Representativeness of the European social partner organisations: Maritime transport

  • Observatory: EurWORK
  • Topic:
  • Relaciones laborales,
  • Representativeness,
  • Social partners,
  • Date of Publication: 30 Junio 2016



About
Author:
Institution:

This study provides information designed to encourage sectoral social dialogue in the maritime transport sector. The aim of Eurofound’s series of representativeness studies is to identify the relevant national and supranational social partner organisations in the field of industrial relations in selected sectors. Top-down and bottom-up analyses of the maritime transport sector in the 25 EU Member States covered in the study reveal that ETF and ECSA are the most important European-level social partner organisations in the sector based on their membership.

Download the full report (1.3 MB PDF)

See also the executive summary

Introduction

Objectives of the study

The aim of this representativeness study is to identify the relevant national and supranational social actors (that is, the trade unions and employer organisations) in the maritime transport sector, and to show how the national actors relate to the sector’s European interest associations of labour and business. The impetus for this study, and for similar studies in other sectors, arises from the aim of the European Commission to identify the representative social partner associations to be consulted under the provisions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) and to be eligible for participation in European sectoral social dialogue committees. The effectiveness of the European social dialogue depends on whether its participants are sufficiently representative in terms of the sector’s relevant national actors across the EU Member States.

Overview of the process and methodology

Criteria for inclusion in the study

European associations are analysed via the ‘top-down’ approach if they:

  • are on the Commission’s list of interest organisations to be consulted on behalf of the sector under Article 154 of the TFEU;
  • and/or participate in the sector-related European social dialogue.

The Commission may decide to include other EU sector-related organisations in the study if relevant, for example, a sector-related organisation that has recently requested to be consulted under Article 154 of the TFEU.

Demarcation of the sector

Every sector is demarcated in terms of the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community (NACE) codes. All existing sectoral social dialogue committees have been demarcated with a NACE code, which defines the scope of economic activities covered by the committee. The NACE code to be applied in each sectoral representativeness study is confirmed by the European Commission after consultation with the social partners.

In this study, the maritime transport sector is defined as embracing NACE (Rev. 2) 50.10, 50.20 and 52.22. This includes the following activities:

  • 50.10 – Sea and coastal passenger water transport;
  • 50.20 – Sea and coastal freight water transport;
  • 52.22 – Service activities incidental to water transportation.

Collection of data

The information in the study was collected through 25 national contributions. In this representative study, Austria, Hungary and Slovakia were not included since they have no maritime ports and, therefore, the maritime transport sector does not exist in these countries. The Czech Republic and Luxembourg also have no maritime ports but they record some companies and workers in this sector and so were included in the study.

Eurofound has a network of national correspondents with expertise in industrial relations, covering all Member States. These experts are required to gather data on all relevant organisations at national level and to approach them by telephone or email, using standardised questionnaires. While the questionnaires are in English, correspondents can interview or contact the organisation in the relevant national language. The questionnaires are completed by the national correspondents.

The methodology follows the guidance given on the Eurofound website on conducting representativeness studies.

Determining sector-relatedness

European and national social partners are considered to be ‘sector-related’ if their membership domain relates to the sector in one of the ways shown in Figure 1. Put simply, any organisation that organises membership in the sector is deemed to be sector-related.

Figure 1: Domain patterns

Inclusion of national associations

A national association is considered to be a relevant sector-related interest association if it meets both criteria A and B, as follows:

A. The association’s domain relates to the sector;

B. The association is either:

  • affiliated to a European-level organisation that is analysed in the study within the top-down approach (independent of its involvement in collective bargaining); or
  • regularly involved in sector-related collective bargaining.

Employment and economic trends

Employment characteristics

Finding reliable statistics on sectoral employment in the maritime transport sector is problematic. The detailed sectoral definition used in this study, described for some activities such as service activities incidental to water transportation at the fourth NACE hierarchical level, hinders access to some employment figures due to the fact that common sources, such as the European Union Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS), provide information only at the third hierarchical level. In addition, maritime transport is a globalised and flexible sector, encompassing temporary and non-EU workers, both of which have become increasingly common. For these reasons, complete and accurate statistics on seafarers probably represent an unachievable target, as noted by the Report of the Task Force on Maritime Employment and Competitiveness and Policy Recommendations to the European Commission (PDF).

According to the European Commission’s 2010 report on sectoral social dialogue, based on EU-LFS data, the EU maritime transport sector employed some 300,000 people in more than 10,000 companies in 2008 (50.10, 50.20 and 52.22 NACE codes). More than 90% of seafarers have employee status and full-time work predominates. Male workers make up the majority, accounting for around 67%.

In 2014, the EU-LFS estimated that there were 97,951 people employed in sea and coastal passenger water transport and 128,699 employed in sea and coastal freight water transport. Therefore, 226,650 people in total were employed in the maritime transport sector, excluding service activities incidental to water transportation.

A study on the employment of EU seafarers (PDF) estimated that the number of active seafarers in maritime EU Member States plus Norway was 254,119 in 2010. The total number of seafarers in western Europe countries (EU plus Norway) was 146,231 and the number from eastern Europe was 107,988. This estimate was based on the 2010 update of the International Shipping Federation (IFS)/Baltic and International Maritime Council (BIMCO) Manpower Study, which collects data from questionnaires sent to governments, shipping companies and crewing experts.

Alternative sources consulted, such as annual reports from the European Community Shipowners’ Association (ESCA), do not provide aggregate information regarding seafarers’ employment at EU level. As far as the European Transport Workers’ Federation (ETF) is concerned, the publications (policy papers and projects) on its website did not contain employment figures.

Economic background and employment trends at EU level

Maritime transport is an essential sector for the European economy. According to the European Commission’s report on the EU’s maritime transport policy, 80% of world trade is carried by sea while short-sea shipping carries 40% of intra-European freight. Moreover, maritime transport has also an impact on citizens’ quality of life, offering transport services to both tourists and inhabitants of islands and peripheral regions. Thus, more than 400 million sea passengers pass through European ports each year. These data refer to the total of 23 countries: Austria, the Czech Republic, Luxembourg, Hungary and Slovakia have no maritime ports.

Maritime transport is a globalised sector. The adaptation of European shipping to global economic pressures has triggered crucial structural changes in the sector. Competitive pressure from shipping nations around the world has increased significantly due to globalisation. In the European Commission’s view as expressed in its 2009 communication, some of the measures implemented by Member States, in line with the Commission’s Community Guidelines on State aid to maritime transport, have favoured keeping part of the fleet on European registers and creating jobs for European seafarers. Nevertheless, European flags (that is, ships registered under Member States’ countries) continue to face competition from those on the registers of third countries. Foreign competitors have significant advantages in terms of government support, access to cheap capital and abundant labour, or flexible enforcement of internationally agreed standards.

The economic crisis that began in 2008 brought about other pressures related to factors such as:

  • the risks of overcapacity in certain market segments;
  • protectionist trade measures by third countries;
  • volatility in energy markets;
  • loss of expertise due to the scarcity of skilled human resources in Europe.

As emphasised by the European Commission’s strategic goals and recommendations for the EU’s maritime transport policy, these factors could lead shipping head offices and maritime industries to relocate overseas.

Employment trends at EU level

Figure 2 shows the quarterly employment evolution in the EU28 from 2008 to 2014. It also illustrates the cyclical developments within each year. The data exclude service activities incidental to water transportation. Thus, sectors included are ‘sea and coastal passenger water transport’ (NACE code 50.10) and ‘sea and coastal freight water transport’ (NACE code 50.20).

Cyclical developments in the maritime transport sector show that sectoral employment increases every year in the third quarter and declines every year in the fourth quarter, probably due to the effects of increased passenger demand in the summer season. The most pronounced cyclical employment rises were recorded in the third quarters of 2008 (14%) and 2010 (7%). The most pronounced cyclical employment decreases occurred in the fourth quarters of 2009 (-10%) and 2013 (-13%). In the third quarter of 2013, total sectoral employment reached its peak at 245,593 people employed compared with 235,792 in the third quarter of 2014.

Figure 2: Evolution of quarterly employment in the maritime transport sector, 2008–2014

Notes: In thousands

NACE codes 50.10 and 50.20 only (that is, figures exclude service activities incidental to water transportation)

Source: Eurostat, EU-LFS

Besides this cyclical evolution, attention should be drawn to the evolution of the annual sectoral employment (average of the four quarters of the year) as shown in Figure 3. The increase in annual employment was highest from 2008 and 2009 (25%). From 2009 to 2010, annual employment decreased by 6% while from 2010 to 2011 it rose again, increasing by 16%. From 2011 to 2013, employment remained relatively stable, decreasing again from 2013 to 2014 by 3%. Thus, the tendency is an upward growth pattern, albeit uneven.

Figure 3: Evolution of annual employment in the maritime transport sector, 2008–2014

Notes: In thousands

NACE codes 50.10 and 50.20 only (that is, figures exclude service activities incidental to water transportation)

Source: Eurostat, EU-LFS

Employment trends at national level

One key point relates to the cross-country variations in the importance of the maritime transport sector. According to Eurostat’s 2013 analysis of the maritime sectors, with regard to sea and coastal freight water transport, the Netherlands recorded the highest share (14.8%) of the goods handled in EU ports, followed by the UK (14.1%), Italy (13.6%) and Spain (10.3%). In terms of sea and coastal passenger water transport activities, Italy was the most important country, with 87.7 million passengers or 22.2% of all passengers at EU ports, followed closely by Greek ports at 20.2% and Denmark with 10.6%. Data refer to 2010.

The same report shows that Italy recorded high values for both maritime passengers and goods. The Netherlands showed a clear concentration on maritime transport of goods while Greek ports were predominately involved in the maritime transport of passengers.

The small size of the maritime transport sector in many countries means that figures from the EU-LFS are not available for several countries and subsectors or that there are serious doubts concerning their reliability due to the very small sample. Thus the data provided in this section of the study come from national sources. These figures have been collected through Eurofound’s Network of European correspondents. However, these figures are not strictly comparable. They come from different national sources using different methodologies (for example, surveys and administrative registers) and they include different types of workers (for example, foreign workers working for national companies, or only national workers).

Tables 1 and 2 give a general overview of the development of the sector from 2008 to 2013 (or the closest year with available data). Table 1 presents figures on total employment in 2013, differences in employment from 2008 to 2013, female employment as a percentage of total employment in the sector, and employees as a percentage of employment in the sector. Table 2 presents figures on the number of companies in the sector and differences in the number of companies from 2008 to 2013.

Table 1: Employment in the maritime transport sector, 2013

 

Total

Difference in employment 2008–2013 (%)

Female employment as % of total employment in the sector

Employees as % of total employment in the sector

Sectoral employment as % of total employment in the economy

Source

BE

1,135

-2.0

6.7

100.0

0.3

HVKZ-CSPM

BG

2,932

-49.6

17.0

100

0.1

National Statistical Institute

CY

463

-88.6

na

na

0.1

Statistical Service of Cyprus, Business Register (2013)

CZ

1,200

9.1

16.7

100.0

0.0

Czech Statistical Office, Labour Force Survey

DEa

21,000

na

42.9

89.9

na

Federal Statistical Office

DK

12,771

-10.6

21.6

99.2

na

Statistics Denmark, Statistikbanken RAS300

EE

16,100

1.9

35.4

95.0

2.6

Statistics Estonia based on Labour Force Survey

EL

60,592

-20.5

23.7

90.4

1.7

Hellenic Statistical Authority

ES

14,800

-30.2

30.4

98.6

0.1

Spanish Labour Force Survey (Encuesta de Población Activa)

FI

9,818

-13.7

na

99.1

0.4

Statistics Finland (LFS)

FR

12,000

-22

5.3

na

na

Armateurs de France

HR

2,800

1.9

17.9

99.5

0.3

Croatian Bureau of Statistics

IE

1,393

-25.3

na

87.2

0.1

CSO Census

IT

39,161

3.3

8.8

94.9

0.2

National Institute of Statistics (Istat), Statistiche nazionali sulla struttura delle imprese

LT

na

na

na

na

na

Eurostat, Annual detailed enterprise statistics for services

LU

893

26.1

14.6

na

0.2

STATEC, IGSS

LV

1,844

143.0

35.2

99.9

0.2

Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia (CSP), Yearly survey of enterprises and institutions

MT

798

-24.2

na

91.5

0.5

National Statistics Office (NSO)

NL

49,407

18.4

25.0

61.3

0.4

Maritieme Monitor 2014 Havenmonitor 2013

CBS Statline

PL

2,700

22.7

na

na

0.0

Central Statistical Office (GUS)

PTb

22,589

764.5

27.5

93.7

0.5

Censos 2001, 2011

RO

429,000

1.7

15.5

34.5

5.0

National Institute of Statistics

SE

na

na

na

na

na

na

SI

434

158.3

26.0

95.2

0.0

Statistical Register of Employment (SRDAP)

UK

55,500

-28.1

19.3

97.7

0.2

ONS Labour Force Survey (fourth quarter)

Notes: na = not available. a 2014; b 2001 and 2011.

