mining, ironworks, automobile repair shops, and sectors dealing with working assessments for the disabled

SI

STUPIS

overlap

Workers in the sector and in the leather sector

SK

IOZ

overlap

Workers in the sector and in the leather sector

UK

Community

overlap

Workers in the sector and in the steel, wire and domestic appliance industry, betting shops, and social/voluntary/charity work

UK

GMB

overlap

Workers across all sectors

UK

Unite the Union

overlap

Workers across all sectors

Note: n.a. = not available

All 27 countries, except Luxembourg, record at least one sector-related trade union. In total, 76 sector-related trade unions were identified that fulfil the criteria for inclusion in the representativeness study. In 33% of the countries only one sector-related union is recorded; in 15% of the countries two sector-related unions are recorded; and in 22% of the countries, three sector-related unions. In 30% of the countries four or more sector-related unions are recorded, thus showing a fragmented landscape.

The undefined boundaries of the textile and clothing sector imply that only six unions (9% of all the unions) have demarcated their domain in a way that is congruent with the sector definition. This implies that statistical definitions of business activities of the sector differ from the lines along which employees identify their interests, mainly based on trades and occupational categories.

Domain demarcations resulting in overlap prevail in the textile and clothing sector (56% of the cases). Overlap, by and large, arises from two different modes of demarcation. The first one refers to general (for example, cross-sectoral) domains; these include ACLVB/CGSLB in Belgium, SIPTU in Ireland, GWU in Malta, FNV, CNV Vakmensen in the Netherlands, and GMB and UNITE in the UK. The second and more frequent mode in the sector relates to various forms of multi-sector domains; this covers the following types of sector:

  • contiguous sectors such as leather or shoe manufacturing (THC-CGT, CFDT Services in France, UILTA in Italy, LPĮPS ‘Solidarumas in Lithuania, FNSZZPL in Poland, PELTRICONTEX–FRĂŢIA and CONFPELTEX in Romania, STUPIS in Slovenia);
  • sectors included in light industry (FLI and FITULI in Bulgaria, ETAFF in Estonia);
  • sectors that do not directly relate to the textile and clothing sector, such as municipal transport, metallurgy, general manufacturing industry, chemical and energy sectors, mining, municipal management and employers of disabled workers, commerce or social/voluntary/charity work (OS TOK in Czech Republic, IG Metall in Germany, CO-industri in Denmark, FITEQA-CCOO and FITAG-UGT in Spain, Fédération CFTC CMTE in France, BDSZ and HVDSZ2000 in Hungary, FILCTEM, FEMCA and FESICA CONFSAL in Italy, LIA in Latvia, SINDEQ in Portugal, Community in the UK, OVIEK and SEVETTYK in Cyprus).

It should be noted that, according to the Danish national report, CO-industri is not a union, but a negotiation cartel of unions in manufacturing industry, and also that these unions represent only workers in the private and the semi-public sectors. However, since there are no publicly owned enterprises in the textile and clothing sector, we have defined its domain demarcation as overlap.

Domain demarcations resulting in sectional overlap in relation to the sector occur in 34% of cases. This is usually because of domain demarcations focusing on certain categories of employees that are then organised across several or all sectors. Employee categories are specified by various parameters.

These parameters can be distinct occupations:

  • technicians and designers (TL in Denmark);
  • electrical workers (Sähköalojen ammattiliitto in Finland);
  • managers and technicians (CFE-CGC Chimie in France);
  • engineers (PSPKM in Greece, the Swedish Association of Graduate Engineers in Sweden)
  • managers (Ledarna in Sweden).

The parameters may also be employment status:

  • white-collar workers (GPA-djp in Austria, ABVV-BBTK/FGTB-SETCA and LBC-NVK in Belgium, HK/Privat in Denmark, Ammattiliitto Pro, Pro in Finland, Unionen in Sweden);
  • blue-collar workers (PRO-GE in Austria, ABVV-TKD – FGTB-TVD, ACV-CSC METEA in Belgium, 3F in Denmark, TEAM in Finland, OEKIDE in Greece, IF Metal in Sweden).

The parameters could also include geographical regions, such as FGAMT-CIG in Spain,

Finally, sectionalism was not found in any of the cases.

Figure 6: Sector-related trade unions and their domain patterns

Figure 6: Sector-related trade unions and their domain patterns

Note: N = 64

Source: Author’s own interpretation of EIRO national contributions (2012).

In the textile and clothing sector, the union’s domain refers to different occupations and employment statuses, and the presence of sector-specific trade unions is also relatively high. Table 5 shows the overlap of these inter-union domains. In 14 out of 18 countries that have more than one sector-related trade union, the domain of these unions overlaps with the domain of all or most of the others. (The Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Slovakia and Slovenia record only one sector-related trade union). However, in Austria, Denmark, Finland and Hungary none of the unions’ domains overlaps with the domain of the others. According to the national report from Hungary, there might theoretically be an overlap between the three relevant unions but in fact this does not happen.

Noticeable inter-union competition is recorded only in France, Portugal and Sweden. In France, unions compete for members and their subsequent support in the workplace elections that determine which trade union has a seat on the works council. According to the French national correspondent, competition is expected to increase in 2013, when a new representativeness regulation based on the outcomes of workplace elections will come into force. In Portugal, the national report mentions that there is competition only between FESETE and SINDEQ. In Sweden, competition concerns members’ recruitment.

Membership of the sector-related trade union is, in principle, voluntary in the 27 countries under consideration.

The numbers of active trade union members differ widely, ranging from more than 2.24 million (in the case of IG Metall in Germany) to only a few dozen (such as PSPKM in Greece). This considerable variation reflects differences in the size of the economy and the comprehensiveness of the membership domain, rather than the ability to recruit members. Therefore, density is the measure of membership strength, which is more appropriate to comparative analysis. In this context it should be noted that density figures in this section refer to net ratios, which means that they are calculated on the basis of active employees only, rather than taking all union members into account (both those who are in a job and those who are not). This is mainly because research usually considers net union densities as more informative than gross densities, since the former measure tends to reflect unionisation trends among the active workforce more quickly and accurately than the latter (only the active workforce is capable of taking industrial action). When looking at sector density (again referring only to active members), it is important to differentiate between the trade unions’ sectoral density and their domain density. The domain or overall density must be higher than the sectoral density if a trade union organises only a particular part of the sector – that is, where the trade union’s membership domain is sectionalist. It must be equal if a trade union organises the whole sector as it is defined in the study – that is, where the trade union’s membership domain is congruent.

Sectoral density rates are available for more than half of the sector-related organisations covered (43 out of 76 cases). Statistics indicate the following:

  • sectoral density exceeds 20% in 37% of the cases of the trade unions (16 in total) that document figures on density;
  • three unions (7%) claim to gather between 10% and 20% of the sector’s employees;
  • eight unions (19%), for which data are available, claim to organise between 5% and 10% of the active employees of the sector;
  • sixteen unions (37%) record a sector density rate of fewer than 5% of the employees in the sector.

These low sectoral densities prevail in the sector, with the exception of a couple of unions located in some ‘old’ Member States and Nordic countries, which record sectoral densities higher than 50% (such as PRO-GE in Austria, ABVV-TKD – FGTB-TVD and ACV-CSC METEA in Belgium, CO-industri in Denmark and Industrial Union TEAM in Finland). These low sector-density rates are caused by the fragmentation of the trade union domains shown above and the existence of several trade unions in the sector in many countries. In addition, it is noteworthy that data is not available in many cases.

Employer organisations

Tables 8 and 9 present membership data for the employers’ organisations in the textile and clothing sector. In this case, employers’ organisations are identified in 22 of the EU27 member States. In Cyprus, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta and Slovakia, neither the top-down nor the bottom-up approach identified any relevant organisation.

Table 8: Domain coverage and membership of employer/business organisations in textile and clothing, 2012
  Employer organisation Domain Coverage Type of membership Companies total Companies in the sector Employees total Employees in the sector
AT

FVTBSL

overlap

compulsory

520

479

24,000

n.a.

