Representativeness of the European social partner organisations: The food and drink sector

  • National Contribution:

  • Observatory: EurWORK
  • Topic:
  • Relaciones laborales,
  • Representativeness,
  • Social partners,
  • Date of Publication: 14 Mayo 2013



About
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The study was compiled on the basis of individual national reports submitted by the EIRO correspondents. The text of each of these national reports is available below. The national reports were drawn up in response to a questionnaire and should be read in conjunction with it.

Download the full report (880KB PDF)
See also the executive summary

National contributions may be available


Objectives of study

The aim of this representativeness study is to identify the relevant national and supranational social actors – that is, the trade unions and employer organisations – in the field of industrial relations in the food and drink sector, and to show how these actors relate to the sector’s European interest associations of labour and business. The impetus for this study, and for similar studies in other sectors, arises from the European Commission’s goal of identifying the representative social partner associations to be consulted under the provisions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) (1.4MB PDF). Hence, this study seeks to provide the basic information needed to set up sectoral social dialogue. The effectiveness of the European social dialogue depends on whether its participants are sufficiently representative in terms of the sector’s relevant national actors across the EU Member States. Only European associations that meet this precondition will be admitted to the European social dialogue.

To accomplish these aims, the study first identifies the relevant national social partner organisations in the food and drink sector, subsequently analysing the structure of the sector’s relevant European organisations – in particular, their membership composition. This involves clarifying the unit of analysis at both the national and European level of interest representation. The study includes only organisations whose membership domain is ‘sector-related’ (Table 1).

Table 1: Determining the ‘sector-relatedness’ of an organisation
Scope Question in the standardised questionnaire to all correspondents Possible answers Notes and explanations
Domain of the organisation within the sector

Does the union’s/employer organisation’s domain … cover the ‘whole’ food and drink sector in terms of economic activities, (that is, including all sub-activities)

Yes/No

This question refers to the economic sub-activities of the NACE code chosen. Some organisations may limit their domain to some of the sub-activities.

… cover employees in all (legal) forms of enterprises (for instance: public ownership, private ownership, multinationals, domestic companies – of course, only insofar as they exist in the sector)?

Yes/No

Some organisations may limit, for instance, their domain to public sector companies/employees only.

… cover employees in enterprises of all sizes in the food and drink sector?

Yes/No

Some organisations (notably employer organisations) may limit their domain to enterprises by size class (such as small and medium-sized enterprises – SMEs – only).

… cover the food and drink sector in all the regions?

Yes/No

This question refers to geographical coverage. Some organisations may not be national in scope and may limit their domain to some of the regions.

...cover all occupations in the food and drink sector?

Yes/No

Some organisations (notably trade unions) delimit their domain to certain occupations only.

...cover blue-collar and white-collar employees in the food and drink sector?

Yes/No

Some organisations (notably trade unions) delimit their domain to either blue-collar or white-collar employees

.. cover employees with other than standard employment contracts in the food and drink sector? (self-employed, temporary agency workers, fixed-term contracts…)

Yes/No

Some organisations (notably trade unions) may not cover certain types of workers, like self-employed, freelancers, temporary agency workers and so on.

Domain of the organisation outside the sector

…also cover employees or enterprises outside the food and drink sector?

Yes/No

Some organisations may enlarge their domain to other activities not included in the food and drink sector.

Source: Standardised Excel-based questionnaire sent to EIRO national correspondents

At both national and European levels, many associations exist which are not considered social partner organisations as they do not deal with industrial relations. Thus, there is a need for criteria to define clearly the social partner organisations from other associations.

As regards the national-level associations, classification as a sector-related social partner organisation means that an associatoin must fulfil one of the following three criteria:

  • be a party to ‘sector-related’ collective bargaining;
  • be a member of a ‘sector-related’ European association of business or labour that is on the Commission’s list of European social partner organisations consulted under Article 154 of the EU treaty;
  • participate in the sector-related European social dialogue.

Taking affiliation to a European social partner organisation as a sufficient criterion for determining a national association as a social partner does not necessarily imply that the association is involved in industrial relations in its own country. Although this selection criterion may seem odd at first glance, a national association that is a member of a European social partner organisation will become involved in industrial relations matters through its membership of the European organisation.

Furthermore, it is important to assess whether the national affiliates to the European social partner organisations are engaged in industrial relations in their respective countries. Affiliation to a European social partner organisation and/or involvement in national collective bargaining are of utmost importance to the European social dialogue, since they are the two constituent mechanisms that can systematically connect the national and European levels.

A European association is considered a relevant sector-related interest association if it meets the following criteria:

  • it is on the Commission’s list of interest organisations to be consulted on behalf of the sector under Article 154 of the TFEU;
  • it participates in the sector-related European social dialogue;
  • it has asked to be consulted under Article 154 of the TFEU.

National associations are considered to be relevant sector-related interest associations if their domain relates to the sector and they are:

  • regularly involved in sector-related collective bargaining,
  • affiliated to a ‘sector-related’ European association of business or labour on the Commission’s list of European social partner organisations consulted under Article 154 of the TFEU;

• participating in sector-related European social dialogue.

Thus, the aim of identifying the sector-related national and European social partner organisations applies both a ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ approach.

Definitions

For the purpose of this study, the food and drink sector is defined in terms of the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community (NACE), to ensure the cross-national comparability of the findings. More specifically, the food and drink sector is defined as embracing NACE (Rev. 2) 10 and 11: manufacture of food products and manufacture of beverages, respectively

The domains of the trade unions and employer organisations and the scope of the relevant collective agreements are likely to vary from this precise NACE definition. The study therefore includes all trade unions, employer organisations and multiemployer collective agreements that are ‘sector-related’ in terms of any of the following four patterns.

  • Congruence: the domain/purview is identical to the NACE classification.
  • Sectionalism: the domain/purview only covers a certain part of the sector as demarcated by NACE classification, while no group outside the sector is covered.
  • Overlap: the domain/purview covers the entire sector plus (parts of) one or more other sectors.
  • Sectional overlap: the domain/purview covers part of the sector plus (parts of) one or more other sectors.

Organisations are considered ‘sector related’ if their membership domain relates to the sector in one of the ways displayed in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Sector-relatedness of social partner organisations: Domain patterns

Figure 1: Sector-relatedness of social partner organisations: Domain patterns

According to this definition, the organisations listed by the European Commission as social partner organisations consulted under Article 154 of the TFEU are:

  • (on the employees’ side) the European Federation of Food, Agriculture and Tourism trade unions (EFFAT);
  • (on the employers’ side): FOODDRINKEUROPE

In addition, the study will consider any other sector-related European associations with sector-related national associations –as defined below– under its umbrella.

Collective bargaining

To delineate the bargaining system, two further indicators are used: the first refers to the relevance of multiemployer bargaining compared with single-employer bargaining. The second indicator considers whether statutory extension schemes have been applied to the sector. For reasons of brevity, this analysis is confined to extension schemes that widen the scope of a collective agreement to employers not affiliated to the signatory employer organisation. Extension regulations targeting the employees are therefore not included in the research. Regulations concerning the employees are not significant to this analysis for two reasons.

  • Extending a collective agreement to employees who are not unionised in a company covered by the collective agreement is a standard rule of the International Labour Organization, aside from any national legislation.
  • If employers did not extend a collective agreement concluded by them, even when not formally obliged to do so, they would set an incentive for their workforce to unionise.

Collection of data

The collection of quantitative data is essential for investigating the representativeness of the social partner organisations, and is done through a bottom-up approach (by correspondents of Eurofound’s European Industrial Relations Observatory – EIRO) and also a top-down one (a list of members of European social partners at national level).Unless cited otherwise, this study draws on country studies provided by EIRO, which is a network of national industrial relations experts. They complete a standard questionnaire by contacting the sector-related social partner organisations in their countries. The contact is generally first made via telephone interviews, but can also be established via email. In the case of unavailability of any representative, the national correspondents are asked to fill out the relevant questionnaires based on secondary sources, such as information given on the social partner’s website, or derived from previous research studies.

It is often difficult to find precise quantitative data. In such cases, the EIRO national centres are requested to provide rough estimates rather than leaving a question blank, given the practical and political relevance of this study. However, if there is any doubt over the reliability of an estimate, this will be noted.

In principle, quantitative data may stem from three sources:

  • official statistics and representative survey studies;
  • administrative data, such as membership figures provided by the respective organisations, which are then used for calculating the density rate on the basis of available statistical figures on the potential membership of the organisation;
  • personal estimates made by representatives of the respective organisations.

Quality control

In order to ensure the quality of the information gathered, several verification procedures and feedback loops have been used.

  • First, the coordinators, in collaboration with Eurofound staff, check the consistency of the national contributions.
  • Second, Eurofound sends the national contributions to the national members of its Governing Board, as well as to the European-level sector-related social partners’ organisations. The peak-level organisations then ask their affiliates to verify the information. Feedback received from the sector-related organisations is then taken into account, if it is in line with the methodology of the study.
  • Third, the complete study is finally evaluated by the European-level sectoral social partners and Eurofound’s Advisory Committee on Industrial Relations, which consists of representatives from both sides of industry, governments and the European Commission.


Employment and economic trends

The food and drink sector consists of approximately 310,000 enterprises, which operate at local and regional level, but also in the world market. The greatest share of the products is offered by SMEs and global companies. SMEs generate approximately 48.5% of the total turnover and 63% of the total employment, while the large companies generate 51.5% of the turnover and 37% of the employment, although they account for only 0.9% of the companies. Moreover, according to the report by the High Level Group (HLG) on the Competitiveness of the European Agro-food industry (416Kb PDF) agricultural cooperatives also play a significant part, employing almost 700,000 workers.

According to Eurostat’s 2010 Labour Force Survey (LFS) (121Kb PDF), the sector employed more than 4,739,900 people in the EU27 in 2010. Manufacture of food activities accounted for more than 90% of the sector, employing 4,299,200 people. Employment in the sector has been partially affected by the economic crisis. From 2008 to 2010, there was a loss of 210,300 jobs. Other data, on GDP for 2009, shows that employment in the sector represents 2% of total employment in the EU27, while sector activities represent 2% of the total GDP of the EU27. Thus, as highlighted by the HLG report, it is a sector with relatively low output.

Employment characteristics

Men account for more than 58% of the employment in both sub-sectors, according to LFS data for 2010. There are more women employed in food manufacture (43%) than in drinks manufacture (29%); and both figures are lower than the average female proportion for overall employment in the EU27 (45.5%). Most people employed in the sector are aged between 25 and 49 years; this age group accounts for 66% of the jobs in food manufacture and 69% in drinks manufacture. There are not many cases of self-employment or apprenticeships in this sector except in Germany, Greece and Italy, where the proportion of this is more than 20%.

Long term trends

The most significant pressure for change affecting the sector is globalisation. Increased international trade and cross-border mobility of capital investment have resulted in substantial changes in markets and trading patterns. At the same time, the liberalisation of trade, with emerging economies gaining prosperity, has provided new market opportunities as well as new sources of competition.

The 2009 HLG report states that the sector is being challenged by customer concerns about prices, food safety and health, as well as low levels of labour productivity, reflecting insufficient development of research and innovation.

Tables 2 and 3 give a general overview of the development of the sector from 2000 to 2010. They present figures on companies, employment and employees in the sector and in relation to the national economy.

The number of enterprises decreased in 12 out of 20 countries that had available data for 2000 to 2010. This decrease is linked to significant reductions in employment in countries such as Denmark and Estonia. However, in Belgium, Cyprus and Germany the drop in the number of companies implies an increase in employment. In Belgium and Germany this can be attributed to a trend towards market concentration, although data regarding German companies must be read with caution because they cover the period 2006–2009 rather than 2000–2010.

In the Czech Republic, Latvia, Malta, Poland, Slovenia and Slovakia the number of companies increased while employment decreased. Apparently, in these countries, the sector is fragmented into enterprises with fewer employees.

Table 2: Employment in the EU food and drink sector, 2000–2010
 

Year

Number of companies

Total employment

Female employment

Male employment

Sectoral employment as % of total employment

AT

2000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

AT

2009

3,956

77,607

n.a.

n.a.

1.80

BE

2000

6,178

96,393

32,922

63,471

3.00

BE

2010

5,053

98,123

35,139

62,984

3.00

BG

2008

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

BG

2010

5,397

103,048

50,641

52,407

2.90

CY

2000

997

10,917

4,448

6,469

3.80

CY

2010

888

13,069

6,193

6,876

3.40

CZ

2000

13,799

127,300

63,400

63,900

2.69

CZ

2010

16,924

121,500

55,800

65,700

2.49

DE

2000

44,497

835,000

406,000

429,000

2.30

DE

2010

40,889

913,000

473,000

439,000

2.30

DK

2000

1,879

80,304

33,179

46,909

2.90

DK

2010

1,637

56,912

23,087

33,825

2.10

EE

2005

408

21,500

n.a.

n.a.

3.60

EE

2010

358

12,400

n.a.

n.a.

2.20

EL

2008

11,969

114,779

44,149

70,630

2.50

EL

2010

16,775

132,890

49,663

83,227

3.00

ES

2000

33,105

391,800

119,100

272,700

3.00

ES

2010

30,261

443,200

158,000

285,200

2.00

FI

2000

1,927

40,426

20,515

19,911

1.70

FI

2010

1,703

35,196

17,070

18,126

1.50

FR

2000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

FR

2009

60,009

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

HU

2000

6,881

148,100

58,600

89,500

3.8

HU

2010

6,489

122,200

50,500

71,700

3.30

IE

2008

n.a.

55,700

n.a.

n.a.

2.70

IE

2010

n.a.

43,200

n.a.

n.a.

2.30

IT

2001

66,936

446,785

162,623

284,162

1.90

IT

2009

57,764

427,789

155,709

272,080

1.80

LT

2006

1,139

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

LT

2012

843

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

LU

2000

n.a.

4,100

n.a.

n.a.

1.55

LU

2010

n.a.

5,100

n.a.

n.a.

1.42

LV

2000

557

35,858

15,814

20,044

4.53

LV

2010

738

25,571

14,996

10,875

3.19

MT

2000

533

3,547

545

3,002

2.57

MT

2010

543

3,284

554

2,730

2.24

NL

2000

10,125

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

NL

2010

4,340

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

PL

2000

1,748

457,400

n.a.

n.a.

4.90

PL

2010

6,273

420,800

n.a.

n.a.

4.30

PT

2000

5,243

92,053

n.a.

n.a.

3.40

PT

2010

5,818

90,820

n.a.

n.a.

3.30

RO

2000

10,073

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

RO

2010

8,591

191,525

n.a.

n.a.

2.30

SE

2000

1,746

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

SE

2011

1,927

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

SI

2000

388

20,880

8,973

11,907

2.60

SI

2010

592

14,851

6,584

8,267

1.80

SK

2000

1,285

66,100

28,500

37,600

3.15

SK

2010

1,449

55,300

30,000

25,300

2.39

UK

2000

n.a.

466,727

150,816

315,911

2.10

UK

2010

7,195

382,753

134,191

248,562

1.30

Note: n.a = not available

Table 3: Employees in the food and drink sector, 2000 and 2010
 

Year

Total employees

Female employees

Male employees

Sectoral employees as % of total employees

AT

2000

72,454

n.a.

n.a.

2.00

AT

2009

74,356

n.a.

n.a.

2.00

BE

2000

85,615

29,505

56,110

3.00

BE

2010

88,743

32,130

56,613

3.00

BG

2008

100,581

51,884

48,697

4.07

BG

2010

94,985

47,497

47,488

4.20

CY

2000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

CY

2010

12,933

6,135

6,798

3.60

CZ

2000

121,400

61,500

59,900

3.02

CZ

2010

114,400

53,700

60,700

2.85

DE

2000

717,749

354,709

363,040

2.60

DE

2010

647,095

315,217

331,878

2.30

DK

2000

78,476

32,712

45,764

3.10

DK

2010

55,953

22,836

33,117

2.30

EE

2005

20,900

n.a.

n.a.