Source: Eurofound Network of European correspondents (2014), national statistics.

Table 2: Number of companies in the maritime transport sector

 

Number of companies  2013

Difference in number of companies 2008–2013 (%)

Source

BE

20

-20.0

Royal Belgian Shipowners’ Association

BG

228

-21.9

National Statistical Institute

CY

64

-12.3

Statistical Service of Cyprus, Business Register (2013)

CZ

33

-15.4

Czech Statistical Office

DE

2,835

-1.6

Federal Statistical Office, company register

DK

501

-12.6

Statistics Denmark, Statistikbanken GF2

EE

1,240

40.4

Statistics Estonia on the basis of the annual statistical questionnaire EKOMAR

EL

5,817

-19.7

Hellenic Statistical Authority

ES

447

0.9

DIRCE

FI

347

13.8

Statistics Finland

FR

872

34.2

Insee Annual Business Statistics Programme/Esane

HR

553

-9.3

Croatian Chamber of Commerce – Biznet

IE

na

na

na

IT

2,756

18.9

National Institute of Statistics (Istat), Statistiche nazionali sulla struttura delle imprese

LT

29

-12.1

Eurostat, Annual detailed enterprise statistics for services

LU

222

-19.3

STATEC, IGSS

LV

84

27.3

Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia (CSP), Yearly survey of enterprises and institutions

MT

207

16.9

National Statistics Office (NSO)

NL

900

-8.6

Maritieme Monitor 2014

PL

312

97.5

Central Statistical Office (GUS)

PT

2,391

5.3

Statistics Portugal

RO

na

na

na

SE

983

7.9

Swedish Statistics

SI

46

109.1

Statistical Register of Employment

UK

1,900

-3.8

ONS UK Business: Activity, Size and Location, 2013

Note: na = not available.

Source: Eurofound Network of European correspondents (2014), national statistics.

Data collected through Eurofound’s Network of European correspondents show important cross-country differences with regard to the impact of the economic crisis on the maritime transport sector. The following 11 countries recorded an increase in employment from 2008 to 2013: Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania and Slovenia. However, the following 10 countries recorded a decrease in the same period: Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Malta, Spain and the UK. For France, Germany, Lithuania and Sweden, information was not available.

Countries most affected by the crisis were Cyprus (a fall in employment of 89% from 2008 to 2013), Bulgaria (-50%) and Spain (-30%). In contrast, Slovenia (158%) and Latvia (143%) recorded the most pronounced employment increases in this period. It is also worth noting the case of Portugal, which recorded an employment increase equivalent to 764%. However, the figures provided by the national correspondent cover the period 2001–2011 and are therefore not strictly comparable.

The number of companies in the sector decreased in 12 countries out of the 23 for which data are available for 2008 and 2013 (or the years as referenced). In Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Luxembourg and Poland, the number of companies decreased while employment increased. This could reflect a process of concentration of the sector’s company structure.

The data in Table 1 also show that male employment in the sector is higher than female employment in all countries with available data. Germany is the country where the gender gap is least pronounced, with women accounting for 43% of total employment. However, this may be caused by different proportions of land and on-board workers in Germany.

Table 1 also shows that that self-employment and other non-employee relationships such as family workers are widespread only in Romania and the Netherlands where those employment relationships account for 65% and 39% respectively.

National level of interest representation

The national-level analysis of interest representation focuses on:

  • membership domain and the strength of organisations;
  • the organisations’ role in collective bargaining;
  • their role in public policymaking.

Membership domain and strength

This section focuses on quantitative data about the membership and relative strength of organisations within the maritime transport sector. Data were collected through Eurofound’s Network of European correspondents. The definition of membership and density used in this study are given in Table 3.

Table 3: Definitions of membership and density

Type of organisation

Membership

Sectoral density

Trade union

Number of active members in employment.

Number of active members in employment in the maritime transport sector.

Sectoral density: Number of active members in employment in the maritime transport sector divided by the total number of employees in the maritime transport sector.

Employer organisation

Number of member companies.

Number of employees working in member companies.

Number of member companies in the maritime transport sector.

Number of employees working in member companies in the maritime transport sector.

Sectoral density (companies): Number of member companies in the maritime transport sector divided by the total number of companies in the sector.

Sectoral density (employees): Number of employees working in member companies in the maritime transport sector divided by the total number of employees in the maritime transport sector.

Trade unions or employee interest representation

Tables A1 and A2 (Annex 1) present the trade unions’ data on their domains and membership strength. The tables list all sector-related organisations that are either involved in collective bargaining and/or affiliated to ETF.

In each of the 25 EU Member States covered by this study, at least one sector-related trade union has been identified. In total, the study has identified 90 trade unions that meet the criteria for inclusion. As shown in Table 4, four countries recorded only 1 sector-related trade union, five countries recorded two, four countries recorded three, while 12 countries recorded four or more. Therefore, a pluralistic structure exists in most of the countries. Moreover, the union landscape in the maritime transport sector is very fragmented in some countries, including France (nine trade unions), Ireland, Portugal and Slovenia (six trade unions each), and the Netherlands, Spain and the UK (five trade unions each).

Table 4: Number of trade unions in the maritime transport sector per country

Number of trade unions

Countries

One

CZ, HR, LT, RO

Two

CY, DE, EE, EL, LU

Three

BG, LV, MT, PL

Four or more

BE, DK, ES, FI, FR, IE, IT, NL, PT, SE, SI, UK

Collective bargaining

A total of 74 trade unions out of 80 with available information are involved in sector-related collective bargaining. This indicates that 92% of the trade unions identified take part in collective bargaining in the maritime transport sector. The Czech Republic is the only country where trade unions are not involved in collective bargaining; this is because there are no sector-related collective agreements in force.

Domain patterns

Only eight trade unions (around 9% of all the unions in the study) demarcate their domain in a way that is congruent with the sectoral definition. This suggests that statistical definitions of business activities of the sector differ from the lines along which employees identify their interests.

Sectional overlap is the most common domain pattern in the maritime transport sector. It occurs in 41% of cases (35 trade unions). This is often a result of domain demarcations that focus on certain categories of employees, who are then organised across several sectors, including in activities outside the maritime transport sector. Employee categories are specified by various parameters mostly related to employment status, such as white-collar workers (MMF in Denmark, SKL in Finland, FOMM-CGT in France, CMHF in the Netherlands), blue-collar workers (ABVV/BTB - FGTB/UBT in Belgium, 3F in Denmark, SIPTU in Ireland, SEKO in Sweden), or more specific groups such as ship and harbour workers (RMT in the UK). Several unions cover only the private sector (OMEPEGE-SEK in Cyprus, PASENT in Greece), public sector activities related to maritime transport (PSEU in Ireland) or certain regions (FTTUB in Bulgaria, ELA Zerbitzuak in Spain, OZZOiM in Poland, SPDS in Slovenia). In other cases, unions cover only some activities within the maritime transport sector such as freight transport (ŪTAF in Latvia), passenger maritime transport (GWU in Malta) or some specific ferry lines (EVG in Germany).

Overlap occurs in 24% of cases (21 trade unions). It is explained by two main modes of demarcation. The first, which affects only three trade unions, relates to general or cross-sectoral domains (CNV and FNV in the Netherlands and Unite in the UK). The second and more frequent mode in the sector relates to various forms of multi-sector domains. In some cases, the domain includes all services (Ver.di in Germany), the whole transport sector (FILT-CGIL in Italy, OGBL-ACAL and LCGB-Transport in Luxembourg), or diverse activities such as the whole transport sector, construction and gambling (SMC-UGT in Spain). In other cases, the domain is more restricted and closely related to the maritime transport sector or maritime sector, including activities such as warehousing and ports (EMSA in Estonia), ports (FNSM CGT in France), fishing (LJS in Lithuania) or inland water transport (OSN in the Czech Republic).

Finally, sectionalism is recorded in 26% of cases (22 trade unions) It is explained by domain demarcations that cover only some specific activities within the maritime transport sector such as maritime piloting (Luotsiliitto in Finland), or public sector activities related to maritime transport (TEEU in Ireland), some activities only within some regions (STU in Bulgaria, KSM MiR NSZZ Solidarność in Poland), or some employee categories such as white-collar workers in the sector (SL in Denmark), pilots (Lotsförbundet in Sweden) or seamen workers (EMAÜ in Estonia, PNO in Greece).

The domain description of all the unions is presented in Table A3 in Annex 1.

Figure 4: Maritime transport related trade unions and their domain patterns (N= 86)

Source: Eurofound’s Network of European correspondents (2015).

Membership figures and organisational strength within the sector

Membership of the sector-related trade unions is voluntary in the 25 countries that record trade unions. The number of active trade union members differs widely, ranging from 2,986 (SL in Denmark) to 288 (EMAÜ in Estonia). This considerable variation reflects differences in the size of the economy and the comprehensiveness of the membership domain rather than the ability to recruit members. Therefore, density is a more appropriate measure of membership strength for comparative analysis. In this context, it should be noted that the density figures in this section refer to net ratios, which means they are calculated on the basis of active members (employees) only, rather than taking into consideration all union members (those who are in a job and those who are not). This is mainly because research usually considers net union densities more informative than gross densities, since the former measure tends to reflect unionisation trends among employees more quickly and accurately than the latter (only employees are capable of taking industrial action). When looking at sector density (again, referring only to active members), it is important to differentiate between the trade unions’ sectoral density and their domain density. The domain or overall density must be higher than the sectoral density if a trade union organises a particular part of the sector – that is, where the trade union’s membership domain is sectionalist – and equally if a trade union organises the whole sector as it is defined in the study, that is, where the trade union’s membership domain is congruent. In this study we look only at sectoral density.

Sectoral density rates are available for 36% of the sector-related organisations covered (31 out of 88 cases). However, some doubts arise about the sectoral density rates from Sweden and Slovenia (eight trade unions), where the sum of all the density rates is higher than 100%. Bearing this inconsistency in mind, the statistical information summarised below does not include Sweden and Slovenia. Only 31 trade unions are therefore included.

Statistics show that:

  • sectoral density exceeds 75% in only two of the trade unions (SPH in Croatia and MDU in Malta);
  • three of the trade unions (10%) claim to represent between 50% and 75% of the sector’s employees (SMU in Finland, SIPTU in Ireland and FZZ MiR in Poland);
  • nine (29%) of the trade unions claim to represent between 20% and 35% of the sector’s employees;
  • six (19%) of the trade unions claim to represent between 10% and 20% of employees in the sector;
  • 11 (35%) of the trade unions record a sector density rate of less than 10% of employees.