AT

BIMBT

sectional overlap

compulsory

4,000

n.a.

9,000

7,000

BE

FEDUSTRIA

sectional overlap

voluntary

548

252

n.a.

22,154

BE

CREAMODA

sectionalism

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

1,000

BE

ABV

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

BG

BCGI*

congruence

voluntary

35

35

6,000

6,000

BG

BAATPE*

congruence

voluntary

140

140

30,000

30,000

CZ

ATOK

overlap

voluntary

43

42

12,000

11,712

DE

Confederation of the German Textile and Fashion Industry

congruence

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

120,000

120,000

DK

DM&T

congruence

voluntary

320

320

n.a.

n.a.

DK

The Tailor’s Guild

sectionalism

voluntary

35

35

n.a.

n.a.

EE

ERTL

congruence

voluntary

58

58

4,000

4,000

EL

SEPEE

congruence

voluntary

300

300

n.a.

n.a.

EL

HCIA

sectionalism

voluntary

180

180

n.a.

n.a.

EL

S.E.V.K.

sectionalism

voluntary

60

60

15,000

15,000

EL

GSEVEE

sectional overlap

voluntary

160,000

400

500,000

25,000

ES

CIE*

overlap

voluntary

2,480

2,480

47,380

47,980

ES

UNIFAM*

sectionalism

voluntary

30

30

400

400

ES

APOFYDE*

sectionalism

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

ES

ANEDA*

sectionalism

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

ES

ANCA*

sectionalism

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

ES

ADETEN*

sectionalism

voluntary

8

8

n.a.

n.a.

FI

FINATEX

congruence

voluntary

140

140

5,200

5,200

FR

UIT*

sectional overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

50,000

48,500

FR

UFIH*

sectionalism

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

HU

MKSZ*

overlap

voluntary

25

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

HU

VOSZ - Textile*

overlap

voluntary

53,000

n.a.

1,500,000

n.a.

IT

SMI*

congruence

voluntary

1,100

1,100

60,000

60,000

IT

Federazione Italiana Industriali dei Tessili Vari e del Cappello*

sectionalism

voluntary

167

167

4,499

4,499

IT

Associazione Italiana della Filatura Serica*

sectionalism

voluntary

2

2

183

183

IT

Associazione Italiana dei Torcitori della Seta e dei Fili Artificiali e Sintetici*

sectionalism

voluntary

24

24

1,116

1,116

IT

Uniontessile*

overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

IT

Confartigianato Moda*

overlap

voluntary

700,000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

IT

CNA Federmoda*

overlap

voluntary

371,000

14,000

1,130,000

42,000

IT

Casartigiani*

overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

IT

CLAAI*

overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

IT

Confimpresa*

overlap

voluntary

30,250

900

100,000

4,000

IT

Federterziario*

overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

LT

LATIA

overlap

voluntary

130

10

13,000

10,000

LV

VRUA

overlap

voluntary

53

51

n.a.

n.a.

NL

Modint

congruence

voluntary

294

294

10,500

10,500

PL

PIOT

overlap

voluntary

60

53

10,000

9,500

PT

ATP*

congruence

voluntary

500

500

40,000

40,000

PT

APIV/ANIVEC*

sectional

voluntary

600

600

32,000

32,000

PT

ANIL*

sectional

voluntary

38

38

3,500

3,500

PT

AICR*

n.a.

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a

RO

FEPAIUS*

overlap

voluntary

300

300

n.a.

n.a.

RO

AMDR*

sectional

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

SE

TEKO

overlap

voluntary

206

115

7,000

3,835

SI

ZTOUPI*

overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

SI

STU*

overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

UK

UKFT

overlap

voluntary

2,000

400

95,000

30,000

Note: * Domain overlap with other sector-related employer organisations

n.a. = not available

Table 9: Employer organisations, domain coverage and domain description in relation to the textile and clothing sector, 2012
  National association Domain coverage Domain description
AT

FVTBSL

overlap

All companies in the sector plus industrial laundry companies, dye works, dry cleaners and companies operating in the bed industry, button industry and zipper industry

AT

BIMBT

sectional overlap

Only small-scale trade enterprises in the textile and clothing sector, plus tanners and furriers, as well as textile cleaners and washers

BE

FEDUSTRIA

sectionalism overlap

Small and medium-sized companies in the textile sector and in the wood and furniture industries

BE

CREAMODA

sectionalism

All companies in the clothing sector

BE

ABV

n.a.

n.a.

BG

BCGI

congruence

All companies in the sector

BG

BAATPE

congruence

All companies in the sector

CZ

ATOK

overlap

All companies in the sector plus companies in the leather industry, schools, trading companies and suppliers of the textile industry.

DE

Confederation of the German Textile and Fashion Industry

congruence

All companies in the sector

DK

DM&T

congruence

All companies in the sector

DK

The Tailors’ Guild

sectionalism

Tailors only

EE

ERTL (ECTA according EURATEX

congruence

All companies in the sector

EL

SEPEE

congruence

All companies in the sector

EL

HCIA

sectionalism

Companies in the clothing sector

EL

S.E.V.K.

sectionalism

Companies in the textile sector

EL

GSEVEE

sectional overlap

Small and medium-sized companies of the sector plus unspecified companies outside the sector

ES

CIE

overlap

All companies in the sector plus some companies specialised in providing services and chemical products. However, CIE points out that the number of companies they represent outside the textile and clothing sector is almost insignificant

ES

UNIFAM

sectionalism

All companies in carpet manufacture

ES

APOFYDE

sectionalism

Manufacturers of polyolefin textile and those in the hard fibres sector

ES

ANEDA

sectionalism

Cotton companies, mainly in Andalusia

ES

ANCA

sectionalism

Cooperatives in the cotton sector

ES

ADETEN

sectionalism

All companies in the sector in Navarra

FI

FINATEX

congruence

All companies in the sector

FR

UIT

sectional overlap

Companies in the clothing sector plus those in fibre activities within the chemical sector

FR

UFIH

sectionalism

Companies in the clothing sector

HU

MKSZ

overlap

All companies in the sector plus training companies, project management, retail and wholesale textile

HU

VOSZ - Textile

overlap

All companies in the sector plus unspecified companies outside the sector

IT

SMI

congruence

All companies in the sector

IT

Federazione Italiana Industriali dei Tessili Vari e del Cappello

sectionalism

Only enterprises that produce various textiles and headwear

IT

Associazione Italiana Della Filatura Serica

sectionalism

Only silk manufacturers

IT

Associazione Italiana dei Torcitori Della Seta e dei Fili Artificiali e Sintetici

sectionalism

Only silk spinners; artificial and synthetic fibre enterprises

IT

UNIONTESSILE

overlap

All companies in the sector plus footwear companies

IT

CONFARTIGIANATO MODA

overlap

All companies in the sector plus companies specialised in artisanal or craft tasks.

IT

CNA FEDERMODA

overlap

All companies in the sector plus companies specialised in artisanal or craft tasks.

IT

CASARTIGIANI

overlap

All companies in the sector plus companies specialised in artisanal or craft tasks.

IT

CLAAI

overlap

All companies in the sector plus companies specialised in artisanal or craft tasks.

IT

CONFIMPRESA

overlap

All companies in the sector plus unspecified companies outside the sector

IT

FEDERTERZIARIO

overlap

All companies in the sector plus unspecified companies outside the sector

LT

LATIA

overlap

All companies in the sector plus vocational training institutions, logistics companies, printing houses, tourism companies, banks

LV

VRUA

overlap

All companies in the sector plus unspecified companies outside the sector

NL

Modint

congruence

All companies in the sector

PL

PIOT

overlap

All companies in the sector plus companies producing protective clothing, companies organising fairs, R&D institutes and colleges

PT

ATP

congruence

All companies in the sector

PT

APIV/ANIVEC

sectionalism

Companies in the clothing sector

PT

ANIL

sectionalism

Wool textile companies

PT

AICR

n.a.

n.a.