3.70

EE

2010

12,200

n.a.

n.a.

2.30

EL

2008

86,825

33,305

53,520

2.90

EL

2010

93,929

36,939

56,990

3.30

ES

2000

360,100

115,800

244,300

3.00

ES

2010

397,600

145,250

252,350

3.00

FI

2000

39,226

19,974

19,253

2.00

FI

2010

34,101

16,581

17,520

1.60

FR

2000

533,000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

FR

2009

513,500

189,995

323,505

n.a.

HU

2000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

HU

2010

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

IE

2008

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

IE

2010

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

IT

2001

331,836

123,732

208,104

1.90

IT

2009

334,221

124,621

209,600

1.90

LT

2006

51,583

n.a.

n.a.

6.00

LT

2012

40,999

n.a.

n.a.

5.10

LU

2000

4,100

n.a.

n.a.

1.68

LU

2010

5,000

n.a.

n.a.

1.48

LV

2000

35,792

15,786

20,006

4.55

LV

2010

25,799

14,954

10,845

3.20

MT

2000

3,192

508

2,684

2.61

MT

2010

2,991

517

2,474

2.33

NL

2000

140,000

45,400

94,600

2.00

NL

2010

122,400

42,200

80,200

1.50

PL

2000

491,700

n.a.

n.a.

3.20

PL

2010

448,300

n.a.

n.a.

3.20

PT

2000

79,965

37,124

42,841

3.40

PT

2010

86,601

43,035

43,566

3.30

RO

2000

209,599

n.a.

n.a.

4.80

RO

2010

184,876

n.a.

n.a.

4.00

SE

2000

61,924

n.a.

n.a.

1.71

SE

2011

52,152

n.a.

n.a.

1.26

SI

2000

20,557

8,894

11,663

2.90

SI

2010

14,443

6,480

7,963

1.90

SK

2000

64,000

27,900

36,100

3.31

SK

2010

53,000

29,200

23,800

2.72

UK

2000

453,050

145,604

307,446

1.90

UK

2010

376,374

131,564

244,810

1.50

Note: n.a = not available

The data in Tables 2 and 3 also show that female employment is higher than the European sectoral average in eight countries (Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Germany, Finland, Latvia, Slovenia and Slovakia – Table 2). Moreover, female employment is higher than male sectoral employment in Germany, Latvia and Slovakia (Table 2), and also Bulgaria, Latvia and Slovakia in the case of employees (Table 3).

The tables also show that 14 out of 20 countries record a decrease in overall employment from 2000 to 2010, with only Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Spain, Greece and Luxembourg showing an increase. Data on the development of employment from 2000 to 2010 show a similar trend. In this case, 17 out of 24 countries show a decrease in the number of employees in the sector. Only Germany records an increase in employment and a decrease in employees. This could be explained by an increase in self-employment.

Data provided by national centres in Figure 2 show the change in the number of employees working in the sector from 2000 to 2010. According to available data, the proportion of employees in the sector has remained very stable in the majority of the countries. Some 11 countries out of 17 have recorded an increase in the proportion of employees, the others showing a slight decrease. The exception to this stable trend is Germany, where the proportion of employees decreased by around 15 percentage points between 2000 and 2010.

Figure 2: Proportion of employees in food and drink sector, 2000–2010 (%)

Figure 2: Proportion of employees in food and drink sector, 2000–2010 (%)

Source: Author’s own interpretation of data from national centres and national statistics. For a detailed description of sources, please refer to national reports.

Recent developments

The financial crisis has had some impact on the food and drink industry, although not as significant as in other sectors. As seen in Figure 3, employment began to decrease in the third quarter of 2008 and followed a negative trend until 2010. Thus, on the basis of the data of the second quarter and the average of all the quarters, a loss of 179,000 jobs and of 213,925 jobs respectively can be observed. Employment then peaked again in the second quarter of 2009 followed by a drop in the third quarter. In contrast, in the second quarter of 2010, there is a continuous increase in employment of 168,800 until the fourth quarter. This could reflect a trend of a recovery in employment.

Figure 3: Developments in employment, 2008–2010 (thousands)

Figure 3: Developments in employment, 2008–2010 (thousands)

Source: Labour Force Survey (2010)

Generally, a negative employment trend caused by the financial crisis is observed in countries with available data. As seen in Figure 4, most of the countries show a drop in employment from 2008 to 2009 – notably, Denmark, Ireland, Slovenia and the UK. From 2009 to 2010 the negative trend persists, although more countries (9 out of 22 with available data) show a trend towards employment recovery, especially Austria and the UK. The latter increased the number of pay freezes applied in the sector in 2008–2009 as a response to the crisis, as described in the national report. It is worth noting that Greece is the only country that records an increase in employment during both periods.

Figure 4: Differences in employment, 2009–2010 (%)

Figure 4: Differences in employment, 2009–2010 (%)

Source: Labour Force Survey, annual differences 2008–2009, 2009–2010


National level of interest representation

The analysis of the national level of interest representation will focus on three key elements:

  • the organisations’ membership domain and strength;
  • their role in collective bargaining;
  • their role in public policymaking.

Membership domain and strength

This study will focus on the following quantitative data on membership and relative strength within the food and drink sector, which were collected through the EIRO network of correspondents.

Table 4: Definitions of membership
Type of organisation Membership Density
Trade union

Number of active members in employment

Number of active members in employment in the food and drink sector

Sectoral density: number of active members in employment in the food and drink sector divided by total employment in the food and drink sector.

Employer organisation

Number of member companies

Number of employees working in member companies

Number of member companies in the food and drink sector

Number of employees working in member companies in the food and drink sector

Sectoral density (companies): number of member companies in food and drink sector divided by the total number of companies in the food and drink sector.

Sectoral density (employees): number of employees working in member companies in the food and drink sector divided by the total number of employees in the food and drink sector

Trade unions and employee interest representations

Tables 5, 6 and 7 present the employee organisation’s data on their domains and membership strength. The tables list all sector-related organisations that are either involved in collective bargaining and/or affiliated to one of the European-level organisations. It should be noted that in Table 5, according to the main Hungarian national report, the domains of all mentioned unions might overlap. However, the main overlaps are between ÉDOSZ and ÉDSZ.

In Table 6, according to the national correspondents, the following points can be noted.

  • CFTC AGRI is affiliated to EFFAT. However, it does not appear in the list of members of EFFAT. Accordingly, is has not been considered as an EFFAT member.
  • TUB is affiliated to EFFAT. However, it does not appear in the list of members of EFFAT Accordingly, is has not been considered as an EFFAT member.
  • De Unie is affiliated to EFFAT. However, it does not appear in the list of members of EFFAT. Accordingly, it has not been considered as an EFFAT member.
Table 5: Domain coverage and membership of employee organisations in the food and drink sector, 2011
 

Trade union

Domain Coverage

Type of membership

Active members total

Active members in the sector

AT

GPA-djp

sectional overlap

voluntary

180,000

n.a.

AT

PRO-GE

sectional overlap

voluntary

220,000

20,000

BE

ABVV-FGTB HORVAL*

sectional overlap

voluntary

110,000

18,500

BE

ABVV-BBTK/FGTB-SETCA*

sectional overlap

voluntary

389,676

3,100

BE

ACV Voeding en diensten – CSC Alimentation et Services*

sectional overlap

voluntary

200,000

26,000

BE

LBC-NVK*

sectional overlap

voluntary

285,000

6,250

BE

CNE-CSC*

sectional overlap

voluntary

8,000

n.a.

BE

ACLVB – CGSLB*

overlap

voluntary

274,308

4,566

BG

FITU-Food*

sectional overlap

voluntary

2,556

2,431

BG

FKP-PODKREPA*

sectional overlap

voluntary

2,417

2,380

BG

TUB*

sectionalism

voluntary

506

490

CY

OVIEK*

sectional overlap

voluntary

9,156

2,225

CY

SEGDAMELIN*

sectional overlap

voluntary

9,000

400

CY

SEVETTYK*

sectional overlap

voluntary

13,840

800

CZ

NOS PPP

overlap

voluntary

9,467

8,195

DE

NGG

sectional overlap

voluntary

205,637

n.a.

DK

NNF

sectional overlap

voluntary

21,095

20,500

DK

HK/Handel

sectional overlap

voluntary

200,000

4,000

DK

CO-industri

sectional overlap

voluntary

239,871

9,180

DK

DMF

sectionalism

voluntary

700

700

DK

3F

sectional overlap

voluntary

n.a.

30,000

DK

HK/Privat

sectional overlap

voluntary

290,000

538

DK

Metal

sectional overlap

voluntary

86,462

1,800

DK

DEF

sectional overlap

voluntary

22,147

250

EE

ETMK

overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

EL

-

sectionalism

voluntary

9,000

9,000

EL

POEK

sectionalism

voluntary

1,500

1,500

EL

POMYM

sectionalism

voluntary

650

580

EL

POEEYTE

sectional overlap

voluntary

80,000

n.a.

EL

ΟΕΧΒΕ

sectional overlap

voluntary

10,000

600

ES

FEAGRA-CCOO*

overlap

voluntary

14,000

n.a.

ES

FITAG-UGT*

overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

ES

ELA-STV*

sectional overlap

voluntary

24,909

n.a.

ES

CIG*

sectional overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

FI

SEL*

sectionalism

voluntary

21,000

21,000

FI

Pro

sectional overlap

voluntary

110,000

3,500

FI

YTN

sectional overlap

voluntary

150,000

3,000

FI

MVL*

sectionalism

voluntary

2,500

2,500

FR

CFE-CGC Agro*

sectional overlap

voluntary

8,000

4,000

FR

FGA-CFDT*

sectional overlap

voluntary

45,000

30,000

FR

FNAF-CGT*

sectional overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

FR

FGTA-FO*

sectional overlap

voluntary

30,000

n.a.

FR

CFTC AGR*I

overlap

voluntary

22,000

2,000

HU

ÉDOSZ*

sectional overlap

voluntary

n.a.

3,690

HU

HDSZ*

sectional overlap

voluntary

2,770

2,511

HU

MEDOSZ*

sectional overlap

voluntary

4,000

650

HU

ÉDSZ*

overlap

voluntary

3,800

3,300

HU

BDSZ*

sectionalism

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

HU

GMDSZ*

sectionalism

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

HU

HIDSZ*

sectionalism

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

IE

SIPTU*

overlap

voluntary

199,881

n.a.

IE

UNITE*

overlap

voluntary

31,594

n.a.

IE

TEEU

sectional overlap

voluntary

39,000

500

IE

UCATT

sectional overlap

voluntary

8,750

100

IE

GSU

sectionalism

voluntary

1,309

1,309

IE

IDSA

sectionalism

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

IT

FLAI-CGIL*

overlap

voluntary

281,912

n.a.

IT

FAI-CISL*

overlap

voluntary

197,921

n.a.

IT

UILA-UIL*

overlap

voluntary

224,747

45,000

IT

UGL-Agroalimentare*

overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

IT

UGL-Terziario*

sectional overlap

voluntary

212,380

n.a.

LT

LMP

overlap

voluntary

2,000

1,800

LU

FCA LCGB*

sectional overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

LU

Alimentation et Hôtellerie, OGBL*

sectional overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

LV

LIA*

overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

LV

LLPNAB*

overlap

voluntary

1,540

600

MT

UHM

overlap

voluntary

26,592

876

MT

GWU

overlap

voluntary

43,003

1,200

NL

FNV*

overlap

voluntary

475,000

n.a.

NL

CNV Vakmensen*

overlap

voluntary

135,000

10,000

NL

De Unie*

sectional overlap

voluntary

125,000

265

PL

KSPS NSZZ Solidarność*

overlap

voluntary

26,000

23,200

PL

ZZPPiS*

sectional overlap

voluntary

693

693

PL

FZZPM*

sectional overlap

voluntary

4,600

4,600

PL

ZZPPC*

sectional overlap

voluntary

2,000

2,000

PL

FZZPPS*

sectional overlap

voluntary

3,250

3,050

PL

FZZPPC*

sectional overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

PT

SINTAB*

overlap

voluntary

6,000

6,000

PT

STIANOR*

sectionalism

voluntary

2,500

2,500

PT

STIAC*

sectionalism

voluntary

2,500

2,500

PT

SINDILACTI*

overlap

voluntary

2,000

2,000

PT

SINTICABA

sectionalism

voluntary

1,500

1,500

PT

SETAA*

sectional overlap

voluntary

3,500

n.a.

PT

SITESE*

overlap

voluntary

10,000

n.a.

RO

Federation SINDALIMENTA*

overlap

voluntary

25,000

25,000

RO

Central CERES*

sectional overlap

voluntary

15,000

n.a.

SE

Ledarna*

sectional overlap

voluntary

88,000

1,198

SE

Unionen*

sectional overlap

voluntary

500,000

7,000

SE

Livs*

sectional overlap

voluntary

36,000

35,000

SE

Sveriges Ingenjörer*

sectional overlap

voluntary

133,000

n.a.

SI

KŽI

overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

SK

OZP SR

sectional overlap

voluntary

3,580

3,400

UK

BFAWU*

overlap

voluntary

22,786

20,000

UK

GMB*

overlap

voluntary

610,000

n.a.

UK

UNITE*

overlap

voluntary

1,500,000

80,000

UK

USDAW*

overlap

voluntary

414,000

n.a.

Note: a = a more detailed description of the trade unions membership domain with regard to the sector can be found in Table 1

*= Domain overlap with other sector-related trade unions

n.a. = not available

Table 6: Density, collective bargaining, consultation and affiliations of employee organisations in food and drink sector, 2011
 

Trade union

Sectoral density (%)

Collective bargaining

Consultation

National, European and international affiliations

AT

GPA-djp

n.a.

Yes, both

n.a.

n.a.

ITUC-CSI-IGB, ETUC, EPSU, EMCEF, EFFAT, EFJ, UNI Europa ,ÖGB

AT

PRO-GE

25.8

Yes, both

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

ILO,ICEM, IMF, ITGLWF, IUF – UITA – IUL, TUAC, EFFAT, EMCEF, EMF ETUF:TCL, ETUC, ÖGB

BE

ABVV-FGTB HORVAL

18.9

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

IUF, ITUC, EFFAT, ETUC, ABVV – FGTB

BE

ABVV-BBTK/FGTB-SETCA

3.2

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

IUF, EFFAT, ABVV-FGTB

BE

ACV Voeding en diensten – CSC Alimentation et Services

26.5

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

IUF, EFFAT,UNI-Europe ACV - CSC

BE

LBC-NVK

6.4

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

 

IUF, EFFAT, ACV

BE

CNE-CSC

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

EFFAT

BE

ACLVB – CGSLB

4.7

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

IUF, EFFAT

BG

FITU-Food

2.6

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

IUF, EFFAT, ,CITUB

BG

FKP-PODKREPA

2.5

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

IUF, EFFAT, Confederation of Labour Podkrepa

BG

TUB

0.5

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

IUF, EFFAT, CITUB

 

CY

OVIEK

17.2

Yes, both

No

 

IMF, IUF, ITGLWF, IFG, ICEM , EFFAT, EMF, ECF, ETUF/TCL, EGF SEK

CY

SEGDAMELIN

3.1

Yes, both

No

 

None

CY

SEVETTYK

6.2

Yes, single-employer

No

 

PEO

CZ

NOS PPP

6.7

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

ČMKOS, Českomoravská konfederace odborových svazů

DE

NGG

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

IUL, EFFAT, DGB

DK

NNF

36.6

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

UNI, IUL, EFFAT, LO

DK

HK/Handel

7.1

Yes, both multi-employer and single bargaining

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

UNI, IUL, EFFAT, LO

DK

CO-industri

16.4

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

UNI, IUL, IndustryALL, EFFAT, LO

DK

DMF

1.3

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EFFAT, LO,Serviceforbundet

DK

3F

53.6

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

UNI, IUL, IFBWW EFFAT, EMCEF, UNI-Europa, EFBWW, EPSU LO

DK

HK/Privat

1.0

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

UNI, UNI-Europa, LO

DK

Metal

3.2

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

IMF, EMF, LO,CO-industri

DK

DEF

0.4

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

ICEM, EMCEF, LOCO-industri

EE

ETMK

n.a.