From these figures, it can be stated that low sectoral densities prevail in the sector since 84% of the organisations with available information record a density lower than 35%. However, these figures should be treated with caution due to the fact that more than a half of the trade unions do not record information on sectoral membership.

Employer organisations

Tables A4 and A6 present membership data for the employer organisations in the maritime transport sector. Sectoral employer organisations were identified in 23 EU Member States (there are no sector-related employers' organisations in the Czech Republic or Latvia, while Austria, Hungary and Slovakia are not included in the study).

A total of 43 sector-related employer organisations were identified; 15 countries record only 1 employer organisation, 5 countries record 2 employer organisations, and 1 country has 3 (Table 5). The Netherlands and Italy, with 5 and 10 employer organisations respectively, indicate a very fragmented landscape. Most of the countries have a monopolistic or semi-pluralistic employer/business organisation landscape.

Table 5: Number of employer/business organisations in the maritime transport sector per country

Number of employer organisations

Countries

One

BE, BG, CY, DE, EE, ES, HR, LT, LU, MT, PL, PT, RO, SI, UK

Two

DK, EL, FI, IE, SE

Three

FR

Four or more

IT, NL

Collective bargaining

The study found employer organisations that are involved in collective bargaining in 16 countries (Table A5 in Annex 1). In six countries (Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia and the UK), no sectoral employer association included in the study is involved in collective bargaining. In the case of Malta, information about this was not available. In Sweden, one of the two employer associations included in the study is not involved in collective bargaining.

Generally, business organisations may also deal with interests other than those related to industrial relations. As explained the Eurofound report, Employers’ organisations in Europe, organisations specialising in matters other than industrial relations are commonly defined as ‘trade associations’. Bearing this in mind, it could be assumed that all the eight organisations not involved in collective bargaining (Table A5) either primarily or exclusively act as trade associations in their country. All these organisations are members of the sectoral European-level employer organisation, European Community Shipowners' Associations (ECSA). In this sense, it must be stressed that, according to the selection criteria described above, all national organisations affiliated to the European-level employer association are included in the study, irrespective of whether or not they are involved in collective bargaining.

Domain patterns

With regard to the domain patterns of the employer organisations, sectionalism is the most widespread domain pattern. It occurs in 58% of the cases (25 organisations). It is caused by domain demarcations that cover only specific subsectors within the maritime transport sector, such as sea and coastal passenger water transport or sea and coastal freight water transport (BSA in Bulgaria, GASPE in France, and KVNR and Nemea in the Netherlands), service activities incidental to water transportation (SET in Finland and APERMA in France), or sea and coastal passenger water transport (SEEN in Greece). It is also caused by domain demarcations that exclude public-owned companies (KBRV-URAB in Belgium, Confitarma in Italy, OPOPC in Romania and SARF in Sweden), or cover only certain types of companies, such as large national companies (ZAP in Poland). Finally, in the case of GIZ-ZLS in Slovenia, it is due to the fact that the organisation is active in only one region.

Sectionalist overlap occurs in 12% of the cases (five organisations). It is usually explained by domain demarcation that excludes some activities or subsectors within the maritime transport sector (such as coastal transport of passengers, or service activities incidental to water transportation) and covers other activities outside the sector, such as supporting services to ship operators (KNE-CSC in Cyprus), manufacturing industry combined with transport and service (DI in Denmark), logistics companies, warehouses and cold stores, freight villages and airport terminal operators (Assologistica in Italy), or the education sector (LLSA in Lithuania).

Cases of overlap, which occur in 14% of the cases (six organisations), arise from employer organisations that have a cross-sectoral domain (Ibec in Ireland) or from organisations that cover sectors and activities outside, but closely related to, the maritime transport sector, such as offshore activities (Rederiforening in Denmark), maritime education and maritime law (ELL in Estonia), maritime tourism activities, management companies and vessels towing (AAMC in Portugal), or crewing agencies, maritime training providers, maritime colleges, classification societies, law firms, accountancy firms and banks (UK Chamber of Shipping in the UK).

Finally, 16% of the associations (seven in total) have a membership domain that is more or less congruent with the sector definition. This means the domain of these organisations largely focuses on the maritime transport sector as defined for the purpose of this study. More employer organisations than trade unions (9%) base their activities on the sectoral definition used in this study.

Figure 5: Maritime transport related employer organisations/business associations and their domain patterns (N= 43)

Source: Eurofound Network of European correspondents (2015).

Membership figures and organisational strength within the sector

The first point to note is that membership of sector-related employer organisations is voluntary in all the countries that record employer organisations. Sectoral domain densities for companies are available for 37 organisations (88%). Statistics show that density is:

  • between 35% and 55% in two cases (KVNR in the Netherlands and KBRV-URAB in Belgium);
  • between 15% and 25% in six cases;
  • below 10% in 29 cases.

Sectoral domain densities for employees are available for 26 organisations (60%). Statistics show that density is:

  • between 60% and 90% in five cases;
  • between 30% and 45% in three cases;
  • between 10% and 20% in two cases;
  • below 10% in 16 cases.

Bearing these figures in mind, it can be stated that relatively low sectoral densities prevail both in terms of companies and employees.

Finally, it is worth noting that, where information is available for both kinds of densities (26 cases), the sectoral domain densities of companies are lower than the densities in terms of employees in 81% of the cases. This could indicate that larger companies have a higher propensity to associate than their smaller counterparts.

Collective bargaining and its actors

Table A2 and A5 (Annex 1) lists all social partners engaged in sector-related collective bargaining. Figure 6 shows the involvement of the organisations in collective bargaining.

With regard to trade unions, 93% of sector-related trade unions with available information record participation in collective bargaining. 44% show participation in single-employer bargaining, 39% record participation in both single and multi-employer bargaining, and 12% record participation in multi-employer bargaining only.

With regard to the employer organisations81% those with available information record participation in collective bargaining, 52% record participation in multi-employer bargaining, 26% in both single and multi-employer bargaining, and 2% in single-employer bargaining only (Ibec in Ireland).

Figure 6: Involvement of organisations in different forms of collective bargaining (% of total organisations in the study)

Source: Eurofound’s Network of European correspondents (2015).

The data presented in Table 6 provide an overview of the system of sector-related collective bargaining in the 25 countries under consideration. The importance of collective bargaining as a means of employment regulation is measured by calculating the total number of employees covered by collective bargaining as a proportion of the total number of employees within a certain segment of the economy as described in the book National labour relations in internationalised markets by Traxler, Blaschke and Kittel. The sector’s rate of collective bargaining coverage is therefore defined as the ratio of the number of employees covered by any kind of collective agreement to the total number of employees in the sector.

The table also shows the extent of multi-employer bargaining and whether statutory extension schemes (that widen the scope of collective agreements to non-affiliated employers) have been applied to the sector.

Table 6: System of sectoral collective bargaining, 2015

Country

CBC*

Share of MEB*

Extension practicesa

BE

100%

100%

2

BG

na

0%

0

CY

na

MEB prevailing

1

CZ

na

0%

0

DE

25–30%

MEB prevailing

0

DK

85–90%

60%

0

EE

15.4%

0%

0

EL

na

na

1

ES

100% (binding arbitration)

SEB prevailing

2

FI

90%

80%

2

FR

100%

MEB prevailing

2

HR

80%

100%

1

IE

na

0%

0

IT

100%

MEB prevailing

1

LT

50%

0%

0

LU

100%

100%

2

LV

100%

0%

2

MT

na

0%

0

NL

90% (50% for Dutch workers)

MEB prevailing

2

PL

na

0%

2

PT

4.6%

33.7%

1b

RO

0%

n/a

0b

SE

95%

100%

2

SI

100%

0%

0

UK

38%

0%

0

Notes: * Estimates. CBC = collective bargaining coverage: employees covered by a collective agreement as a percentage of the total number of employees in the sector. MEB = multi-employer bargaining =relative to single-employer bargaining. SEB = single-employer bargaining. a Extension practices: 0 = no practice; 1 = limited/exceptional; 2 = pervasive. Cases of functional equivalence are put in parenthesis. b Extension practices abolished or limited in 2011, 2012 or 2013. na = not available; n/a = not applicable.

Source: Eurofound’s Network of European correspondents (2015).

Collective bargaining coverage

All the countries except Romania record some form of collective bargaining in the maritime transport sector. In Latvia, where no sector-related employer organisation that met the criteria to be included in the study was found, collective bargaining takes place only at the company level. In the Czech Republic, where no employer organisations were recorded, Czech employees in the sector are covered by company collective agreements concluded by foreign organisations. In Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovenia and the UK, where no sectoral employer organisation is involved in collective bargaining, single-employer is the only bargaining level. In Portugal, the multi-employer agreement in force is a so-called Acordo Colectivo de Trabalho. Within the Portuguese industrial relations system, this type of agreement is signed by several companies together rather than by any employer organisation.

In a few of the countries where multi-employer is the only or most important bargaining level, multi-employer collective agreements are more or less congruent with the sectoral definition used in this study. Thus, they cover the whole sector or exclude only some activities such as service activities incidental to water transportation. This happens in Croatia, France, Germany and Italy.

In other countries, multi-employer collective agreements have a sectionalist domain and therefore cover only some activities such as sea freight water transport (Cyprus), or conclude different collective agreements for different subsectors such as passenger vessels and merchant vessels (Finland). A particular case of fragmented collective bargaining appears in the Netherlands. In this country, different collective agreements are concluded for freight water transport and passenger water transport. In addition, there are collective agreements specifically concluded for foreign employees from countries such as Indonesia or the Philippines . In addition, service activities incidental to water transportation are negotiated at single-employer bargaining level. Finally, in other countries, such as Denmark, multi-employer agreements have an overlap domain, also covering land transport.

The sector’s collective bargaining coverage rate is available for 17 countries ( Table 7). Generally, high collective bargaining coverage rates prevail in the countries with available data, with12 countries recording collective bargaining coverage exceeding 80%. These countries are Belgium, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden. A second minor group is identified, with three countries that record collective bargaining coverage rates between 30% and 50%. These countries are Germany, Lithuania and the UK. Finally, a third group of only two countries (Estonia and Portugal) record collective bargaining coverage rates lower than 20%.

 Table 7: Collective bargaining coverage and collective bargaining level, 2013

 

>80% coverage

Between 30% and 50% coverage

Below 20% coverage

0% coverage

Data not available

Multi-employer collective bargaining

BE, HR, LU,SE

 

 

 

 

Both single- and multi-employer collective bargaining

DK, FI, FR, IT, NL, ES

DE

PT

 

 

Single-employer collective bargaining

LV, SI,

LT, UK

EE

 

 

No collective agreements

 

 

 

RO

 

Not available

 

 

 

 

BG, CY, CZ, EL, IE, MT, PL

Source: Eurofound’s Network of European correspondents (2014).

With the exception of Latvia and Slovenia,  in all the countries that record high collective bargaining coverage rates exceeding 80%, multi-employer is the only or most important bargaining level. Attention should also be drawn to the Spanish case. This country, where single-employer is the predominant bargaining level, has a collective bargaining coverage close to 100% due to the existence of a binding arbitration (Laudo Arbitral), approved in 2005, that regulates professional structure, wage structure, vocational training and disciplinary regimes.

Participation in public policy

Interest associations may influence public policy in two ways:

  • they may be consulted by the authorities on matters affecting their members;
  • they may be represented on ‘corporatist’ (in other words tripartite) committees and policy consultation boards.

This study considers only cases of consultation and corporatist participation that explicitly relate to sector-specific matters. Consultation processes can be wide-ranging and, therefore, the organisations consulted by the authorities may vary according to issues and also depend on changes in government. Moreover, consultation may be occasional rather than regular.

Trade unions or interest representations

Of the 73 sector-related trade unions with available data, 55 (75%) are consulted. Authorities consult unions in all the countries in which there are sector-related unions except Slovenia; 23 trade unions are consulted on a regular basis in the following countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Finland, Germany, Italy, Latvia, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sweden and the UK. Information was not available for Luxembourg.