RO

FEPAIUS

overlap

All companies in the sector plus companies within the light industry sector such as manufacture of furniture

RO

AMDR

sectionalism

Fashion and design companies

SE

TEKO

overlap

All companies in the sector plus companies in the wholesale sector

SI

ZTOUPI

overlap

All companies in the sector plus companies in the leather sector

SI

STU

overlap

All companies in the sector plus companies in the leather sector

UK

UKFT

overlap

All companies in the sector plus companies trading in apparel, textiles and associated products, and related service providers such as laundries

In total, 52 sector-related employers’ organisations are identified in 22 countries. Five countries (Cyprus, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta and Slovakia) have no sectoral employer association. In three of the 22 countries with employer associations (Estonia, Latvia and Poland), their sectoral organisations are not party to collective bargaining (see Table 8). Of the 22 countries with sector employer associations, 19 have one or more organisations engaged in sector-related collective bargaining. Generally, business interest organisations may also deal with interests other than those related to industrial relations. Organisations specialised in matters other than industrial relations are commonly defined as ‘trade associations’ (see TN0311101S). Such sector-related trade associations also exist, in very small numbers, in the textile and clothing sector. In terms of their national scope of activities, not all the organisations are involved in collective bargaining. According to Table 9, ERTL in Estonia (or ECTA as it is referred to by EURATEX, the EU-level employer association), VRUA in Latvia and PIOT in Poland either primarily or exclusively act as trade organisations in their country. Moreover, all these organisations are members of EURATEX. It must be stressed that, according to the selection criteria described above, all national organisations affiliated to EURATEX are included in the study irrespective of whether or not they are involved in collective bargaining.

In 10 of the 22 countries (or 45%) that have sectoral employer organisations, only one organisation was established. Two employer organisations were noted in seven countries (32%), three in one country (5%) and four in four countries (18%). Pluralist associational systems thus prevail in half of the countries. In the trade unions, a pluralist associational system prevails to a greater extent as 67% of the countries record more than one organisation.

Moreover, the employer organisations’ domain tends to be narrower than those of the trade unions. Of all of the organisations for which related information is available, 40% have overlapping domains and 8% have sectionally overlapping domains compared with 56% and 34%, respectively, in the case of the unions. Few of these organisations have a cross-sectoral domain. Indeed, of all the employer organisations with available data, LATIA in Lithuania is the one that could be defined as cross-sectoral, according to the information provided.

Cases of domain overlap arise from the coverage of different sectors, such as the following:

  • the leather sector (ATOK in Czech Republic, ZTOUPI and STU in Slovenia);
  • the chemical sector (CIE in Spain);
  • the retail and wholesale sector (MKSZ in Hungary, TEKO in Sweden);
  • the footwear sector (UNIONTESSILE in Italy);
  • artisanal activities (CONFARTIGIANATO MODA, CNA FEDERMODA, CASARTIGIANI, CLAAI in Italy);
  • R&D institutes and colleges (PIOT in Poland);
  • light industry (FEPAIUS in Romania);
  • laundry activities (UKFT in the UK).

Sectionalist overlap is observed only in four organisations (BIMBT in Austria, UIT in France, FEDUSTRIA in Belgium and GSEVEE in Greece). In the case of BIMBT in Austria, it stems from the organisation’s covering only small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the sector, specialist SMEs (such as tanners and furriers) and textile cleaners and washers. In regard to UIT in France, sectionalist overlap derives from domain demarcations, which focus on the clothing sector plus the chemical sector (more specifically, chemical fibres activities). In regard to FEDUSTRIA in Belgium, sectional overlap stems from its covering SMEs in the clothing sector as well as SMEs in the wood and furniture sector. As for GSEVEE in Greece, sectional overlap comes from its having a general domain (the national report does not specify what those sectors are) but it covers SMEs only.

Sectionalism is mainly caused by domain demarcations; these focus on the following:

  • one subsector, whether manufacture textile or clothing;
  • more specific subsectors such as tailors, manufacturers of carpets, polyolefin textiles and hard fibres, cotton headgear, silk, wool, or design companies (CREAMODA in Belgium, The Tailor’s Guild in Denmark, UNIFAM, APOFYDE and ANEDA in Spain, UFIH in France, HCIA, S.E.V.K. in Greece, Federazione Italiana Industriali dei Tessili Vari e del Cappello in Italy, APIV/ANIVEC, ANIL in Portugal, AMDR in Romania);
  • a specific region (ADETEN in Spain);
  • one subsector and a specific kind of company, such as cooperatives (ANCA in Spain).

Notably, countries where sectionalist domains prevail, such as Spain or Italy, are characterised by a pronounced fragmentation of the associational ‘landscape’ on the employers’ side, with associations specialising in narrowly defined activities, such as the manufacture of carpets, polyolefin textiles and hard fibers, cotton, headgear or silk.

In line with this fragmentation, 34% of all the organisations have a membership domain that is sectionalist with regard to the sector.

On the other hand, 10 organisations (20%) of all those with available information, show a domain that is more or less congruent with the sector definition. These are:

  • BCGI, BAATPE in Belgium;
  • Confederation of the German Textile and Fashion Industry in Germany;
  • DM&T in Denmark;
  • ERTL (or ECTA according to EURATEX) in Estonia;
  • FINATEX in Finland;
  • SEPEE in Greece;
  • SMI in Italy;
  • Modint in the Netherlands;
  • ATP in Portugal.

This means that the domain of these organisations largely focuses on the textile and clothing sector as defined above. However, it cannot be ruled out that these organisations may also organise companies of a contiguous sector, or do not really organise the entire sector. The clear predominance of membership domains that overlap or are sectionalist with regard to the sector indicates that the technocratic definition of the sector is broader or narrower than the lines along which most sector-related employers identify common interests and band together in associations.

The two existing sector-related employer organisations in Austria can rely on obligatory membership. This is due to their status in law as chamber units.

Figure 7: Domain patterns of sector-related organisations/business associations

Figure 7: Domain patterns of sector-related organisations/business associations

Source: Author’s interpretation of EIRO national contributions (2012).

In countries with a pluralist structure in relation to employer organisations, these organisations have usually managed to arrive at non-competing relationships with each other (as seen in the cases of Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia and Spain). France is an exception; here, problems between the two employer organisations occurred in 2012 when UIT refused to agree to the collective wage agreement concluded by UFIH. However, since then, both organisations have decided to reinforce their cooperation and to meet before they start to negotiate wages.

In many countries, the activities of employer organisations are complementary as a result of interassociational differentiation by their membership demarcation (as is the case of Austria, Belgium, Denmark and Greece).

As the figures on density show, membership strength in terms of companies widely varies with regard to sector-related densities (Table 8). The same holds true of the densities in terms of employees. When information is available, the sectoral domain densities of companies tend to be lower than the density of employees, except in some cases in Italy (CNA FEDERMODA and CONFIMPRESA). This indicates that larger companies have a slightly higher propensity to associate than their smaller counterparts. In general, the densities of the employer/business organisations in the sector tend to be higher than those of trade unions, especially with regard to the density of employees. Accordingly, 59% (or 17 out of 29) of the organisations with available data show a sectoral domain density exceeding 20% in terms of employees. However, in terms of companies, only 12% (or 4 out of 32) show a sectoral domain density exceeding 10%. However, it should be noted that density data are available for only a minority of the employer/business associations. Therefore, the data should again be treated cautiously.

Collective bargaining and its actors

Table 6 and Table 10 list all social partners engaged in sector-related collective bargaining. With regard to the unions, 99% of sector-related unions for which there is available information record participation in collective bargaining (in only five unions is information unavailable). Some 11% record participation in single-employer bargaining, 34% show participation in multiemployer bargaining, and 54% show participation both in single-employer and multiemployer bargaining.