No

No

 

Uniting Food, UIF, Kutsekoda

EL

Hellenic Federation of Milk, Food and Drinks Workers and Employees

9.6

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

n.a.

n.a.

GSEE

EL

POEK

1.6

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

No

 

GSEE 

EL

POMYM

0.6

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

No

 

GSEE

EL

POEEYTE

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

No

 

EFFAT, GSEE

EL

ΟΕΧΒΕ

0.6

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

No

 

GSEE

ES

FEAGRA-CCOO

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

IUF, EFFAT

ES

FITAG-UGT

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EFFAT

ES

ELA-STV

n.a.

Yes, both

n.a.

n.a.

EFFAT

ES

CIG

n.a.

Yes, both

     
FI

SEL

59.7

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis

IUF, EFFAT, SAK

FI

Pro

9.9

Yes, both

No

 

UNI, EFFAT, STTK

FI

YTN

8.5

Yes, both

No

   
FI

MVL

7.1

Yes, both

No

 

AEDIL, STTK

FR

CFE-CGC Agro

0.8

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis

IUF, EFFAT, CFE-CGC

FR

FGA-CFDT

5.8

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis

IUF, UNI Global Union, EFFAT, UNI Europa

FR

FNAF-CGT

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis

CGT

FR

FGTA-FO

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis

IUF, EFFAT, FO

FR

CFTC AGRI

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

CFTC

HU

ÉDOSZ

3.0

Yes, single-employer

No

 

IUF, EFFAT, MSZOSZ

HU

HDSZ

2.1

Yes, single-employer

unknown

On an ad-hoc basis

IUF, EFFAT, MSZOSZ

HU

MEDOSZ

0.5

No

No

 

IUF, EFFAT, MSZOSZ

HU

ÉDSZ

2.7

Yes, single-employer

No

 

IUF, EFFAT, MSZOSZ

HU

BDSZ

n.a.

No

n.a.

n.a.

MSZOSZ

HU

GMDSZ

n.a.

No

n.a.

n.a.

MSZOSZ

HU

HIDSZ

n.a.

No

n.a.

n.a.

MSZOSZ

IE

SIPTU

n.a.

Yes, single-employer

n.a.

n.a.

EFFAT, ETUC, ICTU

IE

UNITE

n.a.

Yes, single-employer

n.a.

n.a.

ETUC, ICTU

IE

TEEU

1.2

Yes, single-employer

n.a.

n.a.

 
IE

UCATT

0.2

Yes, single-employer

n.a.

n.a.

ETUC, ICTU

IE

GSU

n.a.

Yes, single-employer

Yes, within tripartite structures

 

ICTU

IE

IDSA

n.a.

Yes, single-employer

n.a.

n.a.

 
IT

FLAI-CGIL

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes, both

On an ad-hoc basis

IUF-UITA, EFFAT, EFT, CGIL

IT

FAI-CISL

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

IUF-UITA, EFFAT; EFT, CISL

IT

UILA-UIL

10.5

Yes, both

Yes, both

On an ad-hoc basis

IUF-UITA, EFFAT UIL

IT

UGL-Agroalimentare

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

UGL

IT

UGL-Terziario

n.a.

Yes, both

n.a.

n.a.

UGL

LT

LMP

n.a.

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

IUF, EFFAT, LPSK

LU

FCA LCGB

n.a.

 Information not provided

n.a.

n.a.

EFFAT, LCGB

LU

Alimentation et Hôtellerie, OGBL

n.a.

Information not provided

n.a.

n.a.

EFFAT, OGBL

LV

LIA

n.a.

No

No

 

ICEM, ITGLWF, IUF, EFFAT, LBAS

LV

LLPNAB

2.3

No. LLPNAB does not directly conclude collective agreements but it assists trade union organisations in companies that conclude single-employer collective agreements.

No

 

LBAS

MT

UHM

26.7

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

INFEDOP, CMTU

MT

GWU

40.1

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

PSI, ILO, ITUC, ITF, IUF, IFBWW, IMF, ICEM, ITGLWF, UNI, IFWEA. EPSU, ETUC, UNI Europa, EURO WEA, FERPA, Eurocadres, ETF, EFBWW, EMF, EFFAT.

NL

FNV

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

EFFAT, IUF, FNV

NL

CNV Vakmensen

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

EFFAT, EFFAT, CNV

NL

De Unie

0.2

Yes, both

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

MHP

PL

KSPS NSZZ Solidarność

5.5

Yes, single-employer

No

 

IUF, EFFAT, NSZZ

PL

ZZPPiS

0.2

Yes, single-employer

No

 

OPZZ

PL

FZZPM

1.1

n.a.

No

 

OPZZ

PL

ZZPPC

0.5

Yes, single-employer

No

 

OPZZ

PL

FZZPPS

0.7

Yes, single-employer

No

 

Trade Union International of Agriculture, Food, Commerce, Textile, OPZZ

PL

FZZPPC

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

OPZZ

PT

SINTAB

6.6

Yes, both

n.a.

n.a.

CGTP-IN FESAHT

PT

STIANOR

2.8

Yes, both

n.a.

n.a.

CGTP-INFESAHT

PT

STIAC

2.8

Yes, both

n.a.

n.a.

CGTP-IN, FESAHT

PT

SINDILACTI

2.2

Yes, both

n.a.

n.a.

 
PT

SINTICABA

1.7

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

n.a.

n.a.

 
PT

SETAA

n.a.

Yes, both

n.a.

n.a.

IUF, EFFAT, UGT

PT

SITESE

n.a.

Yes, both

n.a.

n.a.

UNI UNI-Europa, UGT, FETESE

RO

Federation SINDALIMENTA

13.1

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

IUF, EFFAT, CSDR

RO

Central CERES

n.a.

Yes, single-employer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

EFFAT, CNS

SE

Ledarna

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

CEC, PTK, OFR

SE

Unionen

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

UNI, EFFAT, TCO

SE

Livs

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis

EFFAT, IUF, LO

SE

Sveriges Ingenjörer

n.a.

Yes, both

n.a.

n.a.

CEC, FEANI, ICEM, IMF, UNI, ANE, IN, TCO

SI

KŽI

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

IUF, EFFAT, IUL, ZSSS

SK

OZP SR

6.4

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

IUL, EFFAT, KOZ, SR

UK

BFAWU

5.2

Yes, single-employer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

IUF, EFFAT, TUC

UK

GMB

n.a.

Yes, single-employer

 

On an ad-hoc basis

IUF, UNI EFFAT, UNI europa, TUC

UK

UNITE

20.9

Yes, single-employer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

IUF, EFFAT, TUC

UK

USDAW

n.a.

Yes, both

n.a.

n.a.

IUF, EFFAT, TUC

Note: n.a.= not available

Table 7: Employee organisations, domain coverage and domain description in relation to the food and drink sector, 2011
 

Employee organisation

Domain coverage

Domain description

AT

GPA-djp

sectional overlap

White-collar employees

AT

PRO-GE

sectional overlap

Blue-collar workers

BE

ABVV-FGTB HORVAL

sectional overlap

White-collar workers

BE

ABVV-BBTK/FGTB-SETCA

sectional overlap

White-collar workers

BE

ACV Voeding en diensten – CSC Alimentation et Services

sectional overlap

Blue-collar workers

BE

LBC-NVK

sectional overlap

White-collar workers in the Dutch-speaking and bilingual region

BE

CNE-CSC

sectional overlap

White-collar workers in the French-speaking and bilingual region

BE

ACLVB – CGSLB

overlap

All employees in the entire food and drink sector

BG

FITU-Food

sectional overlap

Employees with fixed-term contracts

BG

FKP-PODKREPA

sectional overlap

Employees with fixed-term contracts

BG

TUB

sectionalism

Employees with standard employment contracts

CY

OVIEK

sectional overlap

Employees in the entire private food and drink sector (it excludes self-employed)

CY

SEGDAMELIN

sectional overlap

Employees of the manufacture of beverages sub-sector

CY

SEVETTYK

sectional overlap

Employees in the entire private food and drink sector (it excludes self-employed)

CZ

NOS PPP

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

DE

NGG

sectional overlap

Employees in the entire private food and drink sector (it excludes self-employed)

DK

NNF

sectional overlap

Blue-collar workers in the manufacture of food products sub-sector

DK

HK/Handel

sectional overlap

White-collar workers in the manufacture of food products sub-sector

DK

CO-industri

sectional overlap

All workers in the manufacture of food products sub-sector

DK

DMF

sectionalism

Dairies

DK

3F

sectional overlap

Blue-collar workers

DK

HK/Privat

sectional overlap

White- collar workers

DK

Metal

sectional overlap

Blue-collar workers

DK

DEF

sectional overlap

Blue-collar workers

EE

ETMK

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector and in the agriculture sector

ES

FEAGRA-CCOO

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector and in the agriculture sector and in the manufacture of tobacco

EL

-

sectionalism

Specialised staff (blue-collar and other staff) employed in dairy, standardised products and drink enterprises

EL

POEK

sectionalism

Blue-collar workers, especially abbatoir workers

EL

POMYM

sectionalism

Employees of pasta industries and mills

EL

POEEYTE

sectional overlap

Workers employed under a dependent employment relationship

EL

ΟΕΧΒΕ

sectional overlap

Blue-collar workers in baker’s yeast, starch, starch-sugar and grape-sugar producing enterprises

ES

FITAG-UGT

overlap

All the workers in the entire food and drink sector

ES

ELA-STV

sectional overlap

All the workers in the entire food and drink sector in the Basque region

ES

CIG

sectional overlap

All the workers in the entire food and drink sector in the Galician region

FI

SEL

sectionalism

Blue-collar workers

FI

Pro

sectional overlap

White-collar employees

FI

YTN

sectional overlap

White-collar employees

FI

MVL

sectionalism

Dairies

FR

CFE-CGC Agro

sectionalism

Managers, technicians and engineers

FR

FGA-CFDT

sectional overlap

Employees in the entire private food and drink sector (it excludes self-employed)

FR

FNAF-CGT

sectional overlap

Employees in the entire private food and drink sector (it excludes self-employed)

FR

FGTA-FO

sectional overlap

Employees in the entire private food and drink sector (it excludes self-employed)

FR

CFTC AGRI

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

HU

ÉDOSZ

sectional overlap

Workers in the manufacture of food products sub-sector

HU

HDSZ

sectional overlap

Workers in the manufacture of food products sub-sector

HU

MEDOSZ

sectional overlap

Workers in the manufacture of food products since March 2012. The main domain of the union is agriculture, water, forest workers.

HU

ÉDSZ

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

HU

BDSZ

sectionalism

Workers in the manufacture of food products sub-sector

HU

GMDSZ

sectionalism

Workers in the manufacture of food products sub-sector

HU

HIDSZ

sectionalism

Workers in the manufacture of food products sub-sector

IE

SIPTU

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

IE

UNITE

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

IE

TEEU

sectional overlap

Technical/engineering/electrical craft workers

IE

UCATT

sectional overlap

Craft workers

IE

GSU

sectionalism

Guinness staff

IE

IDSA

sectionalism

Irish distillers

IT

FLAI-CGIL

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

IT

FAI-CISL

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

IT

UILA-UIL

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

IT

UGL-Agroalimentare

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

IT

UGL-Terziario

sectional overlap

Employees that work in baking and flour products

LT

LMP

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

LU

FCA LCGB

sectional overlap

n.a.

LU

Alimentation et Hôtellerie, OGBL

sectional overlap

n.a.

LV

LIA

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

LV

LLPNAB

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

MT

UHM

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

MT

GWU

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

NL

FNV

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

NL

CNV Vakmensen

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

NL

De Unie

sectional overlap

Middle and higher personnel

PL

KSPS NSZZ Solidarność

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

PL

ZZPPiS

sectional overlap

Workers in the manufacture of food products sub-sector

PL

FZZPM

sectional overlap

Workers in the manufacture of food products sub-sector.

PL

ZZPPC

sectional overlap

Workers in the manufacture of food products sub-sector

PL

FZZPPS

sectional overlap

Employees with standard employment contracts

PL

FZZPPC

sectional overlap

Workers in the manufacture of food products sub-sector

PT

SINTAB

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

PT

STIANOR

sectionalism

Northern Portugal

PT

STIAC

sectionalism

Central and southern Portugal and the islands (Madeira and Azores)

PT

SINDILACTI

n.a.

 
PT

SINTICABA

sectionalism

Workers in the manufacture of beverages sub-sector

PT

SETAA

sectional overlap

n.a.

PT

SITESE

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

RO

Federation SINDALIMENTA

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

RO

Central CERES

sectional overlap

Workers in the manufacture of food products sub-sector.

SE

Ledarna

sectional overlap

White-collar workers

SE

Unionen

sectional overlap

White-collar workers

SE

Livs

sectional overlap

Blue-collar workers

SE

Sveriges Ingenjörer

sectional overlap

White-collar workers

SI

KŽI

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

SK

OZP SR

sectional overlap

Self-employed, temporary agency workers, freelancers are not covered.

UK

BFAWU

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

UK

GMB

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

UK

UNITE

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

UK

USDAW

overlap

Workers in the entire food and drink sector

All the 27 countries record at least one sector-related trade union. In total, 96 sector-related trade unions were identified that fulfil the criteria to be included in the representativeness study. Only one sector-related union is recorded in 22.2% of the cases, two in 18.5% and three unions are observed in 11.1% of the countries. Moreover, 48.1% of the countries record four or more sector-related unions, thus showing a fragmented landscape.

The undefined boundaries of the food and drink sector imply that no unions have demarcated their domain in a way that is congruent with the sector definition. This fact highlights that statistical definitions of business activities of the sector differ from the lines along which employees identify their interests, mainly based on trades and occupational categories.

Sectional overlaps prevail in the food and drink sector (in up to 55% of the cases). This is usually because of domain demarcations focusing on certain categories of employees, which are then organised across several or all sectors. Employee categories are specified by various parameters.

These parameters can be distinct occupations:

  • managers, technicians and engineers (CFE-CGC Agro in France);
  • technical, engineering and electrical craft workers (TEEU in Ireland);
  • craft workers (UCATT in Ireland);
  • managers (Ledarna in Sweden).

The paramaters may also be employment status:

  • white-collar workers (GPA-djp in Austria, ABVV-BBTK/FGTB-SETCA and LBC-NVK in Belgium, HK/Privat in Denmark, Pro, YTN in Finland, De Unie in the Netherland, Unionen, Sveriges Ingenjörer in Sweden);
  • blue-collar workers (PRO-GE in Austria, ABVV-FGTB HORVAL and ACV Voeding en diensten – CSC Alimentation et Services in Belgium, NNF, 3F, Metal, DEF in Denmark, ΟΕΧΒΕ in Greece, Livs in Sweden);
  • employees (OVIEK, SEGDAMELIN, SEVETTYK in Cyprus, 3F in Denmark, FGA-CFDT, FNAF-CGT, FGTA-FO in France, POEEYTE in Greece);
  • self-employed (SUKI-GLOSA in Slovenia);
  • fixed-term contract workers (FITU-Food, NFFI Podkrepa in Bulgaria);
  • workers under standard employment forms (FZZPPS in Poland, OZP SR in Slovakia);
  • workers in private companies (NGG in Germany).