Since 21 of the 25 countries covered in the study have a multi-union system, it cannot be ruled out that the authorities favour certain trade unions over others or that unions compete for participation rights. In Bulgaria, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Latvia, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK only some of the sector-related trade unions are consulted.

Employer organisations or business associations

Authorities consult 34 of the 39 (87%) employer organisations for which information is available. Employer organisations are consulted by the government in all the countries with sector-related organisations (information was not available in Spain or Ireland); 17 organisations are regularly consulted in the following countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Finland, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden.

Of the eight countries with a multi-organisation system where a practice of consultation is recorded, all existing employer organisations may take part in the consultation process in Denmark, Finland, France and Sweden. In contrast, in Greece and the Netherlands, only some of the existing employer organisations take part in the consultation process. In Ireland and Italy, information was not available for all or some of the organisations.

Tripartite participation

The findings reveal that genuine sector-specific bodies have been established in 15 of the 25 countries under consideration (Table 8). Sector-specific bodies, whether bipartite or tripartite, have been established in Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden and the UK. Moreover, in several countries there are several bodies.

With regard to the scope of activity of the tripartite and bipartite bodies, there are bodies dealing with assistance and insurance (Belgium and Croatia), general maritime policy and regulation (Bulgaria, Estonia, Finland and France), training and education (Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands and the UK), health and safety in the workplace (Denmark, France, Ireland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK), social insurance (France, Italy and the Netherlands), pensions (the Netherlands and the UK), maritime security policies (UK) and general social dialogue issues related to the maritime transport sector (Poland).

Table 8: Tripartite and bipartite sector-specific public policy boards, 2015

 

Name of body and scope of activity

Bipartite or tripartite

Origin

Trade unions participating

Employer organisations participating

BE

Assistance and provident Fund

Bipartite

Statutory

ABVV/BTB - FGTB/UBT, ACV/CSC Transcom, CGSLB/ACLVB

KBRV

Technical Committee for the Merchant Navy

Bipartite

Statutory

ABVV/BTB - FGTB/UBT, ACV/CSC Transcom, CGSLB/ACLVB

KBRV

BU

Sectoral Council for Tripartite Cooperation, Ministry of Transport, Information Technology and Communications (MTITC)

Tripartite

Statutory

CITUB,CL Podkrepa

BIA

Sub-sectoral Council for Tripartite Cooperation in Water Transport, MTITC

Tripartite

Statutory

CITUB, CL Podkrepa

CEIBG; BIA

DE

Maritime Alliance for Training and Employment

Tripartite; Federal and regional ministries of transport and ministries of education/culture

Joint statement

Ver.di

VDR

DK

Vocational Training Committee of the Transport Sector – warehousing and storage

Tripartite

Statutory

3F

DI, Danish Chamber of Commerce, Copenhagen Malmö Ports

Education Council of the Metal Industry

Tripartite

Statutory

3F, Dansk Metal

DI

Education Council of Maritime Education

Tripartite

Statutory

3F, SL, MMF, CO-SEA

Danish Maritime Authority, Danish Shipowners’ Association, DI, Danmarks Fiskerifoening

Sea Health

Bipartite

Agreement

3F, SL, MMF, Metal Søfart, HK Danmark

Rederiforening, Bilfærgernes, HORESTA, Statsskibene

EE

Maritime Council

Tripartite

Agreement

EMSA

ELL

FI

Advisory Board for the Maritime Sector – maritime policy

Tripartite

Statutory

Transport Workers’ Union, SMU, SLPL, SKL

Confederation of Finnish Industries (EK), SV, Finnish Forest Industries Federation, Finish Port Operators’ Association, SET, Technology Industries

Consultative Committee on Seafaring – assists in the legislative development of issues related to seafarers’ employment and social conditions

Tripartite

Statutory

SKL, SLPL

SV, SET

FR

OPCA – professional training

Bipartite

By law and agreement

FNPD-CGT, CFE-CGC, FEETS-FO, CFDT, CFTC, PSCN CFE-CGC

Armateurs de France, French Ports Organisation (UPF), National Association of French Seaport Terminal Operators (UNIM)

Consultative body that supports governments to regulate the sector

Tripartite

By law

CGT, FO, CFDT, CFTC, CFE-CGC

Armateurs de France, UPF, UNIM

Consultative body on health and safety and working conditions of seafarers

Tripartite

By law

CGT, FO, CFDT, CFTC, CFE-CGC

 

Armateurs de France

Consultative body in charge of professional training in maritime transport

Tripartite

By law

CGT, FO, CFDT, CFTC, CFE-CGC

Armateurs de France

Tripartite body for collective agreements covering seafarers

Tripartite

Agreement

CGT, FO, CFDT, CFTC, CFE-CGC

Armateurs de France

Humanis – collective health insurance

Bipartite

Agreement

CGT, FO, CFDT, CFTC, CFE-CGC

Armateurs de France

HR

Permanent tripartite body for helping maritime officers and seafarers in accidents abroad

Tripartite

Agreement

SPH

CSA Mare nostrum

 

Permanent tripartite body for giving opinions on obtaining permission for armed guards to board ships under the Croatian flag

Tripartite

Agreement

SPH

CSA Mare nostrum

IE

Health and Safety Authority Code of Practice on Dock Work

Tripartite

 

SIPTU

International Transport Workers’ Federation, Irish Congress of Trade Unions

Harbour Masters’ Committee, Dublin Port Company, Burke Shipping Group

IT

National Social Security Fund for maritime employees

Bipartite

Agreement

FILT-CGIL, FIT-CSL, UIL Trasporti - UIL

Confitarma, Fedarlinea

SANIMARE. Paritarian institution of the maritime sector

Bipartite

Agreement

FILT-CGIL, FIT-CSL, UIL Trasporti - UIL

Confitarma, Fedarlinea, Federimorchiatori

Ports National Paritarian Institution

Bipartite

Agreement

 

FILT-CGIL, FIT-CSL, UIL Trasporti - UIL

Assoporti, Assiterminal, Assologistica, Fise-Uniport

LV

National Tripartite Cooperation Council (NTSP) transportation sub-council

Tripartite

Statutory

Free Trade Union Confederation of Latvia

LDDK

NL

Opleidings- en Ontwikkelingsfonds Zeescheepvaart – education and training

Bipartite

Agreement

NINL

VWH, SMW

Sectorraad Koopvaardij – interest representation in social insurances

Bipartite

Agreement

NINL

KVNR

Stichting Zee-risico 1996 – health and safety

Bipartite

Agreement

NINL

KVNR

Vereniging Zee-risico 1967 – social insurance for non-Dutch seafaring personnel

Bipartite

Statutory

NINL

KVNR

Bedrijfspensioenfonds voor de Koopvaardij – pensions

Bipartite

Agreement

NINL

KVNR

Various working groups on, for example, safety inspections, sustainable employment, education and training, health and safety, national legislation, international legislation

Bipartite/ tripartite

Various

NINL

KVNR

PL

Tripartite Team for Shipping and Sea Fishing (TTSSF) – to conduct tripartite sectoral social dialogue for reconciliation of its parties’ interests and solving of problems related to operation of shipping and sea fishing.

Tripartite

Agreement

KSM MiR NSZZ Solidarność, FZZ MiR, OZZOiM

 

ZAP

SE

Maritime Joint Work Environment Council (SAN) – works to improve and promote occupational health and safety at sea.

Bipartite

Agreement (since 1956).

SEKO, SBF

SARF

UK

Maritime Educational Foundation /Maritime Training Trust – training

Bipartite

Agreement

Nautilus, RMT

UK Chamber of Shipping

Trustee boards of the Merchant Navy Officers Pension Fund (MNOPF) and Merchant Navy Officers Pension Plan (MNOPP) and the Joint Officers Pensions Committee, which oversees the governance of the MNOPF and MNOPP occupational pension schemes

Bipartite

Agreement

Nautilus

UK Chamber of Shipping

Trustee boards of the Merchant Navy Ratings Pension Fund and Merchant Navy Ratings Pension Plan – occupational pension schemes

Bipartite

Agreement

RMT

UK Chamber of Shipping

Merchant Navy Training Board – sector-specific education, training and skills

Bipartite (plus education sector representatives, and government observer)

Agreement

Nautilus, RMT

UK Chamber of Shipping

Merchant Navy Welfare Board Council – welfare/charitable services

Bipartite (plus voluntary sector representatives)

Agreement

Nautilus, RMT

UK Chamber of Shipping

National Maritime Occupational Health and Safety Committee – health and safety promotion

Bipartite

Agreement

Nautilus, RMT

UK Chamber of Shipping

National Maritime Security Committee – consultative forum on maritime security policies

Tripartite

Statutory

Nautilus, RMT

UK Chamber of Shipping

Tripartite Working Group on UK implementation of the International Labour Organization Maritime Labour Convention

Tripartite

Statutory

Nautilus, RMT, Unite

UK Chamber of Shipping

Warlike Operations Area Committee (WOAC) – body that designates areas at risk from war and piracy

Bipartite

Agreement

Nautilus, RMT

UK Chamber of Shipping

Source: Eurofound’s Network of European correspondents (2015).

European level of interest representation

At European level, eligibility for consultation and participation in social dialogue is linked to three criteria laid down in Commission Decision 98/500/EC. Accordingly, social partner organisations must:

  • relate to specific sectors or categories and be organised at European level;
  • consist of organisations which are themselves an integral and recognised part of Member States' social partner structures, have the capacity to negotiate agreements, and be representative of several Member States;
  • have adequate structures to ensure their effective participation in the work of the committees.

In terms of social dialogue, the essential feature is the ability of such organisations to negotiate on behalf of their members and to conclude binding agreements. This section about European associations in the maritime transport sector therefore analyses these organisations’ membership domains, the composition of their membership and their capacity to negotiate.

As detailed below, one sector-related European association on the employee side (ETF) and one on the employer side (ECSA) are members of the European Social Dialogue Committee of the maritime transport sector and are listed by the European Commission as social partner organisations consulted under Article 154 of the TFEU. Hence, the following analysis will concentrate on these organisations.

Membership domain

According to its website, ETF represents more than 3.5 million transport workers from more than 230 transport unions and 41 European countries, in the following sectors: railways, road transport and logistics, maritime transport, inland waterways, civil aviation, ports and docks, tourism and fisheries. Its principal activity is to represent and defend the interests of transport workers throughout Europe. It formulates and coordinates trade union transport and social policy, organises concerted industrial activities, engages in education and training, and conducts innovative research on a variety of subjects from workers’ health and safety to employment impact studies.

ECSA is the trade association representing the national shipowners’ associations of the EU and Norway. According to its website, ECSA represents close to 99% of the European Economic Area fleet or about 20% of the world fleet. Its aim is to promote the interests of European shipping so that the industry can best serve European and international trade and commerce in a competitive, free-enterprise environment to the benefit of shippers and consumers, and help formulate EU policy on critical maritime transport related issues.

Membership composition

Table 9 lists membership-related trade unions affiliated to ETF, drawn from the country reports. This membership list is confined to the sector-related associations of the countries under consideration; hence it does not include trade unions affiliated to ETF that do not have any members in the maritime transport sector.

The membership of ETF is obtained through the membership list provided by the organisation and a further check of the membership lists published on the organisation’s website.