Table 10: Density, collective bargaining, consultation and affiliations of employer/business organisations in textile and clothing, 2012
  Employer organisation

Sectoral density for companies

(%)

Sectoral density for employees

(%)

Collective bargaining Consultation National, European and international affiliations
AT

FVTBSL

35.7

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

EURATEX, CELC, WKO

AT

BIMBT

n.a.

43.6

Yes,

multiemployer

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

World Federation of Master Tailors, WKO

BE

FEDUSTRIA

6

87.6

Yes, both

Yes

On a regular basis

ITMF, EURATEX, CEI, EFIC, FEB

BE

CREAMODA

n.a.

4

Yes,

multiemployer

Yes

On a regular basis

IAF, EURATEX, FEB Unizo

BE

ABV

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

BG

BCGI

0.7

5.2

Yes, both

Yes

n.a.

BIA

BG

BAATPE

2.9

26.2

Yes, both

Yes

n.a.

EURATEX, Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce

CZ

ATOK

0.1

24.5

Yes,

multiemployer

Yes

On an ad hoc basis and on a regular basis

EURATEX, KZPS

DE

Confederation of the German Textile and Fashion Industry

n.a.

100

Yes,

multiemployer

Yes

On an ad hoc basis and on a regular basis

EURATEX, BDA, BDI

DK

DM&T

43.8

n.a.

Yes,

multiemployer

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

EURATEX, DA

DK

The Tailor’s Guild

4.8

n.a.

Yes,

multiemployer

Yes

On a regular basis

HVR

EE

ERTL

10.6

30.3

No

Yes, through ETTK

 

EURATEX, ETTK, ICC Estonia, Estonian Qualifications Authority

EL

SEPEE

2.7

n.a.

Yes,

multiemployer

No

 

IAF, EURATEX

EL

HCIA

1.6

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

No

 

IAF, EURATEX

EL

S.E.V.K.

0.5

73.4

Yes,

multiemployer

No

 

EUROCOTON, S.E.V.

EL

GSEVEE

3.6

n.a.

Yes,

multiemployer

No

   
ES

CIE

7.4

48.6

Yes,

multiemployer

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

EURATEX

ES

UNIFAM

0.1

0.4

Yes,

multiemployer

Yes

On a regular basis

ATEVAL, CEOE

ES

APOFYDE

n.a.

n.a.

Yes,

multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

ES

ANEDA

n.a.

n.a.

Yes,

multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

ES

ANCA

n.a.

n.a.

Yes,

multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

ES

ADETEN

0.02

n.a.

Yes,

multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

Employers’ Confederation of Navarre

FI

FINATEX

7.5

95.6

Yes,

multiemployer

Yes

On a regular basis

EURATEX, EK

FR

UIT

n.a.

71.7

Yes,

multiemployer

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

EURATEX, MEDEF

FR

UFIH

n.a.

n.a.

Yes,

multiemployer

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

EURATEX, MEDEF, CLIMO

HU

AHLI (or MKSZ, the Hungarian abbreviation)

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes

On a regular basis

EURATEX, MGYOSZ

HU

VOSZ - Textile

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, both

n.a.

n.a.

UNICE, CEHIC

IT

SMI

2.2

19.2

Yes both

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

IWTO, GINETEX, EURATEX, CONFINDUSTRIA

IT

Federazione Italiana Industriali dei Tessili Vari e del Cappello

0.3

1.4

Yes,

multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

AIUFFASS, AERTEL, CELIBRIDE, CONFINDUSTRIA

IT

Associazione Italiana della Filatura Serica

0.004

0.3

Yes,

multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

Italian Industrial Federation of Various Textiles and Headwear (Federazione Italiana Industriali dei Tessili Vari e del Cappello)

IT

Associazione Italiana dei Torcitori della Seta e dei Fili Artificiali e Sintetici

0.05

0.4

Yes,

multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

Italian Industrial Federation of Various Textiles and Headwear (Federazione Italiana Industriali dei Tessili Vari e del Cappello)

IT

UNIONTESSILE

n.a.

n.a.

Yes,

multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

CONFAPI

IT

CONFARTIGIANATO MODA

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes

On an ad hoc basis and on a regular basis

UEAPME

IT

Cna Federmoda

28.7

13.4

Yes, both

Yes

On an ad hoc basis and on a regular basis

 
IT

Casartigiani

n.a.

n.a.

Yes,

multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

none

IT

Claai

n.a.

n.a.

Yes,

multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

none

IT

Confimpresa

1.8

1.2

Yes, both

Yes

n.a.

none

IT

Federterziario

n.a.

n.a.

Yes,

multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

none

LT

Latia

1.2

36.2

Yes, single-employer

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

LPK, EURATEX

LV

VRUA

4

n.a.

No

Yes

On a regular basis.

EURATEX, EIHA

MT

No employer organisations

NL

Modint

8.9

65.6

Yes,

multiemployer

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

ILO; IAF; VNO-NCW

PL

PIOT

0.1

n.a.

No

Yes

On an ad hoc basis, at least quarterly

EURATEX,

KIG

PT

ATP

6.7

26

Yes,

multiemployer

Yes

On a regular basis (at least once a year)

IAF, ITMF, EURATEX, CIP

PT

APIV/ANIVEC

8

20.8

Yes both

Yes

On a regular basis (at least once a year)

IWTO EURATEX, FITVEP

PT

ANIL

0.5

2.3

Yes,

multiemployer

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

IWTO EURATEX, FITVEP

PT

AICR

n.a.

n.a.

Yes,

multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

RO

FEPAIUS

5

 

Yes, single-employer

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

EURATEX

.

RO

AMDR

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, single-employer bargaining only

n.a.

n.a.

EURATEX

SE

TEKO

15.5

64

Yes, both

Yes

On a regular basis

EURATEX, Svenskt Näringsliv

SI

ZTOUPI

n.a.

n.a.

Yes,

multiemployer

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

EURATEX, GZS

SI

STU

n.a.

n.a.

Yes,

multiemployer

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

ZDS

UK

UKFT

5.5

37.5

Yes,

multiemployer

Yes

On a regular basis

EURATEX

Note: n.a. = not available

From the employers’ side, 94% of all the organisations for which information is available record participation in collective bargaining (there is only one organisation for which information is not available). Some 6% participate in single-employer bargaining, 67% in multiemployer bargaining and 22% record participation both in single and multiemployer bargaining.

Figure 8: Involvement of employer organisations and trade unions in forms of collective bargaining (%)

Figure 8: Involvement of employer organisations and trade unions in forms of collective bargaining (%)

Source: Author’s interpretation of EIRO national contributions (2012).

The data presented in Table 11 provide an overview of the system of sector-related collective bargaining in the 27 countries. The importance of collective bargaining as a means of employment regulation is measured by calculating the total number of employees covered by collective bargaining as a proportion of the total number of employees within a certain segment of the economy (Traxler et al., 2001). Accordingly, the sector’s rate of collective bargaining coverage is defined as the ratio of the number of employees covered by any kind of collective agreement to the total number of employees in the sector.

Table 11: System of sectoral collective bargaining, 2011
 

CBC

(estimates, %)

Share of MEB (estimates, %)

Extension

practicesa

AT

100

MEB prevailing

n.a.

BE

100

MEB prevailing

2

BG

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

CY

n.a.

SEB prevailing

0

CZ

60

n.a.

1

DE

90

MEB prevailing

0

DK

65–70

MEB prevailing

0

EE

n.a.

0

0

EL

n.a.

n.a.

0d

ES

3

2

2

FI

85

100

2

FR

100

MEB prevailing

2

HU

17

SEB prevailing

n.a.

IE

0

n.a.

0

IT

100

MEB prevailing

2c

LT

10

0

0

LU

0

n/a

0

LV

n.a.

0

n.a.

MT

51

0

n.a.

NL

100

100

2

PL

0.1

0

n.a.