The parameters could also include geographic region, such as CIG, ELA-STV in Spain and CNE in Belgium, which are active only in certain regions.

Domain demarcations resulting in overlap in relation to the sector occur in 29% of the cases. Overlap, by and large, arises from two different modes of demarcation. The first one refers to general (for example cross-sectoral) domains (SIPTU in Ireland, UHM, GWU in Malta, FNV, CNV Vakmensen in the Netherlands, GMB, UNITE in the UK). The second and more frequent mode in the sector relates to various forms of multisector domains, covering continuous sectors, such as agriculture and fisheries, manufacture of tobacco, trading of food and drink or different sectors which do not directly relate to food and drink, such as mining, chemicals or hotels and restaurants (ETMK in Estonia, FEAGRA-CCOO, FITAG-UGT in Spain, CFTC AGRI in France, ÉDSZ in Hungary, FLAI-CGIL, FAI-CISL, UILA-UIL, UGL-Agroalimentare in Italy, LIA, LLPNAB in Latvia, KSPS NSZZ Solidarność in Poland, SINTAB, SITESE in Portugal, Federation SINDALIMENTA in Romania, KŽI in Slovenia, BFAWU in the UK).

Finally, sectionalism can be found in 16% of the cases. It arises from the existence of:

  • occupational or employment status sector-specific trade unions, such as white-collar workers (DJ in Germany and SNCAMTC and SNACOPVA in France);
  • employees with standard employment contracts (TUB in Bulgaria, Hellenic Federation of Milk, Food and Drinks Workers and Employees in Greece);
  • trade unions covering only some geographical regions (STIANOR, STIAC in Portugal);
  • trade unions covering only some activities within the food and drink sector, whether manufacture of food or manufacture of beverage, or some narrower sectors (POMYM in Greece, BDSZ, GMDSZ, HIDSZ in Hungary, GSU, IDSA in Ireland, SINTICABA in Portugal, DMF in Denmark).

Figure 5: Food and drink sector-related trade unions and their domain patterns

Figure 5: Food and drink sector-related trade unions and their domain patterns

Note: n = 94

Source: EIRO national contributions

In the food and drink sector, the unions’ domain refers to different occupations and employment statuses, and the presence of sector-specific trade unions is also high. Figure 5 shows the overlap of these inter-union domains. Some 17 out of 21 countries record only one sector-related trade union. In most countries (except Greece, Denmark, Malta and Austria) with more than one sector-related trade union, the domain of any of them overlaps with the domain of all or most of the others. Noticeable inter-union competition is recorded in only France and Sweden. In France, unions compete for members and their subsequent support in the workplace elections that determine which trade union has a seat on the works council. According to the French national correspondent, competition is expected to increase in 2013, when a new representativeness regulation based on the workplace elections outcomes will come into force. In Sweden, competition concerns members’ recruitment.

Membership of the sector-related trade union is, in principle, voluntary in the 27 countries under consideration.

The numbers of active trade union members differ widely, ranging from more than 1.5 million (in the case of UK’s UNITE) to only a few dozen (such as POMYN in Greece). This considerable variation reflects differences in the size of the economy and the comprehensiveness of the membership domain, rather than the ability to recruit members. Therefore, density is the measure of membership strength, which is more appropriate to comparative analysis. In this context it should be noted that density figures in this section refer to net ratios, which means that they are calculated on the basis of active employees only, rather than taking all union members into account (both those in a job and those who are not). This is mainly because research usually considers net union densities as more informative than gross densities, since the former measure tends to reflect unionisation trends among the active workforce more quickly and accurately than the latter (only the active workforce is capable of taking industrial action). When looking at sector density (again referring only to active members), it is important to differentiate between trade unions’ sectoral density and their domain density. The domain or overall density must be higher than the sectoral density if a trade union organises only a particular part of the sector – that is, where the trade union’s membership domain is sectionalist. It must be equal if a trade union only organises the whole sector as it is defined in the study – that is, where the trade union’s membership domain is congruence.

Sectoral density rates are available for more than half of the sector-related organisations covered (56 out of 96 cases). Statistics indicate the following:

  • sectoral density exceeds 20% in 14% of the cases of those trade unions (eight in total) that document figures on density;
  • 9% of unions (five) claim to gather between 10% and 20% of the sector’s employees;
  • 23% of the trade unions (13), for which data are available, claim to organise between 5% and 10% of the active employees of the sector;
  • 54% of the trade unions (30) record a sector density rate of fewer than 5% of the employees in the sector.

In this sense, in addition to the fact that the unions’ domains mainly overlap in the sector and represent different occupations through other sectors, sectoral domain varies depending on the countries and different unions’ domains.

These low sector-density rates are caused by the fragmentation of the trade union domains shown above and the existence of several trade unions in the sector in many countries. In addition, it is noteworthy that data is not available in the majority of cases.

Employers’ organisations

Tables 8 and 9 present membership data for the employers’ organisations in the food and drink sector. In this case, 24 of the EU27 members are identified. With regard to Cyprus, Lithuania and Malta, neither the top-down nor the bottom-up approach identified any relevant organisation.

Table 8: Domain coverage and membership of employer/business organisations in food and drink, 2011
 

Employer organisation

Domain coverage

Type of membership

Companies total

Companies in sector

Employees total

Employees in sector

AT

FVNG

sectionalism

compulsory

230

230

27,000

27,000

AT

BILG

sectionalism

compulsory

4,428

4,428

44,013

44,013

BE

FEVIA

congruence

voluntary

512

512

53,387

53,387

BG

USSPMB

sectional overlap

voluntary

12

10

2,000

1,800

BG

OOPAB

sectionalism

voluntary

16

16

1,200

1,200

BG

UMCF

sectional overlap

voluntary

60

55

4,162

4,100

BG

UPBB

sectional overlap

voluntary

79

60

n.a.

n.a.

BG

UBM

sectional overlap

voluntary

38

30

n.a.

n.a.

BG

UBB

sectional overlap

voluntary

27

7

n.a.

1,444

CY

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

CZ

PK ČR

overlap

voluntary

91

n.a.

92,700

n.a.

DE

BLL

overlap

voluntary

300

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

DE

BVE

overlap

voluntary

50

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

DE

ANG

overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

DE

BDSI

sectionalism

voluntary

220

220

n.a.

n.a.

DE

VdZ

sectionalism

voluntary

4

4

5,500

5,500

DE

na

sectional overlap

voluntary

100

90

40,000

34,000

DE

na

sectionalism

voluntary

14,200

14,200

292,400

292,40

DE

DFV

sectionalism

voluntary

na

na

na

n.a.

DK

DI

overlap

voluntary

10,000

270

1,000,000

44,000

DK

MA

sectionalism

voluntary

19

19

8,500

8,500

DK

BKD

sectionalism

voluntary

625

625

15,000

15,000

DK

DSM

sectionalism

voluntary

400

400

5,000

5,000

EE

ETL

congruence

voluntary

49

49

11,730

11,730

EL

GSEVEE

overlap

voluntary

160,000

10,000

500,000

25,000

EL

SEV

sectional overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

EL

SEVT

sectionalism

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

ES

FIAB

congruence

voluntary

8,000

8,000

n.a.

n.a.

ES

AMACO

sectionalism

voluntary

100

100

12,320

12,320

ES

CONFECARNE

sectionalism

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

ES

FNACV

sectionalism

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

ES

AFHSE

sectionalism

voluntary

126

126

n.a.

n.a.

ES

AEFH

sectionalism

voluntary

7

7

n.a.

n.a.

ES

ANIE

sectionalism

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

ES

CESFACB

sectionalism

voluntary

15

15

n.a.

n.a.

ES

FENIL

sectionalism

voluntary

80

80

n.a.

n.a.

ES

TUMA

sectionalism

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

ES

FEICOPESCA

sectionalism

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

ES

ASEPRHU

sectionalism

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

ES

ANEABE

sectionalism

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

ES

UNIADE

sectionalism

voluntary

11

11

n.a.

n.a.

ES

AEFPA

sectionalism

voluntary

na

na

na

n.a.

FI

ETL

sectionalism

voluntary

280

280

26,000

26,000

FR

ANIA

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

FR

ADEPALE

sectionalism

voluntary

225

225

n.a.

38,000

FR

USIPA

sectionalism

voluntary

10

10

n.a.

n.a.

FR

FEDAROM

sectionalism

voluntary

46

46

1,800

1,800

FR

SNBR

sectionalism

voluntary

10

10

4,600

4,600

FR

FEBPF

sectionalism

voluntary

160

160

n.a.

n.a.

FR

ABF

sectional overlap

voluntary

96

96

n.a.

n.a.

FR

FICT

sectionalism

voluntary

250

250

34,000

34,000

FR

FNICG

sectional overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

FR

CSEM

sectionalism

voluntary

18

18

n.a.

n.a.

FR

FEDALIM

sectionalism

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

FR

SFIG

sectionalism

voluntary

11

11

n.a.

n.a.

FR

UNIJUS

sectional overlap

voluntary

31

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

FR

FNIL

congruence

voluntary

120

120

50,000

50,000

FR

FNCL

sectionalism

voluntary

340

340

n.a.

n.a.

FR

Alliance 7

sectionalism

voluntary

413

413

47,100

47,100

FR

CSFL

sectionalism

voluntary

5

5

n.a.

n.a.

FR

ANMF

sectionalism

voluntary

299

299

5,965

5,965

FR

CSF

sectionalism

voluntary

6

6

n.a.

n.a.

FR

FFS

sectionalism

voluntary

200

200

n.a.

n.a.

FR

SNSF

sectionalism

voluntary

7

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

FR

-

sectionalism

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

FR

-

sectionalism

voluntary

42

42

n.a.

n.a.

FR

SYFAB

sectionalism

n.a.

20

20

n.a.

n.a.

FR

SNIV-SNCP

sectionalism

voluntary

80

80

35,000

35,000

FR

FICGV

sectionalism

voluntary

300

300

n.a.

n.a.

FR

FIA

sectionalism

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

HU

ÉFOSZ

sectional overlap

voluntary

875

850

85,000

83,000

HU

MPSZ

sectional overlap

voluntary

375

n.a.

12,000

83,000

IE

IBEC

overlap

voluntary

7,500

150

n.a.

n.a.

IT

Federalimentare

congruence

voluntary

6,500

6,500

410,000

410,000

IT

AGCI-Agrital

sectional overlap

voluntary

1,077

536

9,497

7,489

IT

Legacoop Agroalimentare

sectional overlap

voluntary

1,142

670

23,800

16,600

IT

Federagri-Confcooperative

sectional overlap

voluntary

3,664

1,746

n.a.

n.a.

IT

Unionalimentari-Confapi

congruence

voluntary

1,000

1,000

20,000

20,000

IT

CNA Alimentare

sectionalism

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

IT

Confartigianato Alimentazione

sectionalism

voluntary

38,820

38,820

37,151

37,151

IT

CASARTIGIANI

sectional overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

200,000

n.a.

IT

CLAAI

sectional overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

IT

FIPPA

sectionalism

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

IT

Assopanificatori

sectionalism

voluntary

4,800

4,800

n.a.

n.a.

LT

na

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

LU

FEDIL

overlap

voluntary

17

17

1,453

635

LV

LPUF

overlap

voluntary

31

31

6,000

6,000

LV

LADRIA

sectional overlap

voluntary

3

3

1,223

1,223

LV

LZS (ULFPI)

sectionalism

voluntary

8

8

2,930

2,930

LV

LGRPA

sectional overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

LV

LADS

sectionalism

voluntary

12

12

200

200

LV

LADA

sectionalism

voluntary

3

3

900

900

LV

LBDUA

sectionalism

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

LV

LMB

sectionalism

voluntary

23

23

1,830

1,830

MT

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

NL

FNLI

overlap

voluntary

450

400

7,500

7,500

PL

PFPZ

congruence

voluntary

25

25

n.a.

n.a.

PL

ZPPP

sectional overlap

voluntary

11

11

7,000

7,000

PT

FIPA

           
PT

AIPAN

sectionalism

voluntary

na

na

na

n.a.

PT

ACIP

sectionalism

voluntary

na

na

na

n.a.

PT

APIC

sectionalism

voluntary

112

112

6,500

6,500

PT

ANIL

sectional overlap

voluntary

50

42

7,120

5,800

PT

ANICP

n.a.

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

PT

ANCAVE

n.a.

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

PT

AIPL

n.a.

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

PT

APIAM

n.a.

voluntary

16

16

n.a.

n.a.

RO

Federation ROMALIMENTA

overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

90,638

90,638

SE

Li

sectional overlap

voluntary

890

890

47,000

47,000

SI

GZS - ZKŽP

overlap

voluntary

300

n.a.

10,850

n.a.

SI

ZDS

overlap

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

SI

ZZS

???

voluntary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

SK

SPPK

overlap

voluntary

1,592

108

n.a.

n.a.

SK

PKS

overlap

voluntary

44

40

n.a.

n.a.

SK

SCS

sectionalism

voluntary

2

2

350

350

SK

SZVPS

sectional overlap

voluntary

13

9

n.a.

n.a.

UK

FDF

congruence

voluntary

300

300

n.a.

n.a.

UK

SAMB

sectionalism

voluntary

395

395

18,000

11,300

Note: a = Please find a more detailed description of the employers' organisations in Table 9

n.a. = not available

Table 9: Employer organisations, domain coverage and domain description in relation to the food and drink sector, 2011
 

National association

Domain coverage

Domain description

AT

FVNG

sectionalism

large enterprises (industry) engaged in the production of food and drink

AT

BILG

sectionalism

smaller enterprises: those engaged in trades in the sector and not in industry

BE

FEVIA

congruence

all companies in the sector

BG

USSPMB

sectional overlap

food companies

BG

OOPAB

sectionalism

food companies

BG

UMCF

sectional overlap

food companies

BG

UPBB

sectional overlap

food companies

BG

UBM

sectional overlap

food companies

BG

UBB

sectional overlap

companies in drink sector

CZ

PK ČR

overlap

all companies in the sector

DE

BLL

overlap

all companies in the sector

DE

BVE

overlap

all companies in the sector

DE

ANG

overlap

all companies in the sector

DE

BDSI

sectionalism

food companies

DE

VdZ

sectionalism

food companies

DE

Association of German Industrial Bakers

sectional overlap

food companies

DE

German Bakers Confederation

sectionalism

private bakers

DE

DFV

sectionalism

private butchers

DK

DI

overlap

all companies in the sector

DK

MA

sectionalism

food companies

DK

BKD

sectionalism

food companies

DK

DSM

sectionalism

shops and small abbatoirs

EE

ETL

congruence

all companies in the sector

EL

GSEVEE

overlap

all companies in the sector

EL

SEV

sectional overlap

large enterprises

EL

SEVT

sectionalism

food industries

ES

FIAB

congruence

all companies in the sector

ES

AMACO

sectionalism

poultry abbatoirs

ES

CONFECARNE

sectionalism

meat manufacturing

ES

FNACV

sectionalism

tinned vegetables

ES

AFHSE

sectionalism

companies specialised in the manufacture of flour and semolina

ES

AEFH

sectionalism

large manufacturers of ice cream

ES

ANIE

sectionalism

manufacture of sea products

ES

CESFACB

sectionalism

manufacture of prepared animal feeds

ES

FENIL

sectionalism

manufacture of dairy products

ES

TUMA

sectionalism

manufactures of nougat, candy and marzipan

ES

FEICOPESCA

sectionalism

fish and aquaculture products

ES

ASEPRHU

sectionalism

egg producers

ES

ANEABE

sectionalism

manufacture of bottled water

ES

UNIADE

sectionalism

rice growers

ES

AEFPA

sectionalism

pasta manufactures

FI

ETL

congruence

all companies in the sector

FR

ANIA

no data

no data

FR

ADEPALE

sectionalism

food companies with a least 10 employees

FR

USIPA

sectionalism

food companies

FR

FEDAROM

sectionalism

food companies

FR

SNBR

sectionalism

beverage companies

FR

FEBPF

sectionalism

food companies

FR

ABF

sectional overlap

beverage companies

FR

FICT

sectionalism

food companies

FR

FNICG

sectional overlap

food companies

FR

CSEM

sectionalism

beverage companies

FR

FEDALIM

sectionalism

food companies

FR

SFIG

sectionalism

food companies

FR

UNIJUS

sectional overlap

beverage companies

FR

FNIL

congruence

all companies in the sector

FR

FNCL

sectionalism

cooperatives

FR

Alliance 7

sectionalism

food companies

FR

CSFL

sectionalism

food companies

FR

ANMF

sectionalism

food companies

FR

CSF

sectionalism

food companies

FR

FFS

sectionalism

beverage companies

FR

SNSF

sectionalism

food companies

FR

Chamber of French Refiners and Conditioners of Sugar

sectionalism

food companies

FR

National Union of Manufacturers of Frozen and Deep Frozen Products

sectionalism

food companies

FR

SYFAB

sectionalism

food companies

FR

SNIV-SNCP

sectionalism

food companies

FR

FICGV

sectionalism

food companies

FR

FIA

sectionalism

food companies

HU

ÉFOSZ

sectional overlap

n.a.