Table 9: Maritime transport trade unions affiliated to ETF

Country

Trade union organisation

Collective bargaining*

Geographical coverage

BE

ACV/CSC Transcom

M + S

Whole country

ABVV-BTB/FGTB-UBT

M + S

Whole country

CGSLB/ACLVB

M + S

Whole country

BBTK/SETCa

M + S

Whole country

BG

FTW Podkrepa

S

Information not available

 FTTUB

M + S

Only Varna region

STU

S

Only Varna region

CY

OMEPEGE-SEK

M + S

Whole country

CZ

OSN

No

Whole country

DE

Ver.di

M + S

Whole country

DK

3F

M + S

Whole country

CO-SEA

M + S

Whole country

SL

M + S

Whole country

EE

EMSA

S

Whole country

EMAÜ

M + S

Whole country

EL

PNO

M

Whole country

ES

SMC-UGT

M + S

Whole country

FSC-CCOO

M + S

Whole country

ELA Zerbitzuak 

na

Only the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country

FI

SKL

M + S

Whole country

SLPL (FSOU)

M + S

Whole country

SMU

M + S

Whole country

FR

CFTC Transports

M + S

Whole country

FOMM-CGT

M + S

Whole country

FNSM CGT

M + S

Whole country

FGTE-CFDT

M + S

Whole country

FEETS-FO

M + S

Whole country

HR

SPH

M

Whole country

IE

SITPU

S

Whole country

IT

FILT-CGIL

M + S

Whole country

FIT-CISL

M + S

Whole country

UILTrasporti

M + S

Whole country

LT

LJS

S

Whole country

LU

LCGB-Transport

M

Whole country

OGBL-ACAL

M

Whole country

LV

LTFJA

No

Whole country

ŪTAF

S

Whole country

MT

GWU

S

Whole country

NL

CNV

S

Whole country

FNV

S

Whole country

NINL/Nautilus

M + S

Whole country

PL

KSM MiR NSZZ Solidarność

S

In Pomerania and West Pomerania regions

OZZOiM

S

In Pomerania and West Pomerania regions

FZZ MiR

S

In Pomorskie and Zachodniopomorskie regions

PT

OFICIAISMAR

No

Whole country

RO

SLN

M + S

Whole country

SE

SBF

M

Whole country

SEKO

M

Whole country

Unionen

M

Whole country

SI

SŽPD

S

Only in the Coast–Karst region

SPS

S

Only in the Coast–Karst region

UK

Nautilus

S

Whole country

RMT

S

Whole country

Unite

S

Whole country

Prospect

S

Whole country

TSSA

S

Whole country

Note: * Collective bargaining involvement: S = single-employer bargaining; M = multi-employer bargaining.

Source: Eurofound’s Network of European correspondents (2015).

In each of the 25 countries covered in this study, at least one sectoral affiliation to ETF was found. ETF has 56 direct affiliations from the 25 countries under consideration. Therefore, 64% of the trade unions listed in Tables A1 and A2 are directly affiliated to ETF. Attention should be drawn to the case of Dansk Metal in Denmark, which, although it is a member of ETF, is not included as a separate organisation because it is a member of the trade union CO-SEA, also included in Table 7. The trade unions FNV from the Netherlands and TSSA from the UK are not affiliated to the maritime ETF section although, according to the national contributions, they have members in the sector and are involved in sector-related collective bargaining.

A total of 50 of the 56 trade unions affiliated to ETF are involved in sector-related collective bargaining. OSN in the Czech Republic, LTFJA in Latvia and OFICIAISMAR in Portugal are not involved. Information about ELA Zerbitzuak in Spain was not available.

All the unions affiliated to ETF cover the sector in all the regions of their countries except FTTUB and STU in Bulgaria, ELA Zerbitzuak in Spain, KSM MiR NSZZ Solidarność, OZZOiM and FZZ MiR in Poland, and SŽPD and SPS in Slovenia.

Although the coverage of organisations recorded by ETF in the maritime transport sector may seem relatively low at first glance (64%), a comparison with European trade unions present in other sectoral social dialogue committees (see representativeness studies on construction – 62%, woodworking – 55%, chemicals – 57%, or textile and clothing – 62%) reveals that it is in fact close to or higher than the average. In this context, it is important to check whether some major national trade unions are not affiliated to ETF. For this purpose, it can be assumed that major trade unions are those that are active in the whole country, conduct collective bargaining, have a relatively high level of membership, and have opportunities to intervene in the national decision-making process.

The analysis of the organisations that are not affiliated to ETF reveals 32 unaffiliated trade unions in 15 countries that are involved in collective bargaining. Of these, 19 are exclusively involved in single-employer bargaining. All these trade unions cover the whole country except for Sindicato XXI in Portugal and the trade unions in Slovenia that are active only in the coast regions. Of these 32 trade unions, 11 are also consulted by public authorities on issues affecting the sector. Sectoral density rates are available for only 7 of these 11 trade unions that are consulted by public authorities, involved in collective bargaining and active in the whole country. Only one of these records a density higher than 11%: MDU in Malta (75%). This trade union could therefore be considered a major trade union not affiliated to ETF.

Table 10 lists the employer organisations that are members of ECSA. Again, this membership list is confined to the sector-related associations of the countries under consideration; hence it does not include employer organisations affiliated to ECSA that do not have any members in the maritime transport sector.

Table 10: Maritime transport employer organisations affiliated to ECSA, 2015

Country

Employer organisation

Collective bargaining*

Geographical coverage

BE

KBRV-URAB

M

Whole country

CY

KNE-CSC

M

Whole country

DE

VDR

M

Whole country

DK

Rederiforening

M+S

Whole country

EE

ELL

No

Whole country

EL

UGS

M

Whole country

ES

ANAVE

M

Whole country

FI

SV

M

Whole country

FR

Armateurs de France

M

Whole country

HR

CSA Mare Nostrum

M

Whole country

IE

ICS

No

Whole country

IT

Confitarma

M+S

Whole country

Fedarlinea

M+S

Whole country

LT

LLSA

No

Whole country

LU

Fedil Shipping

M

Whole country

MT

MISC

na

Whole country

NL

KVNR

M

Whole country

PL

ZAP

No

Only in Pomerania, West Pomerania and Masovia regions

PT

AAMC

No

Whole country

SE

SRF

No

Whole country

SI

GIZ-ZLS

No

Only the Coast–-Karst region

UK

UK Chamber of Shipping

No

Whole country

Notes: * Collective bargaining involvement: S = single-employer bargaining; M = multi-employer bargaining. na = information not available.

Source: Eurofound’s Network of European correspondents (2015).

ECSA has 22 sectoral affiliations in 21 countries; there are two sectoral affiliations in Italy. This means 51% of the employer organisations listed in Tables A4 and A5 are directly affiliated to ECSA. As previously explained, there are no sector-related employer organisations in the Czech Republic and Latvia, while Austria, Hungary and Slovakia are not included in the study.

The two countries in which there is no sectoral affiliation to ECSA are Bulgaria and Romania. In Bulgaria, the sector-related employer organisation BSA was affiliated to ESCA in the period 2007–2012 and then cancelled its affiliation.

It is also worth noting the case of Cyprus. Although, the employer organisation affiliated to ECSA in this country is the Joint Cyprus Shipowners’ Association, information provided by Eurofound’s national correspondent related to its sister organisation that is involved in sectoral collective bargaining – the Cyprus Shipping Chamber (KNE-CSC). Thus, the Cypriot organisation included in the study is indirectly affiliated to ECSA.

A total of 14 of the 22 employer organisations affiliated to ECSA are involved in sectoral collective bargaining. All the employer organisations affiliated to ECSA, apart from ZAP in Poland and GIZ-ZLS in Slovenia, cover the sector in all regions of their countries.

Again, although coverage of organisations recorded by ECSA in the maritime transport sector (51%) may seem relatively low at first glance, comparison with European employer organisations in other sectoral social dialogue committees – see representativeness studies on woodworking (38%), electricity (62%), chemical (32%) and textile and clothing (48%) – reveals that it is close to or higher than average.

It is necessary to check whether some important employer organisations are not covered by ECSA. For this purpose, it can be assumed that important employer organisations are those that are active in the whole country, conduct collective bargaining, have a relatively high level of membership, and opportunities to intervene in the national decision-making process.

This analysis reveals that there are 21 organisations not covered by ECSA that are party to collective bargaining, of which only one is exclusively involved in single-employer collective bargaining (Ibec in Ireland). These 21 organisations are present in nine countries. Attention should be drawn to the fact that eight of these organisations are in Italy, four in the Netherlands and two in France. Thus, in these countries with a pluralistic or semi-pluralistic employer organisation system, some of the employer organisations involved in collective bargaining are not members of ECSA; 15 of these 21 organisations are consulted by public authorities in sector-related issues, and all but three (BSA in Bulgaria, Assoporti in Italy, and OPOPC in Romania) are active in the whole country.

Sectoral density rates in terms of companies are available for 13 of the 15 employer organisations that are active in the whole country, involved in sector-related collective bargaining and consulted by public authorities in sector-related issues. All these organisations record a sectoral density lower than 10% except DI in Denmark, which records a density equal to 19%.

Sectoral density rates in terms of employees are available for nine of the 15 employer organisations that are active in the whole country, involved in sector-related collective bargaining and consulted by public authorities in sector-related issues. All these organisations record a sectoral density lower than 10% except Assiterminal in Italy, which records a density equal to 16%.

Bearing this in mind, it can be assumed that only two employer organisations, namely DI in Denmark and Assiterminal in Italy, can be considered major employer organisations not covered by ECSA.

Capacity to negotiate

The European sectoral social partners should be able to prove their capacity to negotiate on behalf of their members and to enter into ‘contractual relations, including agreements’ (Article 155 of the TFEU), that is, the capacity to commit themselves and their national affiliates. This criterion refers to the capacity to negotiate agreements as provided for in Article 155 of the TFEU; negotiating other types of joint texts such as joint opinions, frameworks of action and guidelines is not considered to be sufficient in this context.

A European organisation has the capacity to negotiate such an agreement if it has received a mandate to do so from its affiliates, or if it can receive such a mandate in accordance with a given mandating procedure. The mandate/mandating procedure can be either statutory, that is, laid down in the statutes (constitution) of the organisation or annexed to them, or non-statutory, that is, laid down in secondary (formal) documents, such as rules of procedures, memoranda of understanding or decisions by the governing bodies of the organisation. The mandate will be described in terms of the conditions and procedure for the organisation to be given the authorisation to enter into a specific negotiation, as well as for the ratification of a possible agreement. If no such formal mandating procedure can be identified, it should be considered that this condition is not fulfilled.

To check this criterion, European social partners from the maritime transport sector (that is, ETF and ECSA) were asked to provide proof of their statutes or any other written documentation describing their mandate and capacity to negotiate, as well as the ratification procedures in place.

ETF’s capacity to negotiate

According to the ETF constitution, rule VI, point 13, which applies to all ETF sections (civil aviation, fisheries, inland waterways, maritime transport, ports, railways and road transport), the ETF Executive Committee, which is the governing body of the ETF between congresses ‘shall decide the guidelines governing the procedure for negotiations and agreements between social partners in the EU’. Furthermore, it states that these guidelines ‘shall be subject to ratification by the affiliated organisations from EU countries represented at Congress’.

Moreover, the relevant ETF section, which is the ETF institution each affiliated union has the right to participate in to the extent that it represents workers from the sector concerned, adopts a negotiation mandate and strategy. The section president, who is a member of the Executive Committee, informs the Executive Committee regularly about the progress of negotiations and the final results. In practice, it is the relevant section that ratifies such possible agreements.

The ETF has concluded the following social partner agreements in the maritime transport sector:

  • Agreement on the organisation of working time of seafarers, dated 30 September 1998;
  • Agreement on the Maritime Labour Convention, dated 19 May 2008.

Bearing this in mind, it can be concluded that ETF has a statutory mandating procedure that indicates that the Executive Committee establishes the guidelines governing the procedure for negotiation, and that the relevant ETF Section sets up the negotiation mandate and strategy. This procedure has been used in the past by the maritime transport section to negotiate and conclude agreements as provided for in Article 155 of the TFEU.