PT

33

MEB prevailing

0d

RO

90

0

0d

SE

80

95

1

SI

100

MEB prevailing

1 (becoming more pervasive)

SK

14

0

0

UK

13

MEB prevailing

0

Source: Author’s interpretation of EIRO national contributions (2012).

CBC = collective bargaining coverage: employees covered as a percentage of the total number of employees in the sector

MEB = multiemployer bargaining relative to single-employer bargaining

SEB = single-employer bargaining

a0 = no practice, 1 = limited/exceptional, 2= pervasive. Cases of functional equivalence are put in parenthesis.

b= 2007

c= informal extension practices regarding wage agreements

d= extension practices abolished or limited in 2011 or 2012

n.a. = not available or applicable

Collective bargaining coverage

In terms of the sector’s collective bargaining coverage, 10 of the 21 countries with available data record collective bargaining coverage of more than 80%. These countries are Austria, Belgium, Germany, Finland, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Romania, Sweden and Slovenia. Denmark records a coverage rate of around 70%.

Conversely, there are eight countries where the rate of collective bargaining coverage is 20% at most. These countries are Hungary, Ireland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Poland, Slovakia, Spain and the UK. In the case of Ireland and Luxembourg, no agreement is recorded. This is explained by the insignificance of the textile and clothing sector in the economy. In Ireland, the decline of employment has had a negative effect on the level of trade union and employer association representativeness and on collective bargaining. On the other hand, it is worth noting the case of Spain, which records a very low coverage rate due to the non-renewal of the national multiemployer sectoral agreement in 2011. In Portugal, the coverage rate of collective bargaining dropped by 10% in 2011. This is due to the reform on the collective bargaining regulation enacted under the regime of the Memorandum of Understanding between the Troika and the Portuguese government. According to the new regulation, collective agreements only cover the companies that are affiliated to the employer organisations that sign the collective agreements. Prior to this regulation, collective agreement could be extended to all the companies regardless of whether they were affiliated to the employer organisations that concluded the collective agreement. This demonstrates a polarised collective bargaining coverage system in European countries. The exceptions to this polarised landscape are Malta and the Czech Republic: both countries record a coverage rate of collective bargaining of approximately 50%.

In most of the countries with available information, several factors, which sometimes interact with each other, account for the higher coverage rates:

  • the predominance of multiemployer bargaining (see Table 11);
  • relatively higher density rates of the trade unions and/or employer organisations (Austria, Belgium, Denmark and Finland);
  • the existence of pervasive extension practices, such as in Belgium, Finland, France, Italy, the Netherlands.

While coverage in countries with prevalent multiemployer bargaining is generally high, single-employer bargaining arrangements in the sector are the only existing type of bargaining in Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Malta, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Moreover, single-employer bargaining prevails in Hungary and Cyprus. In these countries, collective bargaining coverage tends to be rather low. The exception to this is Romania, with a coverage rate of 90%.

Due to the relative prevalence of multiemployer settlements in the sector, the use of extension practices is significant. Extension practices in the textile and clothing sector are reported for several countries (see Table 11). But in the case of Greece (GR1203019I) and Portugal (see above), legislation in 2011 eliminated extension practices.

Participation in public policy

Interest associations may influence public policy in two ways:

  • they may be consulted by the authorities on matters affecting their members;
  • they may be represented on ‘corporatist’, in other words tripartite, committees and policy consultation boards.

This study considers only cases of consultation and corporatist participation that explicitly relate to sector-specific matters. Consultation processes can be wide-ranging and therefore the organisations consulted by the authorities may vary according to issues and also depend on changes in government. Moreover, consultation may be occasional rather than regular.

Trade unions or interest representations

Some 44 of the 56 sector-related unions with available data (or 79%) have been consulted. Authorities consult unions in 18 of the 26 countries where sector-related trade unions are recorded as being present. However, unions are regularly consulted only in Austria, Belgium, Spain, Finland, Italy, Latvia, Sweden, Slovakia and the UK.

Since a multi-union system has been established in 17 of the 26 countries with sector-related trade unions, it cannot be ruled out that the authorities favour certain trade unions over others, or that the unions compete for participation rights. In most countries with a multi-union system where a noticeable practice of consultation is observed, any existing trade unions may take part in the consultation process. By contrast, in Austria, Poland and Sweden only some of the sector-related trade unions are consulted.

Employer organisations or business associations

Authorities consult 33 of the 37 employer organisations (or 89%) for which related data are available. Employer organisations are consulted in all the countries with sector-related organisations except Greece (21 of 22 countries). However, organisations are not regularly consulted in Austria, Bulgaria, Estonia, France, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania and Slovenia. In all countries with a multi-organisation system where a practice of consultation is recorded, any existing employer organisation may take part in the consultation process. However, these data must be interpreted with caution since countries such as Belgium, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Romania and Spain do not provide information on this for all the organisations.

Tripartite participation

The findings reveal that genuine sector-specific bodies have been established in 16 of the 27 countries under consideration (Table 12). Tripartite bodies have been established in Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, Spain, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia and the UK. The scope of activity of the tripartite bodies is focused on the following topics:

  • training, qualifications or education (Belgium, Estonia, Finland, France, Italy and the UK); social liability and energy issues (Germany);
  • commercial strategies, research and innovation strategies and environmental strategies (Hungary);
  • pensions (Italy);
  • health and safety (the UK).
Table 12: Tripartite and bipartite sector-specific boards of public policy (2011)
  Name of the body and scope of activity Bipartite/Tripartite Origin Trade unions participating Employer organisations participating
BE

Joint Committee 109; Joint Committee 120; Joint Committee 214; Joint Committee 215; Central Economic Council – special advisory committee sector Textile and Clothing; SERV (sector committee textile and confection); COBOT/Cefret (Sectoral Training Centre-Joint Committee 120), COBOT/Cefret white collar workers (Sectoral Training Centre-Joint Committee 214)

All bipartite

Statutory

ACV-CSC Metea,

ABVV-FGTB,

ACLVB/CGSLB Textile, LBC-NVK,

BBTK-SETCA

Fedustria, Creamoda

BG

National Council for Tripartite Cooperation

Tripartite

Agreement

FITULI at CITUB and FLI Podkrepa

BAPIOT and BCGI

CZ

Bipartite dialogue – textiles and apparel

Bipartite

Agreement

OS TOK

ATOK

DE

Employers’ social liability association (Berufsgenossenschaft Energie Textil Elektro Medienerzeugnisse) energy, textile/clothing electrics media products

Tripartite

Statutory

IG Metall (for the workers in manufacture of textile/clothing). Textile services are represented by chemical workers’ unions and service workers’ union.

Gesamtverband textil mode

DK

The vocational committee in textile and clothing; Working environment committee in textiles

Bipartite

Statutory

3F

Dansk Mode og Textil, Dansk Industri, DI

EE

Estonian Qualifications Authority (Kutsekoda)

Tripartite

Statutory

ETTAF

ERTL

ES

Industrial Observatory of the textile and clothing sector

Tripartite

Agreement.