HU

MPSZ

sectional overlap

n.a.

IE

IBEC

overlap

all companies in the sector

IT

Federalimentare

congruence

all companies in the sector

IT

AGCI-Agrital

sectional overlap

cooperatives

IT

Legacoop Agroalimentare

sectional overlap

cooperatives

IT

Federagri-Confcooperative

sectional overlap

cooperatives

IT

Unionalimentari-Confapi

congruence

all companies in the sector

IT

CNA Alimentare

sectionalism

craft companies

IT

Confartigianato Alimentazione

sectionalism

craft companies, SMEs, microenterprises and autonomous workers

IT

CASARTIGIANI

sectional overlap

craft companies

IT

CLAAI

sectional overlap

craft companies

IT

FIPPA

sectionalism

companies that manufacture bakery and flour products (NACE Code 10.7)

IT

Assopanificatori

sectionalism

companies that manufacture bakery and flour products (NACE Code 10.7)

LU

FEDIL

overlap

all companies in the sector

LV

LPUF

overlap

all companies in the sector

LV

LADRIA

sectional overlap

companies

LV

LZS (ULFPI)

sectionalism

production of fish

LV

LGRPA

sectional overlap

food companies

LV

LADS

sectionalism

small breweries companies

LV

LADA

sectionalism

large breweries

LV

LBDUA

sectionalism

Soft-drink enterprises

LV

LMB

sectionalism

bakery companies

NL

FNLI

overlap

all companies in the sector

PL

PFPZ

congruence

all companies in the sector

PL

ZPPP

sectional overlap

food and beer companies

PT

FIPA

no data

no data

PT

AIPAN

sectionalism

food companies in northern Portugal

PT

ACIP

sectionalism

food companies

PT

APIC

sectionalism

food companies

PT

ANIL

sectional overlap

companies whose activity is directly related to milk products (packaging, ingredients and technical equipment)

PT

ANICP

n.a.

n.a.

PT

ANCAVE

n.a.

n.a.

PT

AIPL

n.a.

n.a.

PT

APIAM

n.a.

n.a.

RO

Federation ROMALIMENTA

overlap

all companies in the sector

SE

Li

overlap

all companies in the sector

SI

GZS - ZKŽP

overlap

all companies in the sector

SI

ZDS

overlap

all companies in the sector

SI

ZZS

n.a.

n.a.

SK

SPPK

overlap

all companies in the sector

SK

PKS

overlap

all companies in the sector

SK

SCS

sectionalism

food companies

SK

SZVPS

overlap

all companies in the sector

UK

FDF

congruence

all companies in the sector

UK

SAMB

sectionalism

bakeries in Scotland

In total, 115 sector-related employers’ organisations are identified in 24 countries. Three countries (Cyprus, Lithuania and Malta) have no sector employer association. In nine of the 24 countries with employer associations, at least a proportion of the listed organisations are not party to collective bargaining (see Table 8). Of the countries for which related data are available, 19 have one or more organisations engaged in sector-related collective bargaining. Generally, business interest organisations may also deal with interests other than those related to industrial relations. Organisations specialised in matters other than industrial relations are commonly defined as ‘trade associations’ (see TN0311101S). Such sector-related trade associations also exist in the food and drink sector. In terms of their national scope of activities, not all the organisations are involved in collective bargaining. Table 9 shows that some organisations either primarily or exclusively act as trade organisations in their country. These include the following:

  • PK ČR in the Czech Republic;
  • BLL, BVV in Germany;
  • ETL in Estonia;
  • FIAB in Spain;
  • FEDIL in Luxembourg;
  • FNLI in the Netherlands;
  • PFPZ in Poland;
  • SPPK, PKS in Slovakia;
  • FDF in the UK.

Moreover, all these organisations are members of FOODDRINKEUROPE. It must be stressed that, according to our selection criteria described above, all national organisations affiliated to FOODDRINKEUROPE, the EU-level employer association, are included in the study irrespective of whether they are involved in collective bargaining. The case of Latvia is noteworthy, however, insofar as it records eight organisations, none of which is engaged in collective bargaining or is a member of FOODDRINKEUROPE (LPUF was a member in the past). In nine of the 24 countries for which information on the sector-related organisational landscape is given, only one organisation has been established, while nine countries of the 24 (37.5%) record four or more organisations. Pluralist associational systems thus prevail in the trade unions and among employers in many European countries (although to a greater extent in the latter).

Moreover, the domain of employer organisations tends to be narrower than those of the trade unions. Of all of the organisations for which related information is available, 15% have overlapping domains and 20% have sectionally overlapping domains. Relatively few of these organisations have a cross-sectoral domain.

Cases of domain overlaps arise from the coverage of different sectors. For instance, in Germany, overlap comes from covering refrigerated warehouse companies (BLL)and packaging companies (BE); in Latvia it arises from covering vocational education institutions (LPUF); in Sweden it derives from covering the manufacture of tobacco activities (LI); while in Slovenia and Slovakia it arises from covering agricultural activities (GZS – ZKŽP, SPPK). It should be noted that the only employer association recorded in Sweden, LI, does not cover public companies. However, as the national correspondent explains in the national report, there is no public ownership in the sector in Sweden. Bearing this in mind, we have defined the domain coverage of the organisation as overlap. In the case of Ireland, overlap arises from a general domain (IBEC is a cross-sectoral employer association). In the rest of the countries including organisations which record overlap (Denmark, Greece, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Romania), no information is provided to this regard.

Sectionalist overlap usually derives from domain demarcations which focus on one activity of the food and drink sector, whether the manufacture of food or beverages, plus a variety of others:

  • trade (USSPMB, UMCF, UPBB, UBM, UBB in Bulgaria, Association of German Industrial Bakers in Germany, UNIJUS in France, MPSZ in Hungary);
  • the chemical industry (FNICG in France);
  • research and consultation related to the food and drink sector (ÉFOSZ in Hungary);
  • agriculture or fisheries (AGCI-Agrital, Legacoop Agroalimentare, Federagri-Confcooperative in Italy);
  • packaging (ANIL in Portugal);
  • glass production (SZVPS in Slovakia).

In addition, sectionalist overlap derives also from associations which have a general domain but cover only some specific organisations, such as craft companies (CASARTIGIANI, CLAAI in Italy) or cooperatives (AGCI-Agrital, Legacoop Agroalimentare, Federagri-Confcooperative in Italy.

Sectionalism is caused mainly by domain demarcations that focus on:

  • company size (FVNG, BILG in Austria, OOPAB in Bulgaria);
  • one subsector, whether manufacture of food or beverages;
  • more specific sub-sectors, such as bakeries (BDSI in Germany, VdZ in Germany, German Bakers Confederation, BKD, MA in Denmark);
  • one subsector and a specific company size (DSM in Denmark).

Notably, countries where sectionalism domain prevails, such as Spain, France, Portugal or Latvia, are characterised by a pronounced fragmentation of the associational landscape on the employers' side, with associations specialising in such narrowly defined activities as the manufacture of sea products, ice cream, animal feed, starch, flavourings, bakery items and meat products.

In line with this fragmentation, 57% of all the organisations have a membership domain that is sectionalist with regard to the sector. Only nine organisations, or 8% of all the organisations with available information show a domain more or less congruent with the sector definition. These are: FEVIA in Belgium; ETL in Estonia; FIAB in Spain; FENIL in France; ETL in Finland; Federalimentare and Unionalimentari-Confapi in Italy; PFPZ in Poland; and FDF in the United Kingdom. This means that the domain of these organisations largely focuses on the food and drink sector as defined above. However, it cannot be ruled out that these organisations may also organise companies of a contiguous sector, or may not really organise the entire sector. The clear predominance of membership domains that are sectionalist with regard to the sector indicates that the technocratic definition of the sector is broader than the lines along which most sector-related employers identify common interests and band together in associations.

The two existing sector-related employer organisations in Austria can rely on obligatory membership. This is due to their public law status as chamber units.

Figure 6: Food and drink sector-related organisations/business associations and their domain patterns

Figure 6: Food and drink sector-related organisations/business associations and their domain patterns

Note: n = 107

In countries with a pluralist structure in relation to employer organisations, these organisations have usually – with the exception of France and Hungary– managed to arrive at non-competing relationships (as seen in the case of Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Slovakia and the UK). In many countries, their activities are complementary to each other as a result of interassociational differentiation by their membership demarcation (as is the case of Austria, Bulgaria, Denmark, Spain, Greece and Luxembourg). Moreover, it is worth noting that in Spain, France and Portugal, many of the associations which have a sectionalism domain are members of a broader national association of the food and drink sector (FIAB in Spain, ANIA in France and FIPA in Portugal).

As the figures on density show (Table 8), membership strength in terms of companies widely varies with regard to the sector-related densities. The same holds true of the densities in terms of employees. When information is available, the sectoral domain densities of companies tend to be lower than the density of employees, except in some cases in Austria (BILG), Denmark (BKD, DSM), Greece (GSEVEE), Italy (Confartigianato Alimentazione), Latvia (LADS), the Netherlands (FNLI), and the UK (SAMB). This indicates a slightly higher propensity on the part of larger companies to associate, as compared with their smaller counterparts. In general, densities of the employer/business organisations in the sector tend to be higher than trade union densities, especially with regard to the density of employees. In spite of this, the fragmentation implies that, of the associations for which related data are available, only 18.9% show a sectoral domain density exceeding 10% in terms of companies (2.7% having a density higher than 50%) and 36.9% show a sectoral domain density exceeding 10% in terms of employees (15.2% exceeding a density of 50%).

In general, the data suggest that in the food and drink sector employers are very fragmented in their organisation according to different activities and business segments. However, it should be noted that density data are available for only a minority of the employer/business associations. Therefore the data should again be treated cautiously.

Collective bargaining and its actors

Table 6 lists all trade unions engaged in sector-related collective bargaining. Multiemployer bargaining is defined as being conducted by an employer organisation on behalf of the employer side. In the case of single-employer bargaining, the company or its divisions are party to the agreement. This includes cases where two or more companies jointly negotiate an agreement. The relative importance of multiemployer bargaining (measured as a percentage of the total number of employees covered by a collective agreement) therefore provides an indication of the impact of the employer organisations on the overall collective bargaining process.

In line with numerous cases of inter-union domain overlap and of unclear domain demarcation, in two countries (Portugal, France) inter-union rivalry and competition for bargaining capacities have been identified. In the case of the sector-related employer organisations, competition over collective bargaining capacities has been reported in the case of Hungary, between the Association of the Bakery Industry (which is a member of ÉFOSZ) and the Hungarian Baker Association.

Tables 6 and 10 record sector-related collective bargaining (single or multiemployer bargaining) in all countries but one (Estonia). No information is available for FZZPM and FZZPPC in Poland and the national report of Luxembourg does not provide information about unions’ involvement in collective bargaining. However the following can be noted:

  • 8.7% of sector-related unions with available information do not record participation in collective bargaining;
  • 22.9% record participation in single-employer bargaining;
  • 11.9% show participation in multi-employer bargaining;
  • 56.5% show participation both in single and multi-employer bargaining.

Attention should be drawn to the case of Latvia, where the union LLPNAB does not directly conclude collective agreements but assists trade union organisations in companies that conclude single-employer collective agreements.

Table 10: Density, collective bargaining, consultation and affiliations of employer/business organisations in food and drink, 2011
 

Employer organisation

Sectoral density companies (%)

Sectoral density employees (%)

Collective bargaining

Consultation

National, European & international affiliations

AT

FVNG

5.8

36.3

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

AIIBP,AIJN, IOFI, FOODDRINKEUROPE, FAIBP, ASSIFONTE, Brewers of Europe, CAOBISCO, CEPS,CLITRAVI, COFALEC,CPIV, ECF, ECSLA, ESA, EUROMALT, EFM, FEDIOL,FEFAC, FOC, ICC, IDACE, IMACE, EUPPA, UEPA,UFE, UNESDA, WKO

AT

BILG

100

59.2

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, both

On an ad-hoc basis

WKO

BE

FEVIA

10.1

60.2

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

FOODDRINKEUROPE, VBO, VOKA, UWE, BECI

BG

USSPMB

0.2

1.9

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

BIA

BG

OOPAB

0.3

1.3

Yes, both

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

BIA

BG

UMCF

1.0

4.3

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

BIA

BG

UPBB

1.1

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

Copa Cogeca, BIA

BG

UBM

0.6

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

The European Flour Millers' Association, BIA

BG

UBB

0.1

1.5

Yes, both

Yes, both

???

Brewers of Europe, BIA

CY

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

 
CZ

PK ČR

n.a.

n.a.

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

FOODDRINKEUROPE

DE

BLL

n.a.

n.a.

No

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

FOODDRINKEUROPE, Partner association of ANG.

DE

BVE

n.a.

n.a.

No

n.a.

n.a.

FOODDRINKEUROPE,BDI

DE

ANG

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

BusinessEurope (indirectly), AEFD, FDE, BusinessEurope, AEFD,BDA

DE

BDSI

0.5

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

ICA, CAOBISCO, ESA, Euroglaces, BVE, BLL, ANG

DE

VdZ

0.0

0.8

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

CEFS. BDA, BDI, BVE.

DE

n.a.

0.2

5.3

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

AIBI , BZV

DE

n.a.

34.7

45.2

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

UIB, CEBP, ZDH, BLL

DE

DFV

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

IBC, IBC, ZDH

DK

DI

16.5

78.6

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

BIAC, Business Europe, FOODDRINKEUROPE,DA

DK

MA

1.2

15.2

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

BIAC, FOODDRINKEUROPE(indirectly, through DI), DA (through DI)

DK

BKD

38.2

26.8

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

Eurocommerce, Eurochambers, Danish Chamber of Commerce

DK

DSM

24.4

8.9

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

 
EE

ETL

13.7

96.1

No

Yes, both

On an ad-hoc basis

FOODDRINKEUROPE, ETTK, Kaubanduskoda, EPKK, Kutsekoda

               
               
EL

GSEVEE

59.6

26.6

Yes, both

No

 

UEAPME

EL

SEV

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

 
EL

SEVT

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer

n.a.

n.a.