ECSA’s capacity to negotiate

ECSA’s legal statutes do not explicitly refer to a mandate/mandating procedure to negotiate agreements as provided for in Article 155 of the TFEU. Moreover, the negotiation of agreements as per Article 155 of the TFEU is not explicitly mentioned in the goals of the organisation, which include:

to study all problems relating to the maritime transport industry in the context of the Treaties governing the European Union, to keep its members informed and to seek a common position, to promote its policies with the authorities of the European Union and to defend within the European Union the common interests of the maritime transport industries of the Member States. (Article 2)

Based on this, it cannot be stated that ECSA has a statutory mandate/mandating procedure. However, the organisation has concluded with ETF the two agreements previously mentioned. Therefore, the existence of a non-statutory mandating procedure cannot be ruled out.

Other European organisations

As final proof of the weight of ETF and ECSA in the sector, it is useful to look at the other European organisations to which the sector-related trade unions and employer organisations are affiliated.

Employee organisations

The affiliations of the trade unions are listed in Table A2 (Annex 1). There is one sector-related European organisation other than ETF that covers at least three countries. According to the bottom-up approach, the International Federation of Shipmasters’ Associations (IFSMA) is present in five countries: Denmark, Finland, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK. It is worth noting that the bottom-up approach can be expected to underestimate the number of organisations affiliated to IFSMA. According to the information provided on its website, IFSMA is formed of around 11,000 shipmasters from 60 countries, either through their national associations or as individual members. However, information about the organisations affiliated and the European country members is not provided.

However, the following non-sector-related European social partners were found in Denmark, Sweden and the UK:

  • European Federation of Food, Agriculture and Tourism Trade Unions (EFFAT);
  • European Public Service Union (EPSU);
  • Public Services International (PSI).

The presence of these organisations reflects the overlapping domains of many trade unions in these countries, because these organisations do not claim to attract unions belonging to the maritime transport sector.

Thus, the only relevant competitor identified on the employee side is IFSMA. However, this organisation covers only shipmasters while ETF has a wider domain, representing all kinds of maritime transport workers.

Employer organisations

A similar review of the membership of the national employer/business associations can be derived from Table A5. In this case, there are three organisations that were found in at least three countries:

  • the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS), which is present in Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the UK;
  • the Baltic and International Maritime Council (BIMCO), which is present in Cyprus, Germany and Italy;
  • the Federation of European Private Port Operators (FEPORT), which is present in Denmark, Italy and Romania.

However, it should be noted that this is only the outcome of the bottom-up approach. Indeed, BIMCO has more than 2,200 members globally, including individual companies (information on employer associations/country members is not provided) and FEPORT, which is not sector-related, has members in 11 EU Member States. As far as ICS is concerned, the bottom-up approach found the same number of European employer organisations as listed on the ICS website, that is, 14 employer/trade associations active in 14  Member States. All the European employer organisations affiliated to ICS are also affiliated to ECSA. Indeed, ICS and ECSA tend to cooperate. ICS participates in ECSA meetings to discuss EU-related issues with a link to the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Labour Organization.

Similarly, ECSA attends ICS meetings to brief ICS members, primarily the non-EU member-associations, of EU-related issues with a link to the IMO.

Conclusions

On the employee side, this representativeness study identified 88 trade unions in the maritime transport sector. A pluralistic structure exists in most of the 25 Member States. Moreover, the union landscape is very fragmented in some countries such as France (nine trade unions), Ireland (six trade unions), the Netherlands (five trade unions), Portugal (six trade unions), Slovenia (six trade unions), and Spain and the UK (five trade unions each).

On the employer side, 43 sector-related employers’ organisations were identified. Unlike the trade union system, the employer/business organisation landscape in most of the countries is monopolistic or semi-pluralistic. Only the Netherlands (five employer organisations) and Italy (10 employer organisations) show a very fragmented landscape.

All the countries included in the study record trade unions, while there are no employer organisations in the Czech Republic or Latvia. However, in these two countries some workers are covered by collective bargaining. In Latvia, collective bargaining takes place only at the company level, while in the Czech Republic, employees in the sector are covered by company collective agreements concluded by foreign organisations.

The domain demarcation of both trade unions and employer organisations shows that employer/business organisations (16%) more often than trade unions (9%) cover the maritime transport sector as defined for the purpose of this study. However, this lack of congruence is low in both cases. Attention should also be drawn to the fact that the domain of the employer organisations tends to be narrower than the domain of the trade unions. The most widespread domain pattern for the employer/business organisations is sectionalism (58%). This is usually caused by domain demarcations that cover only specific subsectors within the maritime transport sector, such as sea and coastal passenger water transport or sea and coastal freight water transport. In the case of trade unions, the most common domain pattern is sectional overlap (41%), usually derived from domain demarcations that focus on certain categories of employee, who are then organised across several sectors, including activities outside the maritime transport sector.

Trade unions in the study record relatively low sectoral densities; 84% of the unions with available information record a sectoral density lower than 35%, while 35% record a density lower than 10%. Low sectoral densities also prevail among employer organisations, although it is worth noting that the sectoral domain densities of companies are lower than the densities in terms of employees in most cases. This could indicate that larger companies have a higher propensity to associate than their smaller counterparts.

The sector rate of collective bargaining coverage is high in most of the countries with available data (17 countries), with  12 countries record collective bargaining coverage exceeding 80%. These countries are Belgium, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden. A second minor group of three countries record collective bargaining coverage rates between 30% and 50%. These countries are Germany, Lithuania and the UK. Finally, a group of only two countries (Estonia and Portugal) record collective bargaining coverage rates lower than 20%.

More employer organisations (87%) than trade unions (75%) are consulted by national governments in sector-related issues, while genuine sector-specific bodies, whether bipartite or tripartite, have been established in 15 of the 25 countries under consideration.

Top-down and bottom-up analyses of the maritime transport sector in the 25 EU Member States covered in the study reveal that ETF and ECSA are the most important European-level social partner organisations in the sector based on their membership. ETF has 56 direct affiliations (64% of all the trade unions identified) from the 25 countries under consideration, and 52 of these are involved in sector-related collective bargaining. The analysis of the organisations not covered by ETF reveals that there are 32 trade unions not covered in 15 countries that are involved in collective bargaining, of which 11 are also consulted by public authorities in issues affecting the sector. Only one of these organisations records a density higher than 11%: MDU in Malta (75%). This trade union could be considered the only major trade union not affiliated to ETF.

ECSA has 22 direct affiliations (51% of all the employer/business organisations identified) in 21 countries, and 14 of these are involved in sector-related collective bargaining. There are 21 organisations not covered by ECSA in nine countries that are party to collective bargaining. Thus, in these nine countries with a pluralistic or semi-pluralistic employer organisation system, some of the organisations involved in collective bargaining are not members of ECSA. A total of 15 of these 21 organisations are consulted by public authorities in sector-related issues. Of these organisations, only two, DI in Denmark and Assiterminal in Italy, record a sectoral density in terms of companies (DI) or employees (Assiterminal) higher than 10%. Therefore, they can be considered major employer/business organisations not affiliated to ECSA.

Analyses of the legal statutes of both organisations reveals that ETF has a statutory mandating procedure to negotiate, on behalf of its members, agreements as per Article TFEU 155. ECSA does not have a statutory mandate/mandating procedure to negotiate such agreements on behalf of its members, but it has concluded two agreements with ETF as per Article 155 of the TFEU in the past.

Annex 1: Data tables

Trade unions

Table A1: Domain coverage and membership of trade unions in the maritime transport sector, 2015

 

Trade union

Domain coverage*

Type of membership

Active members total

Active members in the sector

BE

ABVV/BTB - FGTB/UBT

SO

Voluntary

45,000

1,000

ACV/CSC Transcom

O

Voluntary

1,500,000

250

CGSLB/ACLVB

O

Voluntary

na

na

BBTK-SETCa

SO

Voluntary

425,422

na

BG

FTTUB

SO

Voluntary

10,000

na

FTW Podkrepa

SO

Mixed

5,500

na

STU

S

Voluntary

958

958

CY

OMEPEGE-SEK

SO

Voluntary

na

na

SEGDAMELIN-PEO

SO

Voluntary

7,700

50

CZ

OSN

O

Voluntary

187

na

DE

Ver.di

O

Voluntary

2,039,931

na

EVG

SO

Voluntary

203,875

na

DK

3F

SO

Voluntary

253,430

3,000

SL

S

Voluntary

2,986

2,986

MMF

SO

Voluntary

10,000

1,350

CO-SEA

S

Voluntary

1,922

1,922

EE

EMSA

O

Voluntary

2,350

2,040

EMAÜ

S

Voluntary

288

288

EL

PNO

S

Voluntary

na

na

PA.S.E.N.T

SO

Voluntary

na

na

ES

SMC-UGT

O

Voluntary

170,000

3,500

FSC-CCOO

O

Voluntary

na

na

ELA Zerbitzuak 

SO

Mixed

26,142

na

FETYC-CGT

O

Voluntary

na

na

SEOMM

na

Voluntary

na

na

FI

Luotsiliitto 

S

Voluntary

160

160

SMU

C

Voluntary

6,300

6,300

SKL

SO

Voluntary

2,300

850

SLPL

C

Voluntary

1,600

1,600

FR

FOMM-CGT

SO

Voluntary

na

na

FNSM CGT

O

Voluntary

na

na

National union CGT of offshore employees of merchant fleets

na

Voluntary

na

na

FGTE-CFDT

O

Voluntary

50,000

na

CFE-CGC

S

Voluntary

150

150

SNCNMM

S

Voluntary

na

na

FECCNL-FO

C

Voluntary

na

na

FEETS-FO

O

Voluntary

na

na

CFTC Transports

O

Voluntary

na

na

HR

SPH

C

Voluntary

2,500

2,500

IE

SIPTU

SO

Voluntary

199,881

800

IMPACT

SO

Voluntary

63,500

na

PSEU

SO

Voluntary

10,000

na

Unite

SO

Voluntary

na

na

TEEU

S

Voluntary

39,000

na

SUI

SO

Voluntary

na

na

IT

FILT-CGIL

O

Voluntary

147,582

10,433

FIT-CISL

O

Voluntary

na

na

UILTrasporti

O

Voluntary

117,846

7,000

USCLAC/UNCDiM/SMACD

S

Voluntary

na

na

LT

LJS

O

Voluntary

1,591

na

LU

OGBL-ACAL

O

Voluntary

na

na

LCGB-Transport

O

Voluntary

700

na

LV

LTFJA

S

Voluntary

7,642

7,642

ŪTAF

SO

Voluntary

1,581

866

LNJA

S

Voluntary

na

na

MT

MDU

S

Voluntary

600

600

GWU

SO

Voluntary

39,201

na

UHM

SO

Voluntary

na

na

NL

CMHF

SO

Voluntary

57,000

na

CNV

O

Voluntary

127,000

na

FNV

O

Voluntary

6,915

200

NINL/ Nautilus

SO

Voluntary

4,872

2,698

VPW

SO

Voluntary

na

na

PL

OZZOiM

SO

Voluntary

4,950

na

FZZ MiR

SO

Voluntary

2,199

1,464

KSM MiR NSZZ “Solidarność”

S

Voluntary

5,391

na

PT

OFICIAISMAR

S

Voluntary

235

235

FESMAR

C

Voluntary

na

na

SIMAMEVIP

SO

Voluntary

na

na

Sindicato XXI

S

Voluntary

500

500

STFCMM

C

Voluntary

na

na

SITEMAQ

SO

Voluntary

na

na

RO

SLN

C

Voluntary

5,050

5,050

SE

SEKO

SO

Voluntary

79,371

6,300

SBF

SO

Voluntary

3,600

3,000

Lotsförbundet

S

Voluntary

205

205

Unionen

SO

Voluntary

500,000

1,040

SI

SPS

S

Voluntary

na

na

SDPS-KS 90

S

Voluntary

na

na

SDSP-KNSS

S

Voluntary

12

12

SPSP-ZSSS

S

Voluntary

4

4

SŽPD

S

Voluntary

400

400

SPDS

SO

Voluntary

180

130

UK

RMT

SO

Voluntary

70,521

4,687

Nautilus

C

Voluntary

12,297

12,297

Prospect

SO

Voluntary

100,000

na

TSSA

SO

Voluntary

19,500

250

Unite

O

Voluntary

1,405,071

19,000

Notes: * Domain coverage: C = congruence; O = overlap; SO = sectional overlap; S = sectionalism. na = information not available. A more detailed description of the trade unions’ membership domains with regard to the sector is found in Table A3.