FITEQA-CCOO, FITAG-UGT

CIE, FEDIT (represents centres involved in Research and Development)

FI

Working group of educational policy

Tripartite

Agreement

TEAM and PRO

FINATEX

FR

OPCALIA

Bipartite

Agreement

CGT, CFDT, FO, CFE-CGC, CFDT

Medef, FNADE/SNADE, USP, FEDENE, FIJP, FNAM, FP2E

HU

Light industrial Sectoral Social Dialogue Committee:

– Research and innovation strategies

– Environmental strategies

Bipartite

Statutory

BDSZ

HVDSZ2000

MKSZ, and invited member VOSZ

IT

National Bilateral Body for Textile Clothing and Fashion OBN TAM. For vocational training: Osservatorio Nazionale Tessile, Abbigliamento, Moda. Analysis of sectoral trends, and political concertation; PREVIMODA. Pension Fund; Comitato di Certificatione Unionfiliere. Improvements in ‘Made in Italy’ production chains

Bipartite

All agreement

Femcam, Filctem, Uilta

SMI, Confartigianato – can

PL

Tripartite Commission for Social and Economic Affairs – Sectoral Body of Light Industry:

public procurement law

Tripartite

Statutory

FNSZZPL, Sekcja Krajowa Pracowników Przemysłu Lekkiego NSZZ ‘Solidarność’

PIOT

PT

Sectoral consultative commission (Comissão Consultiva Sectorial)

No information obtained

No information

No information

ANIL

RO

Commission at MECMA level

Tripartite

Statutory

All the national representative trade union confederations

All the national representative employer associations

SK

Economic and Social Council (HSR)

Tripartite

statutory

IOZ representing the KOZ SR

RÚZ SR and AZZZ SR but none from the sector

UK

Textile Industry Advisory Committee (TEXIAC) on health and safety, Creative Skillset (skills and training)

Both are tripartite

Agreement and statutory

Community, GMB, Unite

UKFT

Source: Author’s interpretation according to EIRO national contributions (2012).


Analysis of the European level of interest representation

At European level, eligibility for consultation and participation in social dialogue is linked to three criteria defined by the European Commission communication on adapting and promoting social dialogue at Community level (2.8 MB PDF). Accordingly, a social partner organisation must have the following attributes. It must:

  • relate to specific sectors or categories and be organised at European level;
  • consist of organisations that are themselves an integral and recognised part of Member States' social partner structures and have the capacity to negotiate agreements, and which are representative of several Member States;
  • have adequate structures to ensure their effective participation in the work of the Committees.

Regarding social dialogue, the constituent feature is the ability of such organisations to negotiate on behalf of their members and to conclude binding agreements. Accordingly, this section on European associations of the textile and clothing sector will analyse these organisations’ membership domain, the composition of their membership and their ability to negotiate.

As outlined in greater detail below, one sector-related European association on the employee side (IndustriAll) and one on the employer side (EURATEX) are particularly significant in the textile and clothing sector: they are listed by the European Commission as social partner organisations consulted under Article 154 of the TFEU. Hence, the following analysis will concentrate on these organisations while providing supplementary information on others that are linked to the sector’s national industrial relations actors.

Membership domain

The European Trade Union IndustriAll is affiliated to the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) and organises workers from the manufacture, mining and energy sectors. It represents 194 national organisations and 7,314,027 workers from 39 European countries.

EURATEX belongs to the Alliance for a Competitive European Industry, formed in 2004 by 11 major European industry sector associations and by BUSINESSEUROPE. It organises companies from the textile and clothing sector. Its organisations or federations at Member State level represent more than 180,000 companies and over 1.8 million jobs.

Membership composition

Table 13 documents a list of membership-related trade unions for IndustriAll drawn from the country reports. This membership list is confined to the sector-related associations of the countries under consideration; hence, it does not include members of the European-level organisations that do not have any members in the textile and clothing sector. The membership of employee organisations is obtained through the membership list provided by the organisations and a further check of the membership lists published on the organisations’ webpages.

Table 13: Textile and clothing trade unions affiliated to IndustriAll (2012)
  Trade union Collective bargaining Geographical coverage

AT

PRO-GE

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

BE

ABVV-TKD – FGTB-TVD

Yes, both

The whole country

BE

ACV-CSC METEA

Yes, both

The whole country

BE

ACLVB/CGSLB

Yes, both

The whole country

BE

LBC-NVK

Yes, both

Dutch-speaking and bilingual region

BG

FLI Podkrepa

Yes, both

The whole country

BG

FITULI/FOSIL

Yes, both

The whole country

CY

OVIEK-SEC

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

CZ

OS TOK

Yes, both

 

DE

IG Metall

Yes, both

The whole country

DK

CO-industri

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

EE

ETTAF

Yes, both

 

ES

FITEQA-CCOO

Yes, both

The whole country

ES

FITAG-UGT

Yes, both

The whole country

ES

FGAMT-CIG

n.a.

The Autonomous Community of Galicia

FI

Industrial Union TEAM

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

FI

Ammattiliitto Pro, Pro

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

FR

CFE-CGC Chimie

Yes, both

The whole country

FR

CFDT Servives

Yes, both

The whole country

FR

THC-CGT

Yes, both

The whole country

FR

CGT-FO

Yes, both

The whole country

HU

BDSZ

Yes, single employer

Yes potentially, but they are not present in all regions

HU

MOSZTRA

No

The whole country

IT

FILCTEM

Yes, both

The whole country

IT

FEMCA

Yes, both

The whole country

IT

UILTA

Yes, both

The whole country

LT

LPĮPS ‘Solidarumas

Yes, single employer

The whole country

LV

LIA

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

MT

GWU

Yes, single employer

The whole country

NL

FNV Bondgenoten

Yes, both

The whole country

NL

CNV Vakmensen

Yes, both

The whole country

PL

FNSZZPL

Yes, single employer

The whole country

PT

FESETE

Yes,multiemployer

The whole country by means of different territorial federations (TÊXTIL Centro/FESETE, Bordados Madeira/FESETE and so on)

PT

SINDEQ

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

RO

CONFTEX

Yes, both

The whole country

RO

CRAIMODEX

Yes, both

The whole country

RO

PELTRICONTEX -FRĂŢIA

Yes, both

The whole country

RO

CONFPELTEX

Yes, both

The whole country

RO

UNICONF

Yes, both

The whole country

SE

IF Metall

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

SE

Uniones

Yes, both

The whole country

SE

The Swedish Association of Graduate Engineers

Yes, both

The whole country

SI

STUPIS

Yes, both

The whole country

SK

IOZ

Yes, single employer

The whole country

UK

Community

Yes, both

The whole country

UK

GMB

Yes, both

The whole country

UK

Unite the Union

Yes, both

The whole country

In all countries, except Greece and Ireland, at least one affiliation to IndustriAll is found. IndustriAll has 47 direct affiliations from the countries under consideration, and 45 of them participate in sectoral collective bargaining. Moreover, all the unions affiliated to IndustriAll cover the sector in all the regions of their countries except in the case of LBC-NVK (Belgium), FGAMT-CIG (Spain) and BDSZ (Hungary). In the case of the Hungarian union, it potentially covers the whole country but according to the national report it is not present in all regions. Therefore, 62% of the unions listed in Tables 5 and 6 are directly affiliated to IndustriAll. From the available data on sectoral membership of the trade unions, one can conclude that IndusriAll covers the sector’s most important labour representativeness organisations. Cases of major trade unions not covered can be found only in Greece and Ireland, where no union is affiliated.

According to the information provided by the national correspondents, there are only two members of IndusriAll that are not related to the textile and clothing sector and as such do not have members in the sector (Table 14). For this reason, they are not included in the scope of the study.

Table 14: IndustriAll affiliates without members in the textile and clothing sector (2012)
Country Trade union
BE

La Centrale Générale

DE

IGBCE

Table 15 lists the members of EURATEX. Again, this membership list is confined to the sector-related associations of the countries under consideration; hence, it does not include employer organisations affiliated to those European-level organisations that do not have any members in the textile and clothing sector. Of the 22 countries under consideration that report any employer organisation, one country (Romania) does not report sectoral organisations affiliated to EURATEX. It reports one member of EURATEX that is not related to the textile and clothing sector, and as such does not have members in the sector. For this reason, it is not included in the scope of the study. In total, EURATEX has 25 direct affiliations, 23 of which participate in sectoral collective bargaining. Accordingly, 48% of the employer organisations listed in Tables 7 and 9 are directly affiliated to EURATEX. Thus, EURATEX covers the sector’s most important sectoral employer organisations.