FOODDRINKEUROPE

ES

FIAB

26.4

n.a.

No

 

 

FOODDRINKEUROPE, CEOE

ES

AMACO

0.3

3.1

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

COPA COCEGA,

ES

CONFECARNE

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer

n.a.

n.a.

FIAB

ES

FNACV

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer

n.a.

n.a.

FIAB

ES

AFHSE

0.4

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

EFM, FIAB

ES

AEFH

0.0

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

 
ES

ANIE

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

FIAB

ES

CESFACB

0.0

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

FEFAC, FIAB

ES

FENIL

0.3

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

FIAB

ES

TUMA

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

 
ES

FEICOPESCA

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

FIAB

ES

ASEPRHU

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

UPA, FIAB

ES

ANEABE

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

EFBW, FIAB

ES

UNIADE

0.0

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

FIAB

ES

AEFPA

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

 
FI

ETL

16.4

76.2

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

FOODDRINKEUROPE, Confederation of the Food and Drink Industries of the EU, CIAA, Confederation of Finnish Industries, EK

FR

ANIA

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

FOODDRINKEUROPE

FR

ADEPALE

0.4

7.4

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis

FOODDRINKEUROPE (indirectly, through ANIA)

FR

USIPA

0.0

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

FOODDRINKEUROPE (indirectly, through ANIA)

FR

FEDAROM

0.1

0.4

Yes, multiemployer

 

 

FOODDRINKEUROPE (indirectly, through ANIA), FEDALIM,

FR

SNBR

0.0

0.9

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

FOODDRINKEUROPE (indirectly, through ANIA)

FR

FEBPF

0.3

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

FOODDRINKEUROPE (indirectly, through ANIA)

FR

ABF

0.2

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

FOODDRINKEUROPE (indirectly, through ANIA)

FR

FICT

0.4

6.6

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

FOODDRINKEUROPE (indirectly, through ANIA), CLITRAVI

FR

FNICG

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

FOODDRINKEUROPE (indirectly, through ANIA), IPTA

FR

CSEM

0.0

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

FOODDRINKEUROPE (indirectly, through ANIA)

FR

FEDALIM

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

FOODDRINKEUROPE (indirectly, through ANIA)

FR

SFIG

0.0

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

FOODDRINKEUROPE (indirectly, through ANIA)

FR

UNIJUS

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

FOODDRINKEUROPE (indirectly, through ANIA)

FR

FNIL

0.2

9.7

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

FOODDRINKEUROPE (indirectly, through ANIA)

FR

FNCL

0.6

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

FOODDRINKEUROPE (indirectly, through ANIA)

FR

Alliance 7

0.7

9.2

Yes, multiemployer

 

On a regular basis

FOODDRINKEUROPE (indirectly, through ANIA)

FR

CSFL

0.0

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

FOODDRINKEUROPE (indirectly, through ANIA), COFALEC, EU, Yeast Industry

FR

ANMF

0.5

1.2

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

FOODDRINKEUROPE (indirectly, through ANIA), European Flour Millers' association, IPTA

FR

CSF

0.0

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

FOODDRINKEUROPE (indirectly, through ANIA)

FR

FFS

0.3

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis

FOODDRINKEUROPE (indirectly, through ANIA)

FR

SNSF

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

FOODDRINKEUROPE (indirectly, through ANIA), IPTA

FR

-

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

FOODDRINKEUROPE (indirectly, through ANIA)

FR

-

0.1

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

FOODDRINKEUROPE (indirectly, through ANIA)

FR

SYFAB

0.0

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

 
FR

SNIV-SNCP

0.1

6.8

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, both

On a regular basis and on an ad-hoc basis

CLITRAVI

FR

FICGV

0.5

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, both

On a regular basis

UECBV

FR

FIA

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

No

 

 
HU

ÉFOSZ

13.1

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

FOODDRINKEUROPE , MGYOSZ

HU

MPSZ

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

International bakeries association, European bakeries association, MGYOSZ, IPOSZ

IE

IBEC

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, single-employer

No

 

FOODDRINKEUROPE, AIM

IT

Federalimentare

11.3

100

Yes, both

Yes, both

On an ad-hoc basis

FOODDRINKEUROPE, Confindustria

IT

AGCI-Agrital

0.9

2.2

Yes, both

Yes, both

n.a.

International Cooperative Alliance, EUROPECHE, COGECA, AGCI

IT

Legacoop Agroalimentare

1.2

5.0

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

International Cooperative Alliance, COGECA, Legacoop, Lega Nazionale delle Cooperative e Mutue

IT

Federagri-Confcooperative

3.0

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

International Cooperative Alliance, COGECA, Confcooperative, Confederazione Cooperative Italiane

IT

Unionalimentari-Confapi

1.7

6.0

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

UEAPME, European crafts, trades and SMEs CONFAPI, Confederazione italiana della piccola e media industria privata

IT

CNA Alimentare

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

UEAPME, European crafts, trades and SMEs CNA, Confederazione Nazionale dell’Artigianato e della Piccola e Media Impresa

IT

Confartigianato Alimentazione

67.2

11.1

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

UEAPME, European crafts, trades and SMEs Confartigianato, Rete Imprese Italia

IT

CASARTIGIANI

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, both

n.a.

n.a.

Rete Imprese Italia

IT

CLAAI

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, both

n.a.

n.a.

 
IT

FIPPA

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, both

n.a.

n.a.

 
IT

Assopanificatori

8.3

n.a.

Yes, both

n.a.

n.a.

FIESA, Confesercenti

LT

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

 
LU

FEDIL

n.a.

12.7

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

FOODDRINKEUROPE, FEDIL

LV

LPUF

4.2

23.3

No

Yes, both

On a regular basis

LDDK

LV

LADRIA

0.4

4.7

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

CEPS, LPUF,LDDK

LV

LZS (ULFPI)

1.1

11.4

No

Yes, both

On a regular basis

LDDK, LPUF

LV

LGRPA

n.a.

n.a.

No

Yes, both

On a regular basis

LPUF, LDDK

LV

LADS

1.6

0.8

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

LDDK

LV

LADA

0.4

3.5

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

LDDK, LPUF, LTRK (through member companies)

LV

LBDUA

n.a.

n.a.

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

LDDK

LV

LMB

3.1

7.1

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

LPUF, LDDK

MT

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

 
NL

FNLI

9.2

6.1

No

No

 

FOODDRINKEUROPE, VNO-NCW, VRAAG

PL

PFPZ

0.4

n.a.

 

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

EPODE, International Network, FOODDRINKEUROPE, European Dietetic Food Industry Association, IDACE

PL

ZPPP

0.2

1.6

Yes, single-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis

The Brewers of Europe

PT

FIPA

         

FOODDRINKEUROPE

PT

AIPAN

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer

n.a.

n.a.

 
PT

ACIP

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer

n.a.

n.a.

 
PT

APIC

1.9

7.5

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

CLITRAVI, UECBV

PT

ANIL

0.7

6.7

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, both

On a regular basis

EDA, FIPA

PT

ANICP

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

 
PT

ANCAVE

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

 
PT

AIPL

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

 
PT

APIAM

0.3

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

n.a.

n.a.

FIPA

RO

Federation ROMALIMENTA

n.a.

49.0

Yes, both

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

FOODDRINKEUROPE

SE

Li

46.2

90.1

Yes, both

Yes, unilaterally

On a regular basis

FOODDRINKEUROPE, Confederation of Swedish Enterprise

SI

GZS - ZKŽP

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

IADSA, FOODDRINKEUROPE, WAPA, AIBI,EHPM, CAOBISCO, COCERAL, UNESDA, EFM, FEFAC, Chamber of Commerce of Slovenia

SI

ZDS

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

BIAC, OECD, IOE – ILO, Eurofound, BUSINESSEUROPE

SI

ZZS

n.a.

n.a.

Yes, multiemployer

Yes, within tripartite structures

On a regular basis

ICA, COGECA, EESO

SK

SPPK

7.5

n.a.

No

Yes, within tripartite structures

On an ad-hoc basis

COPA,FOODDRINKEUROPE, AZZZ, SR

SK

PKS

2.8

n.a.

No

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

FOODDRINKEUROPE, RÚZ, SR

SK

SCS

0.1

0.7

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, both

On an ad-hoc basis

CEFS, SPPK

SK

SZVPS

0.6

n.a.

Yes, multi-employer

Yes, unilaterally

On an ad-hoc basis

The Brewers of Europe, SPPK

UK

FDF

4.2

n.a.

No

 

On an ad-hoc basis

FOODDRINKEUROPE

UK

SAMB

5.5

3.0

Yes, multi-employer

 

On an ad-hoc basis

 

From the employers’ side, 15.2% of the organisations (all the organisations for which information is available) do not record participation in collective bargaining. Only 1.8% participate in single-employer bargaining, 64% in multiemployer bargaining and 19% record participation both in single and multiemployer bargaining.

Figure 7: Involvement of the included organisations in different forms of collective bargaining (%)

Figure 7: Involvement of the included organisations in different forms of collective bargaining (%)

Source: EIRO national contributions

The data presented in Table 11 provides an overview of the system of sector-related collective bargaining in the 27 countries. The importance of collective bargaining as a means of employment regulation is measured by calculating the total number of employees covered by collective bargaining as a proportion of the total number of employees within a certain segment of the economy (Traxler et al, 2001). Accordingly, the sector’s rate of collective bargaining coverage is defined as the ratio of the number of employees covered by any kind of collective agreement to the total number of employees in the sector.

Table 11: The system of sectoral collective bargaining, 2011
Country

CBC

(estimates, %)

Share of MEB (estimates, %)

Extension

practicesa

AT

100

MEB prevailing

n.a.

BE

100

MEB prevailing

2

BG

5

n.a.

1

CY

n.a.

n.a.

0

CZ

45

0

n.a.

DE

n.a.

MEB prevailing

2c

DK

100

MEB prevailing

0

EE

n.a.

0

n.a.

EL

n.a.

n.a.

0d

ES

97

91

2

FI

100

85

2

FR

n.a.

n.a.

2

HU

20

SEB prevailing

n.a.

IE

n.a.

0

0

IT

n.a.

MEB prevailing

2c

LT

25

0

n.a

LU

69

n.a.

0

LV

<10

0

1

MT

30

0

n.a.

NL

90

It varies depending on the subsector, from 90 (dairy) to 30 (drink)

1

PL

30

0

n.a.

PT

<30

99

0d

RO

100

MEB prevailing

1d

SE

80–90

90

1

SI

100

MEB prevailing

n.a.

SK

6–7

MEB prevailing

1

UK

28

SEB prevailing

0

Notes: CBC = collective bargaining coverage: employees covered as a percentage of the total number of employees in the sector

MEB = multiemployer bargaining relative to single-employer bargaining

SEB = single-employer bargaining

a= 0 = no practice, 1 = limited/exceptional, 2= pervasive. Cases of functional equivalence are put in parenthesis.

b= 2007

c= informal extension practices regarding wage agreements

d= extension practices abolished or limited in 2011 or 2012

n.a. = not available or applicable

Collective bargaining coverage

In terms of the sector’s collective bargaining coverage, 10 of the 21 countries with available data record at least a 50% rate of coverage. Moreover, nine of these 10 countries record a coverage rate of 80% or higher. This shows a highly polarised collective bargaining coverage system among the European countries. Countries with very high coverage are mainly Scandinavian (Denmark, Finland, and Sweden) together with some countries that usually record high rates of coverage in other sectors: Belgium and Austria, for instance, which record almost 100% coverage. One noteworthy case is Spain, which records a 97% rate of coverage in the food and drink sector and a rate lower than 60% on average in all sectors. The coverage of collective bargaining is low in some of the older Member States, such as Portugal (30%) and the UK (28%). In the former, the coverage dropped by 10 percentage points in 2011, given that multi-employer agreements ceased to be extended to employers not affiliated with the signatory employer associations, enacted under the regime of the Memorandum of Understanding between the Troika and the Portuguese government. Collective bargaining coverage is also low in most of the accession countries:

  • Czech Republic (45%);
  • Poland (38%);
  • Lithuania (25%);
  • Hungary (20%);
  • Latvia (10%);
  • Slovakia (7%).

However, in Slovenia and Romania, which usually record high rates of coverage in other sectors, the rate of coverage is 100%.

In most of the countries with available information, several factors, which sometimes interact with each other, account for the higher coverage rates:

  • the predominance of multiemployer bargaining (see Table 11);
  • relatively higher density rates for the trade unions and/or employer organisations (Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Austria);
  • the existence of pervasive extension practices, as in Belgium, Spain and Finland;
  • the existence of a widely covering multiemployer collective agreement (Slovenia, Romania).

While coverage in countries with prevalent multi-employer bargaining is generally high (with the exception of Slovakia), single-employer bargaining arrangements in the sector are the only type of bargaining in the Czech Republic, Estonia, Ireland, Lithuania, Latvia, Malta and Poland and they prevail in the UK and Hungary. In these countries, collective bargaining coverage tends to be rather low.

Due to the relevant presence of multiemployer settlements in the sector, the use of extension practices is significant. Extension practices in the food and drink sector are reported for several countries (see Table 11). But in the case of Greece (GR1203019I), and of Romania and Portugal (see above), legislation in 2011 eliminated extension practices.

Participation in public policy

Interest associations may influence public policy in two ways:

  • they may be consulted by the authorities on matters affecting their members;
  • they may be represented on ‘corporatist’, in other words tripartite, committees and boards of policy concertation.

This study considers only cases of consultation and corporatist participation that explicitly relate to sector-specific matters. Consultation processes can be wide-ranging and, therefore, the organisations consulted by the authorities may vary according to the issues and also depend on changes in government. Moreover, the consultation may be occasional rather than regular.

Trade unions or interest representations

Some 49 of the 70 (70%) of the sector-related unions with available data have been consulted. Consultation is mainly developed unilaterally in 47% of the cases. Authorities consult unions in 19 of the 27 countries where sector-related trade unions are recorded. However unions are regularly consulted only in Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Finland, France, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Sweden and Slovakia.

Since a multi-union system has been established in 21 of the 27 countries with sector-related trade unions, it cannot be ruled out that the authorities favour certain trade unions over others, or that the unions compete for participation rights. In most countries with a multi-union system where a noticeable practice of consultation is observed, any existing trade unions may take part in the consultation process. By contrast, in Austria, Spain, Finland, Ireland, Italy, Sweden and the UK only some of the sector-related trade unions are consulted.

Employer organisations or business associations

Authorities consult 61 of the 65 (93.8%) employers' organisations for which related data are available. Employers' organisations are consulted in 21 of 24 countries with sector-related organisations. However, organisations are not regularly consulted in Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Spain, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia or the UK. In most countries with a multi-organisation system where a practice of consultation is recorded, any existing employer organisation may take part in the consultation process. By contrast, in Germany, Spain, France, Italy and Portugal, only a part of the sector-related organisations are consulted.

Tripartite participation

The findings reveal that genuine sector specific bodies have been established in 16 of the 27 countries under consideration (Table 12). Tripartite bodies have been established in Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Estonia, Italy, Latvia, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia and the UK. The scope of activity of the tripartite bodies is focused on:

  • legislative issues;
  • health and safety (Belgium, UK);
  • detection of undeclared work (Germany);
  • qualifications (Estonia);
  • general sectoral issues (Italy, Latvia);
  • cross-sectoral issues (Slovakia, Slovenia).
Table 12: Tripartite and bipartite sector-specific boards of public policy (2011)
 

Name of the body and scope of activity

Bipartite/Tripartite

Origin

Trade unions participating

Employer organisations participating

BE

Joint Committee 118; Joint Committee 220; Central Economic Council – special advisory committee sector Food; Training advisor for the food industry (IPV-IFP); VIA: Social Fund Food Industry; Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain; Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain

All bipartite, except the latter, which is tripartite

statutory

All unions for blue-collar workers involved (Joint Committee 118); All unions for white-collar workers involved (Joint Committee 220); in the rest of the bodies all the unions are involved

FEVIA

BG

Sectoral Council for Tripartite Cooperation for Food Industry: Labour and Social Legislation; Specific Legislation for the sector and transposition of EU Directives; health and safety; excise goods.