Table A2: Density, collective bargaining, consultation and affiliations of trade unions in the maritime transport sector, 2015

 

Trade union

Sectoral density (%)

Collective bargaining*

Consultation/ frequency

National, European and international affiliations**

BE

ABVV/BTB - FGTB/UBT

na

M + S

Yes

On a regular basis

ABVV-FGTB; ETF; ITF

ACV/CSC Transcom

22.0

M + S

Yes

On a regular basis

ACV/CSC; ETF; ITF, ILO

CGSLB/ACLVB

na

M + S

Yes

On a regular basis

na; ETF; na

BBTK-SETCa

na

M + S

Yes

na

ABVV-FGTB; ETF; ITF

BG

FTTUB

na

M + S

Yes

On a regular basis

CITUB; ETF; ITF

FTW Podkrepa

na

S

na

na

CL Podkrepa; ETF; ITF

STU

32.7

S

No

na

None; ETF; ITF

CY

OMEPEGE-SEK

na

M + S

Yes

na

ETF

SEGDAMELIN-PEO

10.8

M + S

Yes

On a regular basis

Pancyprian Federation of Labour; IDC, TUI

CZ

OSN

na

No

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

None; ETF; ITF

DE

Ver.di

29.8

M + S

Yes

On a regular basis

DGB; ETF; ITF

EVG

na

S

No

na

DGB; ETF; ITF

DK

3F

23.5

M + S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

The Danish Confederation of Trade Unions (LO); ETF, IndustriAll Europe, EFFAT, European Federation of Building and Woodworkers (EFBWW), EPSU; ITF, PSI, UNI Global Union, IndustriAll Global Union

SL

23.4

M + S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

EFT, European Maritime Pilots’ Association (EMPA); ITF, IFSMA (officers), IMPA (pilots)

MMF

10.6

M + S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

Nordiska Maskinbefälsfederationen (NMF), Fédération Internationale des Cadres des Transports; None

CO-SEA

15.0

M + S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

LO; ETF; ITF

EE

EMSA

12.7

S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

Estonian Trade Union Confederation (EAKL), Estonian Transport Workers’ Federation (ETAF); ETF; ITF

EMAÜ

1.8

M + S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

EAKL, ETAF; ETF, Seafarers` Committee of Central, Eastern Europe and Norway; ITF

EL

PNO

na

M

No

na

Greek General Confederation of Labour (GSEE); ETF; ITF

PA.S.E.N.T

na

M

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

Federation of Greek Private Sector Employees (OIYE)

ES

SMC-UGT

23.6

M + S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

General Union Workers (UGT); ETF; ITF

FSC-CCOO

na

M + S

na

na

Trade Union Confederation of Workers’ Commissions; ETF; ITF

ELA Zerbitzuak 

na

na

na

na

None; ETF; ITF

FETYC-CGT

na

na

na

na

General Confederation of Labour (CGT)

SEOMM

na

S

na

na

na

FI

Luotsiliitto 

1.6

S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

Federation of Salaried Employees (Pardia); EMPA; International Maritime Pilots’ Association

SMU

64.8

M + S

Yes

On a regular basis

Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions (SAK), Federation of Unions in the Transport Sector (KAF); European Sea Ports Organisation, Nordic Transport Workers’ Federation (NTF); ITF

SKL

8.7

M + S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

Finnish Confederation of Professionals (STTK), KAF, Industrial Employees (TP), Pardia; ETF, NTF; International Labour Organization, IMO, ITF

SLPL

16.4

M + S

Yes

On a regular basis

Pardia, STTK; ETF; IFSMA IMO, ITF

FR

FOMM-CGT

na

M + S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

General Confederation of Labour (CGT), General Union of Engineers, Managers and Technicians - CGT (UGICT); ETF; ITF

FNSM CGT

na

M + S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

CGT; ETF; ITF

National union CGT of offshore employees of merchant fleets

na

No

No

na

na

FGTE-CFDT

na

M + S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

French Democratic Confederation of Labour (CFDT); ETF; ITF

CFE-CGC

1.25

M + S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

French Confederation of Professional and Managerial Staff (CFE-CGC); Fédération Internationale des Cadres des Transports (FICT)

SNCNMM

na

na

No

na

CFE-CGC

FECCNL-FO

na

na

No

na

General Confederation of Labour - Force Ouvrière (CGT-FO)

FEETS-FO

na

na

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

CGT-FO; ETF; ITF

CFTC Transports

na

M + S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

French Christian Workers’ Confederation (CFTC); ETF

HR

SPH

89.7

M

Yes

On a regular basis

None; ETF; ITF, Nautilus Federation

IE

SIPTU

57.4

S

na

na

ICTU; ETF

IMPACT

na

S

No

na

ICTU

PSEU

na

S

No

na

ICTU

Unite

na

S

No

na

ICTU

TEEU

na

S

Yes

na

ICTU

SUI

na

na

na

na

ICTU; ETF; ITF

IT

FILT-CGIL

28

M + S

Yes

On a regular basis

Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro (CGIL); ETF; ITF

FIT-CISL

na

M + S

Yes

On a regular basis

Confederazione Italiana Sindacati Lavoratori (CISL); ETF; ITF

UILTrasporti

18.8

M + S

Yes

na

Unione Italiana del Lavoro (UIL); ETF; ITF

USCLAC/UNCDiM/SMACD

na

M + S

Yes

On a regular basis

Federazione Nazionale Dirigenti di Aziende Industriali (FEDERMANAGER) Confederation of European Shipmasters' Associations; IFSMA

LT

LJS

na

S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

ETF; ITF

LU

OGBL-ACAL

na

M

na

na

OGBL; ETF

LCGB-Transport

na

M

na

na

LCGB; ETF, European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC); International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC)

LV

LTFJA

na

No

Yes

On a regular basis

Free Trade Union Confederation of Latvia (LBAS); ETF, Member of permanent commissions of Baltic States; ITF

ŪTAF

na

S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

LBAS; ETF; ITF

LNJA

na

M

No

na

None

MT

MDU

75.2

S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

International Dockers Union

GWU

na

S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

ETF; ITF

UHM

na

S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

Confederation of Malta Trade Unions

NL

CMHF

na

S

na

na

Trade Union for Professionals (VCP); ETUC, Eurocadres

CNV

na

S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

n/a; ETF (only the subdivision CNV Vakmensen); ITF (only the subdivision CNV Vakmensen)

FNV

0.7

S

No

na

n/a; ETF; ITF

NINL/Nautilus

8.9

M + S

Yes

On a regular basis

None; ETF; IFSMA,, ILO, IMO, ITF,

VPW

na

S

na

na

AC Rijksvakbonden

PL

OZZOiM

na

S

Yes

On a regular basis

Trade Unions Forum (FZZ); ETF; ITF

FZZ MiR

54.2

S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

The All-Poland Alliance of Trade Unions (OPZZ) ETF; ITF

KSM MiR NSZZ „Solidarność”

na

S

Yes

On a regular basis

Independent and Self-Governing Trade Union Solidarność (NSZZ Solidarność); ETF; ITF

PT

OFICIAISMAR

1.1

No

Yes

On a regular basis

CGTP-IN, FECTRANS ETF; ITF

FESMAR

na

M + S

na

na

UGT

SIMAMEVIP

na

M + S

na

na

CGTP-IN, FECTRANS

Sindicato XXI

2.4

S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

Federação Nacional dos Sindicatos de Trabalhadores Portuários

STFCMM

na

S

na

na

CGTP-IN, FECTRANS

SITEMAQ

na

M + S

na

na

UGT

RO

SLN

3.4

M + S

Yes

On a regular basis

Conventia Sindicala Nationala a Transportatorilor din Romania (CSNTR) ETF; ITF

SE

SEKO

104.7

M

Yes

On a regular basis

The Swedish Trade Union Confederation; ETF, UNI Europa, The European Federation of Building and Woodworkers, EPSU; Building and Wood Worker's International (BWI), ITF, PSI, UNI Global Union

SBF

49.9

M

Yes

On a regular basis

Ledarna; ETF; ITF

Lotsförbundet

3.4

M

Yes

On a regular basis

SRAT, SACO; EMPA

Unionen

17.3

M

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

Swedish Confederation for Professional Employees; EFFAT, ETF, IndustriALL Europe, UNI Europa; IndustriALL Global Union, ITF, UNI Global Union

SI

SPS

na

S

No

na

Trade union confederation KS-90 ETF; ITF

SDPS-KS 90

na

S

No

na

KS-90

SDSP-KNSS

2.9

S

No

na

KNSS

SPSP-ZSSS

1.0

S

No

na

ZSSS

SŽPD

96.9

S

No

na

Trade union confederation Alterativa; ETF; ITF

SPDS

31.5

S

No

na

KS-90

UK

RMT

8.6

S

Yes

On a regular basis

Trades Union Congress (TUC); ETF; ITF, IndustriAll Global Union, World Federation of Trade Unions

Nautilus

22.7

S

Yes

On a regular basis

TUC; ETF; IFSMA, ITF

Prospect

na

S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

TUC; ETF, EPSU, Eurocadres, UNI Europa; ITF, PSI, UNI Global Union

TSSA

0.5

S

No

na

TUC; ETF; ITF

Unite

35.1

S

Yes

na

TUC; ETF, EFBWW, EFFAT, EPSU, IndustriAll Europe, UNI Europa; ITF, BWI, IndustriAll GlobalUnion, International Union of Food, Agricultural, Hotel, Restaurant, Catering, Tobacco and Allied Workers, PSI, UNI Global Union.

Notes: * Collective bargaining involvement: S = single-employer bargaining; M = multi-employer bargaining.** European affiliations in italics. na = information not available. n/a = not applicable.