Table 15: EURATEX sector related membership (2012)
  Employer organisation Collective bargaining Geographical coverage
AT

FVTBSL

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

BE

FEDUSTRIA

Yes, both

The whole country

BE

CREAMODA

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

BG

BAATPE

Yes, both

The whole country

CZ

ATOK

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

DE

Confederation of the German Textile and Fashion Industry

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

DK

DM&T

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

EE

ERTL (ECTA according EURATEX)

ERTL participates in consultations in sector-related matters through ETTK

The whole country

EL

SEPEE

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

EL

HCIA

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

ES

CIE

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

FI

FINATEX

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

FR

UIT

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

FR

UFIH

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

HU

AHLI (or MKSZ, theHungarian abbreviation)

Yes, both

The whole country

IT

SMI

Yes, both

The whole country

LT

LATIA

Yes, single-employer only

The whole country

LV

VRUA

No

The whole country

NL

Modint

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

PL

PIOT

No

The whole country

PT

ATP

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

PT

APIV/ANIVEC

Yes both

The whole country

SE

TEKO

Yes, both

The whole country

SI

ZTOUPI

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

UK

UKFT

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

Note: According to the national correspondent of Slovenia, ZTOUPI is a member of EURATEX. However, in the list of members of EURATEX, the organisation member from Slovenia that appears is the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Slovenia, Textile, Clothing and Leather Processing Association.

Capacity to negotiate

The third criterion of representativeness at European level refers to the organisations’ capacity to negotiate on behalf of their members. They have been asked whether they have this capacity. IndusriAll has not been given a permanent mandate to negotiate. Thus, if during a European Sectoral Social Dialogue they agree with EURATEX to make a joint declaration, they have to consult their members first. In the case of EURATEX, they also lack a permanent mandate no negotiate on behalf of their members.

As final proof of the weight of IndustriAll and EURATEX, it is useful to look at the other European organisations to which the sector-related trade unions and employer organisations are affiliated.

The affiliations of the trade unions are listed in Table 6. European organisations other than IndustriAll represent a relatively low proportion of both sector-related trade unions and countries. There are only three European organisations mentioned here that cover at least three countries: Uni-Europa, EFFAT and EPSU. The presence of these organisations responds to the overlapping domains of many trade unions because these organisations do not claim to attract unions from the textile and clothing sector. This overview underlines the principal status of IndusriAll as the sector’s labour representative.

A similar review of the membership of the national employer/business associations can be derived from Table 6. Some have other European associations than EURATEX. However, there is no European association that covers at least three countries. In conclusion, EURATEX is by far the most important sector-related European organisation since it covers 20 countries.


Conclusions

Pluralist associational systems prevail on the employee side of the textile and clothing sector. Accordingly, 67% of the countries record more than one sector-related union. Moreover, 30% of the countries record four or more sector-related unions, thus showing a fragmented landscape. On the employer side, a pluralist associational system is present in only half the countries. Differences between unions and employer associations also appear with regard to their domain demarcation. In the case of the unions, overlap and sectional overlap prevail over sectionalism, while in the case of the employer associations, domain tends to be narrower. Thus, 56% of the unions have an overlapping domain and 34% have a sectional overlapping domain; this compares with 40% and 8% respectively in the case of the employer associations. On the other hand, densities of trade unions tend to be lower than densities of employer organisations, especially with regard to the density of employees. Accordingly, 59% of the employer organisations with available data show a sectoral domain density in terms of employees exceeding 20% compared with 37% of the trade unions.

Collective bargaining coverage is highly polarised. While 10 of the 21 countries with available data record high rates of collective bargaining coverage, exceeding 80%, there are eight countries where the rate of collective bargaining coverage is 20% at most.

According to the European Commission Communication on adapting and promoting the social dialogue at Community level (2.8 MB PDF) organisations that are eligible to be consulted shall fulfil the following criteria. They shall:

  • relate to specific sectors or categories and be organised at European level;
  • consist of organisations that are themselves an integral and recognised part of Member States’ social partner structures and have the capacity to negotiate agreements, and that are representative of several Member States;
  • have adequate structures to ensure their effective participation in the work of the Committees.

In the light of the present study both European social partners under consideration, IndustriAll and EURATEX, fulfil the above criteria.

As seen from the bottom-up mapping of individual organisations, IndustriAll has 44 direct affiliations (57% of the unions identified in the study), 42 of which participate in sectoral collective bargaining, and it covers 24 out of 26 countries that report any sector-related trade union. EURATEX has 24 direct affiliations (46% of the employer organisations identified in the study), 22 of which participate in sectoral collective bargaining, and it covers 20 out of 22 countries that report any sector-related employer organisation. Moreover, it is worth noting that no other European-level actors with comparable coverage could be found on either side of the industry.

Top-down and bottom-up analyses of the textile and clothing sector in the EU27 show that IndustriAll (on the employees’ side) and EURATEX (on the employers’ side) ought to be regarded as the most important EU-wide representatives of the employers and employees within the sector.

Pablo Sanz de Miguel, CIREM Foundation


Bibliography

European Commission (2010), European Sectoral Social Dialogue – Recent developments, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

Traxler, F., Blaschke, S. and Kittel, B. (2001), National labour relations in internationalised markets, Oxford University Press, Oxford.


Annex: Organisation names and abbreviations

Table 16: Employee organisation names and abbreviations
  Abbreviation Full association name
AT

PRO-GE

Manufacturing Union

AT

GPA-djp

Union of Salaried Employees, Graphical Workers and Journalists

BE

ABVV-TKD – FGTB-TVD

ABVV/FGTB-Textile, Clothing and Diamond Workers’ Union

BE

ABVV-BBTK/FGTB-SETCA

Union for employees, technicians and staff members

BE

ACV-CSC METEA

General Christian Trade Union METEA

BE

LBC-NVK

National confederation for employees

BE

ACLVB/CGSLB

Liberal Trade Union

BE

CNE

Centre nationale des employés

BG

FLI

Federation Light Industry

BG

FITULI

Federation of the Independent Trade Unions in the Light Industry

CY

OBIEK

Federation of Industrial Workers

CY

SEVETTYK

Cyprus Union of Workers Industry, Trade, Press and Printing and General Services

CZ

OS TOK

Trade Union of Workers in Textile, Clothing and Leather Industry of Bohemia and Moravia

DE

IG Metall

Metalworkers’ Union

DK

CO-industri

CO-industri

DK

3F

United Federation of Danish Workers

DK

HK/Privat

The Union of Commercial and Clerical Employees in Denmark

DK

TL

Danish Association of Professional Technicians

EE

ETTAF

The Association of Estonian Light Industry Workers Trade Union

EL

OEKIDE

Greek Textile Clothing Leather Workers Federation

EL

PSPKM

Association of Greek Licensed Textile Engineers

ES

FITEQA-CCOO

Federation of Textile-leather, Chemical and Sector Related Industries of the Trade Union Confederation of Workers’ Commissions

ES

FITAG-UGT

Federation of Industry and Farmer Workers of the General Workers’ Unions of the General Workers’ Unions

ES

FGAMT-CIG

Galician Federation of Food, Sea and Transport of the Inter-union Galician Confederation

FI

TEAM

Industrial Union TEAM

FI

Ammattiliitto Pro, Pro

Trade Union Pro

FI

Sähköalojen ammattiliitto

The Finnish Electrical Workers´ Union

FR

THC-CGT

Textile-Clothing-Leather Federation – General Confedaration of Labour

FR

CFDT Servives

Federation of services CFDT

FR

Fédération CFTC CMTE

Federation Chemicals, Mining, Textile, Energy CFTC

FR

Fédéchimie CGT-FO

National Federation of Workers of the nuclear industry, rubber, chemicals, leathers, oil, plastics, textiles and glass CGT FO

FR

FO Pharma-Cuir-Habillement

Federation of Pharmacy trades and Laboratories of Analysis and Medical Biology, Leather and Clothing CGT FO

FR

CFE-CGC Chimie

National Federation of Trade Unions of Professional and Managerial Staff of Chemical and Related industries