Tripartite

Statutory

FITU-Food, NFFI – Podkrepa, TUB

USSPP, UBB, OOPAB

DE

Employers’ liability association (Berufsgenossenschaft Nahrungsmittel und Gastgewerbe, BNG); Cooperation for detecting undeclared work in the meat processing sector (Finanzkontrolle Schwarzarbeit)

Tripartite

Statutory, agreement – Cooperation for detecting undeclared work in the meat processing sector (Finanzkontrolle Schwarzarbeit)

NGG

Representatives from different companies and associations; no data – Cooperation for detecting undeclared work in the meat processing sector (Finanzkontrolle Schwarzarbeit)

DK

The Joint Committee of Dairies; the Joint Committee of Abattoirs; the Vocational Training Committee of Bakers and Confectioners; the Working Environment Committee of the Dairy Industry; the Working Environment Committee of the Abattoirs

All the bodies quoted are bipartite

Statutory

NNF, DMF, 3F, HK/Privat

n.a.

EE

Estonian Qualifications Authority (Kutsekoda)

Tripartite

Statutory

Confederation of Estonian Food and Landworkers’ Unions (ETMK)

Association of Estonian Food Industry (ETL)

FI

Working group of the development of salary systems; Working group of the use of external (TAW) labour; Working group of the cold and hot working

Bipartite

Agreement

Finnish Food Workers' Union SEL

Finnish Food and Drink Industries Federation ETL

FR

AGEFAFORIA, Organisme Paritaire Collecteur Agréé OBSERVIA » Observatoire des métiers et des qualifications de l’agroalimentaire

Bipartite

Agreement

CFE-CGC

CSFV-CFTC

FGTA-FO

FNAF-CGT

FGA-CFDT

Alliance 7, Adepale, CSFL, CSRCSF, SNFS, Comité français du café, Syndicat français des fabricants de café soluble, SNICC,

FEDALIM (for

SNFBP, FICF, SNFV, SNPE, STEPI, SCF, FICT, FNIL, SFIG, SIFPAF.

HU

Social dialogue committee for food industry (since 2003)

Subsector: Social dialogue committee for bakery and confectionary industry (since 2011)

Bipartite

Agreement

ÉDOSZ; HDSZ, MÉDOSZ

ÉFOSZ

IT

Sectoral negotiating tables (Tavoli di filiera) at the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (dairy, sheep/goats, rice, fruit and nuts…); Bilateral and Sectoral Observatory (food and drink sector)

General sectoral issues, labour market, professional training, etc.; EBIPAN (Bilateral body-baking) Monitoring of sectoral professional training, supplementary health assistance and so on.

In addition, the Italian report quotes security funds promoted by the social actors in tandem with the various NCAs (supplementary social security funds, health assistance funds).

Tripartite; the second and third bodies quoted are bipartite

Statutory; the second and third bodies quoted are set up by agreement

Flai-Cgil, Fai-Cisl, Uila-Uil, UGL, Agroalimentare

Federalimentare, Fedagri-Confcooperative, Legacoop-Agroalimentare, AGCI-Agrital, CNA, Assopanificatori

LV

National Tripartite Cooperation Council (NTSP): General framework, including sector specific policies

Tripartite

Statutory

LBAS

LDDK

PT

Sectoral consultative commission (Comissão Consultiva Sectorial)

No information

No information

No information

ANIL

RO

Commission at MECMA level

Tripartite

Statutory

All the national representative trade union confederations

All the national representative employer associations

SI

Economic and Social Council of the Republic of Slovenia (ESC)

Tripartite

Agreement

Association of Free Trade Unions of Slovenia

The Association of Employers of Slovenia; Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Slovenia

SK

Economic and Social Council (HSR)

Tripartite

Statutory

OZP SR

SPPK

UK

Food and drink manufacture health and safety forum;

Improve – food and drink skills council

Tripartite

Agreement, statutory (Improve – food and drink skills council)

BFAWU, GMB, Unite, USDAW, Union representative(s) yet to be appointed (Improve – food and drink skills council)

FDF, FDF, SAMB (Improve – food and drink skills council)


Analysis of the European level of interest representation

At European level, eligibility for consultation and participation in social dialogue are linked to three criteria as defined by the European Commission communication on adapting and promoting social dialogue at Community level (2.8Mb PDF). Accordingly, a social partner organisation must have the following attributes. It must:

  • relate to specific sectors or categories and be organised at European level;
  • consist of organisations that are themselves an integral and recognised part of Member States’ social partner structures and have the capacity to negotiate agreements, and that are representative of several Member States;
  • have adequate structures to ensure their effective participation in the work of the Committees.

Regarding social dialogue, the constituent feature is the ability of such organisations to negotiate on behalf of their members and to conclude binding agreements. Accordingly, this section on European associations of the food and drink sector will analyse these organisations’ membership domain, the composition of their membership and their ability to negotiate.

As outlined in greater detail below, one sector-related European association on the employee side (EFFAT) and one on the employer side (FOODDRINKEUROPE) are particularly significant in the food and drink sector; they are listed by the European Commission as a social partner organisation consulted under Article 154 of the TFEU. Hence, the following analysis will concentrate on these organisations while providing supplementary information on others that are linked to the sector’s national industrial relations actors.

Membership domain

The European Federation of Food, Agriculture and Tourism trade union (EFFAT) is affiliated to the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) and organises workers from the food and drink industry, agriculture and tourism. It represents 120 national organisations from 35 European countries.

The FOODDRINKEUROPE federation organises food and drink industry companies. It represents 26 national federations (including three observer national federations), 26 EU sector’s associations and 19 major food and drink companies in European countries.

Membership composition

Table 13 documents a list of membership-related trade unions for EFFAT drawn from the country reports. This membership list is confined to the sector-related associations of the countries under consideration: hence, it does not include members of the European-level organisations that do not have any members in the food and drink sector. The membership of employee organisations is obtained through the membership list provided by the organisations and a further check of the membership lists published on the organisations’ webpages. It should be noted that, in the list of members of EFFAT, the union TUB (in Bulgaria) is entered as KNSB.

Table 13: EFFAT sector-related membership (2011)
 

Trade union

Collective bargaining

Geographical coverage

AT

GPA-djp

Yes, both

The whole country

AT

PRO-GE

Yes, both

The whole country

BE

ABVV-FGTB HORVAL

Yes, both

The whole country

BE

ABVV-BBTK/FGTB-SETCA

Yes, both

The whole country

BE

ACV Voeding en diensten – CSC Alimentation et Services

Yes, both

The whole country

BE

LBC-NVK

Yes, both

Dutch-speaking and bilingual region

BE

CNE-CSC

Yes, both

The whole country

BE

ACLVB – CGSLB

Yes, both

The whole country

BG

FITU-Food

Yes, both

The whole country

BG

FKP-PODKREPA

Yes, both

The whole country

BG

TUB

Yes, both

The whole country

CY

OVIEK-SEC

Yes, both

The whole country

DE

NGG

Yes, both

The whole country

DK

NNF

Yes, both

The whole country

DK

HK/Handel

Yes, both

The whole country

DK

CO-industri

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

DK

DMF (Affiliated by means of Serviceforbundet)

Yes, both

The whole country

DK

3F

Yes, both

The whole country

EL

POEEYTE

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

ES

FEAGRA-COO

Yes, both

The whole country

ES

FITAG-UGT

Yes, both

The whole country

ES

ELA-STV

Yes, both

The Basque Country region

FI

SEL

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

FI

PRO

Yes, both

The whole country

FR

CFE-CGC Agro

Yes, both

The whole country

FR

FGA-CFDT

Yes, both

The whole country

FR

FGTA-FO

Yes, both

The whole country

HU

EDOSZ

Yes, single-employer

The whole country

HU

HDSZ

Yes, single-employer

The whole country

HU

MEDOSZ

No

The whole country

HU

EDSZ

Yes, single-employer

The whole country

IE

SIPTU

Yes, single-employer

The whole country

IT

FLAI-CGIL

Yes, both

The whole country

IT

FAI-CISL

Yes, both

The whole country

IT

UILA-UIL

Yes, both

The whole country

LT

LMP

Yes, single-employer

The whole country

LU

FCA LCGB

 Information not provided

The whole country

LU

Alimentation et Hôtellerie, OGBL

 Information not provided

The whole country

LV

LIA

No

The whole country

MT

GWU

Yes, single-employer

The whole country

NL

FNV

Yes, both

The whole country

NL

CNV Vakmensen

Yes, both

The whole country

PL

KSPS NSZZ Solidarność

Yes, single-employer

The whole country

PT

SETAA

Yes, both

The whole country

RO

Federation SINDALIMENTA

Yes, both

The whole country

RO

Central CERES

Yes, single-employer

The whole country

SE

Unionen

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

SE

LIVSs

Yes, both

The whole country

SI

KŽI

Yes, multi-employer bargaining only

The whole country

SK

OZP SR

Yes, both

The whole country

UK

BFAWU

Yes, single-employer

The whole country

UK

GMB

Yes, single-employer

The whole country

UK

UNITE

Yes, single-employer

The whole country

UK

USDAW

Yes, both

The whole country

In all countries, except the Czech Republic and Estonia, at least one affiliation to EFFAT is found. EFFAT has 54 direct affiliations in 25 Member States, and 39 of them participate in sectoral collective bargaining. Moreover, all the unions affiliated to EFFAT cover the sector in all the regions of their countries except in the case of LBC-NVK (Belgium), and ELA-STV (Spain) that cover only some regions. Therefore, 56% of the unions listed in Tables 5 and 6 are directly affiliated to EFFAT. From the available data on sectoral membership of the trade unions, one can conclude that EFFAT covers the sector’s most important labour representativeness. Cases of uncovered major trade unions can be found only in the Czech Republic (NOS PPP), Estonia (ETMK) Greece (Hellenic Federation of Milk, Food and Drinks Workers and Employees), Malta (UHM) and Sweden (LEDARNA, Sveriges Ingenjörer). Moreover, it is worth noting that in Poland and Portugal, most of the trade unions included are not affiliated to any European organisation.

According to the information provided by the national correspondents, the following members of EFFAT are not related to the food and drink sector (see Table 14), and as such they do not have members in the sector. For this reason, they are not included in the scope of the study.

Table14: EFFAT affiliates without members in the food and drink sector
  Trade union
BE

CG-FGTB

BG

FNSZ/FITUA

CZ

OSPZV-ASO

FI

PARDIA

FI

PL

IT

Confedertia

Table 15 lists the members of FOODDRINKEUROPE. Again, this membership list is confined to the sector-related associations of the countries under consideration; hence, it does not include members of the European-level organisations that do not have any members in the food and drink sector.

Of the 24 countries under consideration that report any employer organisation, two countries (Bulgaria and Latvia) are not affiliated to FOODDRINKEUROPE. (The Latvian association LPUF ceased to be member of FOODDRINKEUROPE in 2011.) In total, FOODDRINKEUROPE has 24 direct affiliations in 22 Member States, 10 of which participate in sectoral collective bargaining. Accordingly, 21% of the employer organisations listed in Tables 7 and 9 are directly affiliated to FOODDRINKEUROPE. This figure implies that a considerable number of sector-related employer organisations across the EU are not affiliated to FOODDRINKEUROPE.

Table 15: FOODDRINKEUROPE sector-related membership (2011)

Country

Employer organisation

Collective bargaining

Geographical coverage

AT

FVNG

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

BE

FEVIA

Yes, both

The whole country

CZ

PK ČR

No

The whole country

DE

BLL

No

The whole country

DE

BVE

No

The whole country

DK

DI

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

EE

ETL

No

The whole country

EL

SEVT

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

ES

FIAB

No

The whole country

FI

ETL

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

FR

ANIA

n.a.

The whole country

HU

ÉFOSZ

Yes, both

The whole country

IE

IBEC (by means of its association member FDII)

Yes, single-employer

The whole country

IT

Federalimentare

Yes, both

The whole country

LU

FEDIL

No

The whole country

NL

FNLI

No

The whole country

PL

PFPZ

No, but some member companies sign collective agreements at company level.

The whole country

PT

FIPA

n.a.

The whole country

RO

Federation ROMALIMENTA

Yes, both

The whole country

SE

Li

Yes, both

The whole country

SI

GZS - ZKŽP

Yes, multiemployer

The whole country

SK

SPPK

No

The whole country

SK

PKS

No

The whole country

UK

FDF

No

The whole country

Capacity to negotiate

The third criterion of representativeness at European level refers to the organisations’ capacity to negotiate on behalf of their members. They have been asked whether they have the capacity to negotiate on behalf of their members. EFFAT and FOODDRINKEUROPE claim they have been given a permanent mandate by their members to negotiate on matters of European social dialogue.

As final proof of the weight of EFFAT and FOODDRINKEUROPE, it is useful to look at the other European organisations to which the sector-related trade unions and employer organisations are affiliated.

The affiliations of the trade unions are listed in Table 6. European organisations other than EFFAT represent a relatively low proportion of both sector-related trade unions and countries. There is only one European organisation mentioned here that covers at least three countries. This is the European organisation Uni-Europa, with eight affiliations covering seven countries. The presence of this organisation responds to the overlapping domains of many trade unions because Uni-Europa does not claim to attract unions of the food and drink sector. This overview underlines the principal status of EFFAT as the sector’s labour representative.

An analogous review of the membership of the national employer/business associations can be derived from Table 6. Some of them have different European associations other than FOODDRINKEUROPE. There are only two European associations that cover at least three countries: the European Flour Millers, with three affiliations covering three countries, and COPA COGECA, with four affiliations in three countries. In conclusion, FOODDRINKEUROPE is by far the most important sector-related European organisation since it covers 22 countries.


Conclusions

A pluralistic association system prevails in the food and drink sector. This is shown by the high degree of fragmentation in labour and employers’ representation observed in many countries. Thus, 48% of the countries with available data record four unions or more and 39% of the countries with available data record four or more employer associations. Differences between unions and employer associations appear with regard to their domain demarcation. In the case of the unions, overlap and sectional overlap prevail over sectionalism, while in the case of the employer associations, domain tends to be narrower. Accordingly, 57% of the employer associations have a sectionalism domain. Moreover, unionisation rates tend to be lower than densities of employers, especially with regard to the density of employees.

Collective bargaining coverage is highly polarised. While in nine of the 21 countries for which related data are available collective bargaining coverage is very high (80% or more), eight countries record low coverage rates (30% or less). In this respect, a pattern emerges. Among the EU15, the Scandinavian countries, Belgium, Austria and Spain show the highest rates, while in the new Member States, Slovenia and Romania show very high rates. On the other hand, Portugal, the UK and the majority of new Member States record low rates.

In all Member States, except the Czech Republic and Estonia, at least one affiliation to EFFAT is found. EFFAT has one union affiliated from the Czech Republic (OSPZV-ASO). However, this union is not related to the food and drink sector; it does not have members in the sector. EFFAT has 54 direct and sector-related affiliations in 25 Member States, and 39 of them participate in sectoral collective bargaining. Moreover, all the unions affiliated to EFFAT cover the sector in all the regions of their countries except in the case of LBC-NVK (Belgium), and ELA-STV (Spain), which cover only some regions.

As seen from the bottom-up mapping of individual organisations, there are many sector-related employer organisations across the EU that are not affiliated to FOODDRINKEUROPE. However, the mapping also showed that they are not covered by any other European-level organisation. Moreover, it is worth noting that FOODDRINKEUROPE covers 22 countries out of 24 reporting any sector-related employer organisation. For the employees, cases of uncovered major employee organisations can be found in only five Member States. No other European-level actors with a comparable coverage could be found on either side of the industry.

According to the the European Commission communication on adapting and promoting social dialogue at Community level (2.8Mb PDF), organisations that are eligible to be consulted shall fulfil the following criteria:

  • relate to specific sectors or categories and be organised at European level;
  • consist of organisations that are themselves an integral and recognised part of Member States’ social partner structures and have the capacity to negotiate agreements, and that are representative of several Member States;
  • have adequate structures to ensure their effective participation in the work of the Committees.

In light of the present study, both European social partners under consideration, EFFAT and FOODDRINKEUROPE, fulfil the above criteria.

Top-down and bottom-up analyses of the food and drink sector in the EU27 show that EFFAT (on the employees’ side) and FOODDRINKEUROPE (on the employers’ side) ought to be regarded as the most important EU-wide representatives of the employers and employees within the sector.

Pablo Sanz, CIREM Foundation


Bibliography

Traxler, F., Blaschke, S. and Kittel, B. (2001), National labour relations in internationalised markets, Oxford University Press, Oxford.


Annex: Organisation names and their abbreviations

Table 16 : Employee organisation names and their abbreviations
 

Abbreviation

Full association name

AT

GPA-djp

Union of Salaried Employees, Graphical Workers and Journalists

AT

PRO-GE

Manufacturing Union

BE

ABVV-FGTB HORVAL

Central Food Catering Services

BE

ABVV-BBTK/FGTB-SETCA

Union for employees, technicians and staff members

BE

ACV Voeding en diensten – CSC Alimentation et Services

General Christian Trade Union Food and Drink

BE

LBC-NVK

National confederation for employees

BE

CNE-CSC

National confederation for employees

BE

ACLVB – CGSLB

Liberal Trade Union

BG

FITU-Food

Federation of Independent Trade Union Organisations in the Food Industry

BG

NFFI Podkrepa

National Federation Food Industry PODKREPA

BG

TUB

The Trade Union of Brewers, food and beverages

CY

OVIEK

Federation of Industrial Workers

CY

SEGDAMELIN

Cyprus Agricultural, Forestry, Transport, Port, Seamen and Allied Occupations Trade Union

CY

SEVETTYK

Cyprus Union of Workers Industry, Trade, Press and Printing and General Services

CZ

NOS PPP

Independent Trade Union of Employees in Food Industry and Related Sectors of Bohemia and Moravia

DE

NGG

Trade Union of Food, Beverages, Tobacco, Hotel and Catering and Allied Workers

DK

NNF

The Danish Food and Allied Workers' Union

DK

HK/Handel

The Union of Commercial and Clerical Employees in Denmark

DK

CO-industri

The Central Organisation of Industrial Workers in Denmark

DK

DMF

Union of Danos Dirimen

DK

3F

United Federation of Danish Workers

DK

HK/Privat

The Union of Commercial and Clerical Employees in Denmark/Private

DK

Metal

Danos metalworkers Union

DK

DEF

Danish Union of Electricians

EE

ETMK

Confederation of Estonian Food and Landworkers’ Unions

ES

FEAGRA-CCOO

Federation of Agro Food of the Trade Union Confederation of Workers’ Commissions

ES

FITAG-UGT

Federation of Industry and Farmer Workers of the General Workers’ Unions

ES

ELA-STV

Services Federation of Basque Workers’ Solidarity

ES

CIG

Federation of Galician Interunion Confederation

FI

SEL

The Finnish Food Workers' Union SEL

FI

Pro

n.a.

FI

YTN

Federation of Professional and Managerial Staff (YTN)

FI

MVL

Professional Dairy Association MVL

FR

CFE-CGC Agro

Agrofood federation of the French Confederation of Professional and Managerial Staff – General Confederation of Professional and Managerial Staff

FR

FGA-CFDT

General agrofood Federation - French Democratic Federation of Labour

FR

FNAF-CGT

National agrofood federation - General Confederation of Labour

FR

FGTA-FO

General federation of workers of farming, agrofood, food, tobacco and other services - Force ouvrière

FR

CFTC AGRI

Federation CFTC of Agriculture

GR

-

Hellenic Federation of Milk, Food and Drinks Workers and Employees

GR

POEK

Hellenic Federation of Manual and Clerical Staff of the Meat Industry

GR

POMYM

Hellenic Federation of Mill Workers and Pasta Makers

GR

POEEYTE

Hellenic Federation of Food and Hotel Employees

GR

ΟΕΧΒΕ

Federation of Chemical Industry Workers of Greece

HU

ÉDOSZ

Hungarian Federation of Food Workers' Trade Unions

HU

HDSZ

Trade Union of Meat Processing Industry Employees

HU

MEDOSZ

Agricultural, Forestry and Water Management Workers' Trade Union

HU

ÉDSZ

Trade Union of Food Workers

HU

BDSZ

Poultry Workers’ Union

HU

GMDSZ

Grain and Mill Workers’ Union

HU

HIDSZ

Frozen Food Workers' Union

IE

SIPTU

Services, Industrial, Professional and Technical Union

IE

UNITE

UNITE

IE

TEEU

Technical, Engineering and Electrical Union

IE

UCATT

Union of Construction Allied Trades and Technicians

IE

GSU

Guinness Staff Union

IE

IDSA

Irish Distillers Staff Association

IT

FLAI-CGIL

Italian Federation of Agroindustry Workers

IT

FAI-CISL

Italian Federation of Agriculture, Food and the Environment

IT

UILA-UIL

Union of Italian Workers in Agroindustry

IT

UGL-Agroalimentare

General Union of Labour-Agrofood sector

IT

UGL-Terziario

General Union of Labour-Tertiary

LT

LMP

Lithuanian Trade Union of Food Producers

LU

FCA LCGB

Federation Commerce and Food, LCGB

LU

Alimentation et Hôtellerie, OGBL

Food and Hotels, OGBL

LV

LIA

Latvian Industrial Workers Trade Union

LV

LLPNAB

Latvian Agriculture and food branch Trade Union

MT

UHM

Union of United Workers

MT

GWU

General Workers’ Union

NL

FNV

Dutch Trade union Federations

NL

CNV Vakmensen

Christian National Central Union Craftsmen

NL

De Unie

The Union

PL

KSPS NSZZ Solidarność

Food Worker’s Secretariat NSZZ Solidarność

PL

ZZPPiS

Meat and Food Workers Trade Union in Poland

PL

FZZPM

Trade Unions Federation of Dairying Workers in Poland

PL

ZZPPC

Trade Union of Confectionery Industry Workers

PL

FZZPPS

Trade Unions Federation of Food Industry Workers

PL

FZZPPC

Trade Union Federation of Sugar Industry Workers

PT

SINTAB

Sindicato dos Trabalhadores da Agricultura e das Indústrias de Alimentação do Sul e Tabacos de Portugal

PT

STIANOR

Union of Workers in Food Industries in Northern Portugal

PT

STIAC

Union of Workers in Food Industries in Central and Southern Portugal and Islands

PT

SINDILACTI

Union of Professionals in Milk Industries, Food, Agriculture, Offices, Commerce, Services, Road Transports, Metal, Construction and Wood

PT

SINTICABA

National Union of Workers in Beverage Commerce and Manufacturing

PT

SETAA

Union of Agriculture, Food and Forests

PT

SITESE

Sindicato dos Trabalhadores de Escritório, Comércio, Hotelaria e Serviços

RO

Federation SINDALIMENTA

National Trade Unions Federation from Food, Drink, Tobacco and Related Branches SINDALIMENTA

RO

Central CERES

Central of Trade Unions of Agriculture, Food Industry, Tourism and Related Branches Workers CERES

SE

Ledarna

Association of Management and Professional Staff

SE

Unionen

Unionen

SE

Livs

The Swedish Food Workers Union

SE

Sveriges Ingenjörer

The Swedish Association of Graduate Engineers

SI

KŽI

The Trade Union of Agriculture and Food Industry of Slovenia

SI

OZP SR

Trade Union Association of Food Workers

UK

BFAWU

Bakers, Food and Allied Workers’ Union

UK

GMB

GMB

UK

UNITE

Unite The Union

UK

USDAW

Union of Shop, Distributive and Allied Workers

Table 17: Employer organisation names and their abbreviations

Country

Abbreviation

Full association name

AT

FVNG

Federal Association of the Food and Beverages Industries

AT

BILG

Federal Association of Food Trades

BE

FEVIA

Federation for food industry

BG

USSPMB

Union of the Sugar and Sugar Products Manufacturers in Bulgaria

BG

OOPAB

Oilseed Oil Producers Association in Bulgaria

BG

UMCF

Union of Manufacturers of Compound Feed

BG

UPBB

Union of Poultry Breeders in Bulgaria

BG

UBM

Union of Bulgarian Millers (UBM)

BG

UBB

Union of Brewers in Bulgaria (UBB)

CZ

PK ČR

Federation of the Food and Drink Industries of the Czech Republic

DE

BLL

German Federation for Food Law and Food Science

DE

BVE

Federation of German Food and Drink Industries

DE

ANG

Employers' association for the food industry

DE

BDSI

Association of the German Confectionary Industry

DE

VdZ

Association of the sugar industry

DE

n.a.

Association of German Industrial Bakers

DE

n.a.

German Bakers Confederation

DE

DFV

German Butchers’ Association

DK

DI

Confederation of Danish Industry

DK

MA

The Danish Dairy Employers' Association

DK

BKD

Baker and Confectioner Masters in Denmark

DK

DSM

Danish Butchers

EE

ETL

Association of Estonian Food Industry

ES

FIAB

Spanish Federation of Food and Drink Industry

ES

AMACO

National Association of Slaughterhouse of Fowls and Rabbits

ES

CONFECARNE

Spanish Confederation of Meat

ES

FNACV

National Federation of Tinned vegetables

ES

AFHSE

Spanish Association of Flour and Semolina Manufactures

ES

AEFH

National Association of Ice Cream Manufactures

ES

ANIE

National Association of See Products Manufactures

ES

CESFACB

Spanish Confederation of Prepared Animal Feeds Manufactures

ES

FENIL

National Federation of Dairy Products Manufactures

ES

TUMA

National Association of Nougat Candy and Marzipan Manufactures

ES

FEICOPESCA

Spanish Federation of Transformation and Commercialisation of Fish and Aquiculture Products Industries

ES

ASEPRHU

Spanish Association of Eggs Manufactures

ES

ANEABE

National Association of Bottled Water Enterprises

ES

UNIADE

Association of Spanish Rice Millers

ES

AEFPA

Spanish Association of Pasta Manufactures

FI

ETL

Finnish Food and Drink Industries Federation

FR

ANIA

National Association of Food Industries

FR

ADEPALE

Association of producers of processed food

FR

USIPA

Union of producers of starch products, and starch derivatives

FR

FEDAROM

Federation of producers of flavourings

FR

SNBR

National association of companies producing refreshing drinks

FR

FEBPF

Federation of French bakeries

FR

ABF

Association of French Brewers

FR

FICT

Federation of French Butchers

FR

FNICG

National Federation of fat producing companies

FR

CSEM

Chamber of mineral water companies

FR

FEDALIM

Association of organisations in the food industry

FR

SFIG

Union of manufacturers of industrial ice, sorbets and ice creams

FR

UNIJUS

Professional association for the producers of fruit juice

FR

FNIL

National Federation for the Dairy Industry

FR

FNCL

National Federation for the Dairy Industry

FR

Alliance 7

Alliance 7

FR

CSFL

Union of French yeast producers

FR

ANMF

National Association of French Mills

FR

CSF

Committee of French Salt Producers

FR

FFS

French Federation of Spirit Producers

FR

SNSF

National Union of French Sugar Manufacturers

FR

-

Chamber of French Refiners and Conditioners of Sugar

FR

-

National Union of Manufacturers of Frozen and Deep Frozen Products

FR

SYFAB

National Union of Manufacturers of Ingredients for Bakery, Pastry and Biscuits

FR

SNIV-SNCP

French Meat Companies

FR

FICGV

Federation of Industrial and Commercial Meat Traders

FR

FIA

Federation for the Poultry Industry

GR

GSEVEE

Hellenic Confederation of Professionals, Craftsmen and Merchants (GSEVEE)

GR

SEV

Hellenic Federation of Enterprises (SEV)

GR

SEVT

Hellenic Federation of Food Industries (SEVT)

HU

ÉFOSZ

Federation of Hungarian Food Industries

HU

MPSZ

Hungarian Baker Association

IE

IBEC

Irish Business and Employers Confederation

IT

Federalimentare

Italian Federation of the Food Industry

IT

AGCI-Agrital

General Association of Italian Cooperatives-AGRITAL

IT

Legacoop Agroalimentare

National Association of Cooperatives- Agroindustry

IT

Federagri-Confcooperative

National Federation of Agricultural and Agroindustrial Cooperatives

IT

Unionalimentari-Confapi

Italian Confederation of Small and Medium-sized Industries of the Agroindustry sector

IT

CNA Alimentare

National Confederation of Artisans and Small and Medium Enterprises of the Agroindustrial Sector

IT

Confartigianato Alimentazione

Confartigianato-Agroindustry

IT

CASARTIGIANI

Confederation of Autonomous Artisan Trade Unions

IT

CLAAI

Confederation of Free Italian Artisan Associations

IT

FIPPA

Italian Federation of Bakers, Confectioners and related industries

IT

Assopanificatori

National Association of Bakers

LU

FEDIL

FEDIL - Federation of the Luxembourg Food Industry

LV

LPUF

The Latvian Federation of Food Enterprises

LV

LADRIA

Association of Latvian Spirits Producers and Distributors

LV

LZS (ULFPI)

Union of Latvian Fish Processing Industry

LV

LGRPA

Latvian association of producers and processors of meat

LV

LADS

The Breweries’ association of Latvia

LV

LADA

The Breweries’ association of Latvia

LV

LBDUA

Latvian Soft Drinks Manufacturers Association

LV

LMB

Latvian Bakers Association

NL

FNLI

Federation of Dutch Grocery Industry

PL

PFPZ

Polish Federation of Food Industry Union of Employers

PL

ZPPP

Union of the Brewing Industry Employers in Poland

PT

FIPA

Federation of Portuguese Agro-Food Industries

PT

AIPAN

Association of Baking, Pastry and Similar Industries of the Northern Portugal

PT

ACIP

Association of Commerce and Manufacturing in Bakeries, Pastry and Similar Industries

PT

APIC

Portuguese Association of Manufacturers of Meat Products

PT

ANIL

National Association of Manufacturers of Milk Products

PT

ANICP

National Association of Canned Fish Manufacturers

PT

ANCAVE

National Association of Slaughter Houses and Manufacturing of Poultry Meat

PT

AIPL

Association of Bakery Industries of Lisbon

PT

APIAM

Portuguese Association of Mineral and Spring Water Producers

RO

Federation ROMALIMENTA

Romanian Employer Federation from Food Industry ROMALIMENTA

SE

Li

The Swedish Food Federation

SI

GZS - ZKŽP

Chamber of Commerce - Chamber of Agricultural and Food Enterprises

SI

ZDS

Association of Employers of Slovenia

SI

ZZS

Cooperative Union of Slovenia

SI

SPPK

Slovak Agriculture and Food Chamber

SK

PKS

Food Chamber of Slovakia

SK

SCS

The Slovak Association of Sugar Producers

SK

SZVPS

Slovak Beer and Malt Association

UK

FDF

Food and Drink Federation

UK

SAMB

Scottish Association of Master Bakers

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