HU

BDSZ

Mining, Energy and Industry Workers' Trade Union

HU

HVDSZ2000

Trade Union of Local Industrial and Municipal Workers 2000

HU

MOSZTRA

National Federation of Workers’ Councils’ Textile and Clothing Workers Section

IE

SIPTU

Services, Industrial, Professional and Technical Union, SIPTU

IT

FILCTEM

The Italian Federation of the Chemical, Textiles, Energy and Manufacture Workers

IT

FEMCA

The Federation of Energy, Fashion, Chemical and Related Sector Workers

IT

UILTA

The Italian Union of Clothing and Textiles Workers

IT

UGL CHIMICI SINDACATO TESSILI

The General Union of Work – Chemical Sector – Textiles Trade Union

IT

FESICA CONFSAL

Trade-union Federation for Industry, Commerce and Artisan sectors

LT

LPĮPS ‘Solidarumas

Lithuanian TU ‘Solidarumas’ of Industry Enterprises

LV

LIA

Latvian Industrial Workers Trade Union

MT

GWU

General Workers Union

NL

FNV Bondgenoten

FNV Allies

NL

CNV Vakmensen

National Federation of Christian Trade Unions – Professionals

NL

De Unie/MHP

The Union for Middle and Higher Personnel

PL

FNSZZPL

Federation of Independent Self-governing Trade Unions of Light Industry

PL

MNSZZP z Siedzibą w FFiK ‘Haft’ S.A. w Kaliszu

Intercompany Independent Self-governing Trade Union of Workers based in Net Curtains and Lace Factory ‘Haft’ Co. in Kalisz

PL

Sekcja Krajowa Pracowników Przemysłu Lekkiego NSZZ ‘Solidarność’

Domestic Section of Light Industry Employees of Independent Self-governing Trade Union ‘Solidarity’

PT

Têxtil Minho / FESETE

Textiles Union of the Minho and Trás-os-Montes

PT

SINTEVECC / FESETE

Sindicato dos Trabalhadores dos Sectores Têxteis, Vestuário, Calçado e Curtumes do Distrito do Porto

PT

SINPICVAT

National Union of Professionals in Manufacturing and Commerce of Apparel and Textile Articles

PT

Vestuário Norte / FESETE

Union of Workers in Clothing Industry and Textile of the North

PT

TÊXTIL Beira Baixa / FESETE

Union of the Workers of the Textile Sector in the Beira Baixa

PT

TÊXTEIS Sul / FESETE

TÊXTEIS Sul / FESETE

PT

TÊXTIL Aveiro / FESETE

Union of Workers in the Textile Sector of Aveiro

PT

TÊXTIL Centro / FESETE

Union of Textile, Wool and Clothing Workers of the Centre

PT

TÊXTIL Beira Alta / FESETE

Union of Workers in the Textile Sector of the Beira Alta

PT

Bordados Madeira / FESETE

Free Union of Workers in the Embroidery, Carpet, Textiles and Handicraft Industry of the Autonomous Region of Madeira

PT

SINDEQ

Democratic Union of Energy, Chemical, Textile and Other Industries

RO

CONFTEX

Textile and Clothing Trade Unions Federation – CONFTEX

RO

CRAIMODEX

CRAIMODEX Federation

RO

PELTRICONTEX -FRĂŢIA

PELTRICONTEX –FRĂŢIA Federation

RO

CONFPELTEX

Light Industry Workers Federation - CONFPELTEX

RO

UNICONF

Clothing and Knitwear Trade Unions Federation – UNICONF

SE

Unionen

Unionen

SE

The Swedish Association of Graduate Engineers

The Swedish Association of Graduate Engineers

SE

Ledarna

Organisation for executive and managing staff

SE

IF Metall

IF Metall

SI

STUPIS

Trade Union of the Slovenian Textile and Leather-Processing Industry

SK

IOZ

Integrated Trade Union Association

UK

Community

Community

UK

GMB

GMB

UK

Unite the Union

Unite the Union

Table 17: Employer organisation names and their abbreviations
  Abbreviation Full association name
AT

FVTBSL

Federal Association of the Textile, Clothing, Shoe and Leather Industry

AT

BIMBT

Federal Association of Fashion and Clothing Engineering

BE

FEDUSTRIA

FEDUSTRIA, Belgian federation of the textile, wood and furniture industries

BE

CREAMODA

CREAMODA, Federation of Belgian clothing and confection manufacturers

BE

ABV

Algemeen Belgisch Vlasverbond

BG

BCGI

Branch Chamber of Garment Industry

BG

BAATPE

Bulgarian Association Of Apparel And Textile Producers And Exporters

CZ

ATOK

Association of Textile-Clothing-Leather Industry

DE

Confederation of the German Textile and Fashion Industry

Confederation of the German Textile and Fashion Industry

DK

DM&T

Danish Fashion and Textile

DK

The Tailor’s Guild

The Tailor’s Guild

EE

ERTL (ECTA according EURATEX

Estonian Clothing and Textile Association

EL

SEPEE

Hellenic Fashion Industry Association

EL

HCIA

Hellenic Clothing Industry Association

EL

S.E.V.K.

Federation of Greek Textile Industrialists

EL

GSEVEE

Hellenic Confederation of Professionals, Craftsmen and Merchants

ES

CIE

Intertextil Spanish Council

ES

UNIFAM

National Union of Carpet Manufactures

ES

APOFYDE

National Employer Association of Polyolefin Textiles and Hard Fibres Manufacturers

ES

ANEDA

National Employer Association of Cotton Ginners

ES

ANCA

National Association of Cotton Cooperatives

ES

ADETEN

Textile Employer Association of Navarra

FI

FINATEX

The Federation of Finnish Textiles and Clothing Industries

FR

UIT

Union of textile industries

FR

UFIH

French Union of the Clothing Industry

HU

MKSZ

Association of Hungarian Light Industry

HU

VOSZ - Textile

Textile Section of the National Association of Entrepreneurs and Employers

IT

SMI

Italian Fashion System – Textiles and Fashion Federation

IT

Federazione Italiana Industriali dei Tessili Vari e del Cappello

Italian Industrial Federation of Various Textiles and Headwear

IT

Associazione Italiana della Filatura Serica

Italian Association of Silk Manufacturers

IT

Associazione Italiana dei Torcitori della Seta e dei Fili Artificiali e Sintetici

Italian Association of Silk Spinners and Artificial and Synthetic Fibres

IT

UNIONTESSILE

The National Union of Small and Medium Enterprises in the Textiles and Clothing Industry

IT

CONFARTIGIANATO MODA

National Federation of Artisans in the Fashion Sector

IT

CNA FEDERMODA

The National Confederation of Artisans and of Small and Medium-Size Enterprises – Fashion Federation

IT

CASARTIGIANI

The Autonomous Confederation of Artisan Unions

IT

CLAAI

The Confederation of Free Italian Artisan Associations

IT

CONFIMPRESA

Italian Confederation of Small and Medium Size Enterprises and of Artisans

IT

FEDERTERZIARIO

Italian Confederation of Tertiary, Services, Autonomous Work, Small Industrial, Commercial and Artisan Enterprises

LT

LATIA

Lithuanian Apparel and Textile Industry Association

LV

VRUA

Association of Textiles and Clothing

NL

Modint

Fashion International

PL

PIOT

Federation of Apparel & Textiles Industry Employers

PT

ATP

Textiles and Clothing Association of Portugal

PT

APIV/ANIVEC

National Association of Clothing Manufacturers

PT

ANIL

Portuguese Wool Textile Association

PT

AICR

Association of Rope and Net Industries

RO

FEPAIUS

Light Industry Employer Federation – FEPAIUS

RO

AMDR

Association of Fashion and Design from Romania

SE

TEKO

Swedish Textile and Clothing Industries Association

SI

ZTOUPI

Association for Textile, Clothing and Leather Processing Industry

SI

STU

Section for textile and leather

UK

UKFT

UK Fashion and Textile Association

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