Table A3: Trade unions’ domain coverage and domain description in relation to the maritime transport sector, 2015

 

National association

Domain coverage*

Domain description

BE

ABVV/BTB - FGTB/UBT

SO

Blue-collar workers in the total transport sector

ACV/CSC Transcom

O

na

CGSLB/ACLVB

O

na

BBTK-SETCa

SO

Employees, technicians and executives in several sectors (including trade, industry, logistics, finance, social profit)

BU

FTTUB

SO

All workers in some activities of the maritime transport in the Varna region as well as workers from the port sector

FTW Podkrepa

SO

All workers in freight maritime transport and rail transport, other passenger land transport, passenger transport by inland waterways, freight transport by inland waterways, passenger air transport, and warehousing and storage

STU

S

All workers in passengers and freight maritime transport in the region of Varna

CY

OMEPEGE-SEK

SO

All workers in all activities in the private sector

SEGDAMELIN-PEO

SO

All workers in all activities in the private sector

CZ

OSN

O

All workers in the whole maritime transport sector and inland water transport

DE

Ver.di

O

All workers in transport and services

EVG

SO

All workers in two ferry lines

DK

3F

SO

Unskilled and skilled workers in the private as well as the public sector

SL

S

White-collar workers (officers) in the maritime transport sector

MMF

SO

Ships’ engineers (chief engineers)

CO-SEA

S

Blue-collar and navy constables

EE

EMSA

O

All workers in maritime transport sector, warehousing, ports and hotel workers

EMAÜ

S

Seamen workers on freight ships

EL

PNO

S

Greek seamen and maritime workers in maritime transport of passengers – cabotage and intra-community transports – and goods

PA.S.E.N.T

SO

Office workers and auxiliary personnel of shipping enterprises and tourism agency activities

ES

SMC-UGT

O

All workers in maritime transport, road and rail transport, ports, gambling, hotel and restaurants, and communication

FSC-CCOO

O

All workers in maritime transport, public administration, road and railways transport, tourism, telecommunications and information technology, postal services and courier companies, graphic arts, paper and photography, mass media, culture, leisure and shows, ports

ELA Zerbitzuak 

SO

All workers in maritime transport, road transport, ports, banking, commerce, cleaning, hotel and restaurants, food and emergent sectors in the Basque Country region

FETYC-CGT

O

All workers in maritime transport, other transport activities and telecommunications

SEOMM

na

Maritime officers

FI

Luotsiliitto 

S

Maritime piloting

SMU

C

All workers in the whole maritime transport sector

SKL

SO

White-collar workers in maritime transport sector and several engineering and manufacturing sectors

SLPL

C

All workers in the whole maritime transport sector

FR

FOMM-CGT

SO

White-collar workers (officers) in maritime transport and ports

FNSM CGT

O

All workers in maritime transport and ports

National union CGT of offshore employees of merchant fleets

na

na

FGTE-CFDT

O

All workers in maritime transport, transport by road and railways, the port sector, infrastructure and public transport

CFE-CGC

S

Officers and managerial staff in the maritime transport sector

SNCNMM

S

White-collar workers in the maritime transport sector

FECCNL-FO

C

All workers in the whole maritime transport sector

FEETS-FO

O

All workers in maritime transport sector, infrastructure, environment services, transport (except transport by road), services (cleaning industry, motorways, private security, railways cargo handling)

CFTC Transports

O

All workers in maritime transport sector, railway transport, civil aviation, airport services, cash-transport operation, waste industry, funeral director services, ski lift, travel agencies, railway catering, port sector

HR

SPH

C

All workers in the whole maritime transport sector

IE

SIPTU

SO

Blue-collar workers in most of the sectors

IMPACT

SO

Workers in the commissioners of Irish Lights and workers in the public, voluntary and community sectors, semi-state organisations and private sector companies

PSEU

SO

Workers in the commissioners of Irish Lights and executive grades in the civil service and wider public service

Unite

SO

Workers in the commissioners of Irish Lights and in many other public and private sectors

TEEU

S

Workers in the commissioners of Irish Lights

SUI

SO

Crew/marine and port workers

IT

FILT-CGIL

O

All workers in maritime transport, support activities for transportation via land and via air, warehousing activities, railway transport, urban public transport, motorways, logistics and civil aviation sector

FIT-CISL

O

All workers in the freight and passenger transport sector, storage, in the integrated waste management and in the cleaning services

UILTrasporti

O

All workers in freight and passenger transport, in support activities for transportation via land and via air, in warehousing activities, in the integrated waste management services and in the cleaning services

USCLAC/UNCDiM/SMACD

S

Sea captains, Chief Engineers and Officers

LT

LJS

O

All workers in maritime transport, fishing and inland water transport sectors

LU

OGBL-ACAL

O

All workers in all transport sectors and logistic

LCGB-Transport

O

All workers in all transport sectors and logistic

LV

LTFJA

S

All workers in passenger and freight maritime transport (incidental activities excluded)

ŪTAF

SO

All workers in freight transport and service activities plus civil aviation workers, ship repairing enterprises and similar

LNJA

S

Seafarers employed in the merchant fleet

MT

MDU

S

Blue-collar workers in the whole maritime transport sector

GWU

SO

All workers in costal water passenger transport and service activities incidental to water transportation plus many other sectors

UHM

SO

na

NL

CMHF

SO

White-collar workers in sector-related activities plus many other sectors

CNV

O

Cross-sectoral trade union

FNV

O

Cross-sectoral trade union

NINL/Nautilus

SO

All workers in the whole transport sector except some service activities incidental to water transportation. It also covers inland water transport, construction of water projects (including offshore projects), and a range of maritime services such as sector-specific insurance agencies, surveyors, financiers, training and education, and cleaning

VPW

SO

All workers in coastal water transport and service activities. It also covers all personnel within the Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

PL

OZZOiM

SO

All workers in the maritime transport sector in the Pomerania and West Pomerania regions. It also covers port sectors

FZZ MiR

SO

All workers in the maritime transport sector in the Pomerania and West Pomerania regions. It also covers port sectors

KSM MiR NSZZ Solidarność

S

All workers in the maritime transport sector in the Pomerania and West Pomerania regions

PT

OFICIAISMAR

S

Blue-collar workers in the maritime transport sector

FESMAR

C

All workers in the whole maritime transport sector

SIMAMEVIP

SO

All workers in freight transport and workers from Transport Agents and Fishery

Sindicato XXI

S

Freight water transport in two companies: PSA and Laborsines

STFCMM

C

All workers in the whole maritime transport sector

SITEMAQ

SO

White-collar workers in the maritime transport sector except some activities incidental to water transport. It also covers the energy sector

RO

SLN

C

All workers in the whole maritime transport sector

SE

SEKO

SO

Blue-collar workers in the traffic, communications, energy, criminal justice and defence sectors

SBF

SO

Maritime officers in maritime and inland passenger and freight water transportation

Lotsförbundet

S

Maritime pilots in the Swedish Maritime Administration

Unionen

SO

White-collar workers in general

SI

SPS

S

Workers in company Genshipping Corporation

SDPS-KS 90

S

Workers in the company Splošna plovba Portorož d.d.

SDSP-KNSS

S

Workers in the company Splošna plovba Portorož, d.d.

SPSP-ZSSS

S

Workers in the company Splošna plovba Portorož, d.d.

SŽPD

S

Workers from Luka Koper Group (state-owned company)

SPDS

SO

Large majority of union`s members come from the Luka Koper Group (state-owned company)

UK

RMT

SO

All workers in passenger and freight water transport and in some service activities incidental to water transportation (such as operation of harbours and piers, and berthing) but not all such activities. It also covers rail transport (passenger and freight), rail infrastructure, buses, road freight, and offshore oil and gas

Nautilus

C

All workers in the whole maritime transport sector

Prospect

SO

Specialist (professional) staff in service activities incidental to water transport

TSSA

SO

Shore-based managers, clerical workers and port staff

Unite

O

All workers in port-based and coastal maritime activity, including ports, ferries, pilotage and towage

Note: * Domain coverage: C = congruence; O = overlap; SO = sectional overlap; S = sectionalism.

Employer organisations

Table A4: Domain coverage and membership of employer/business organisations in the maritime transport sector, 2015

 

Employer organisation

Domain coverage*

Type of membership

Total companies

in the sector

Total employees

in the sector

BE

KBRV-URAB

S

Voluntary

26

25

5,500

na

BG

BSA

S

Voluntary

5

5

1,000

5

CY

KNE-CSC

SO

Voluntary

168

na

4,000

na

DE

VDR

C

Voluntary

186

186

20,000

20,000

DK

Rederiforening

O

Voluntary

93

93

23,048

na

DI

SO

Voluntary

10,000

95

1,000,000

na

EE

ELL

O

Voluntary

13

11

8,000

6,500

EL

UGS

S

Voluntary

1,005

1,005

8,000

8,000

 

SEEN

S

Voluntary

21

21

4

4

ES

ANAVE

C

Voluntary

34 direct members and 11 associate collaborators members

34 direct members and 11 associate collaborators members

na

na

FI

SET

S

Voluntary

3

3

226

226

SV

C

Voluntary

23

23

Na

Na

FR

Armateurs de France

C

Voluntary

47

47

18,500

18,500

APERMA

S

Voluntary

10

10

700

700

GASPE

S

Voluntary

21

21

1,000

1,000 (600 seafarers, 400 onshore employees)

HR

CSA Mare nostrum

O

Voluntary

10

10

na

na

IE

ICS

S

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

Ibec

O

Voluntary

7,500

Na

na

na

IT

Confitarma

S

Voluntary

155

155

24,000

24,000

Fedarlinea

S

Voluntary

7

7

1,500

1,500

Assorimorchiatori

S

Voluntary

22

22

1,000

1,000

Federimorchiatori

C

Voluntary

6

6

462

462

Assiterminal

S

Voluntary

64

64

6,020

6,020

Assologistica

SO

Voluntary

230

35

25,000

2,000

Fise-Uniport

S

Voluntary

25

25

3,000

3,000

Assoporti

S

Voluntary

23

23

1,200

1,200

Legacoop servizi

SO

Voluntary

1895

52

164,600

2,090

Angopi

S

Voluntary

61

61

900

900

LT

LLSA

SO

Voluntary

6

5

1,600

1,400

LU

Fedil Shipping

C

Voluntary

4

4

800

800

MT

MISC

S

Voluntary

na

na

na

na

NL

KVNR

S

Voluntary

470

470

na

na

Nemea

S

Voluntary

181

181

22,101

22,101

Neptune

S

Voluntary

19

19

500

500

SMW

S

Voluntary

7

7

12,667

12,667

VWH

S

Voluntary

213

213

9,658

9,658

PL

ZAP

S

Voluntary

16

8

65,000

0

PT

AAMC

O

Voluntary

14

10

650

335

RO

OPOPC

S

Voluntary

35

35

6,000

6,000

SE

SARF

S

Voluntary

na

93

na

na

SRF

C

Voluntary

60

60

na

na

SI

GIZ-ZLS

S

Voluntary

4

4

na

na

UK

UK Chamber of Shipping

O

Voluntary

142

100

na

na

Notes: * Domain coverage: C = congruence; O = overlap; SO = sectional overlap; S = sectionalism.

A more detailed description of the employer organisations’ membership domains with regard to the sector is given in Table A6.

na = not available

Table A5: Density, collective bargaining, consultation and affiliations of employer organisations in the maritime transport sector, 2015

 

Employer organisation

Sectoral density (%)

CB*

Consultation

National

European

International

affiliations**

Companies

Employees

BE

KBRV-URAB

39.1

na

M

Yes

On a regular basis

Verbond van Belgische Ondernemingen; ECSA; ICS

BG

BSA

7.8

0.4

M

Yes

On a regular basis

Confederation of Employers and Industrialists in Bulgaria (CEIBG)a

CY

KNE-CSC

na

na

M

Yes

On a regular basis

Cyprus Industrialists and Employers Federation (OEB); ECSA; BIMCO, ICS, International Shipping Federation; INTERTANKO

DE

VDR

6.6

3.6

M

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

BDA; ECSA; ICS; BIMCO; International Bunker Industry Association

DK

Rederiforening

18.6

na

M+S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

Confederation of Danish Employers (DA); ECSA; ICS

DI

19.0

na

M+S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

DA; FEPORT, Business Europe; BIAC

EE

ELL

0.9

40.4

No

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

Estonian Employers’ Confederation (ETTK); ECSA

EL

UGS

17.3

14.6

M

Yes

On a regular basis

ECSA; ICS

SEEN

0.4

0.0

M

No

na

Association of Greek Tourism Enterprises (SETE)

ES

ANAVE

na

na

M

na

na

Spanish Confederation of Employers’ Organisations (CEOE); ECSA; ICS

FI

SET

0.9

2.3

M+S

Yes

On a regular basis

None

SV

6.6

na

M

Yes

On a regular basis

ECSA; ICS

FR

Armateurs de France

5.4

84.1

M

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

MEDEF; ECSA ICS

APERMA

1.1

3.2

M

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

None

GASPE

2.4

na

M

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

Armateurs de France

HR

CSA Mare nostrum

1.8

na

M

Yes

On a regular basis

Croatian Employers’ Association (HUP); ECSA

IE

ICS

na

na

No

na

na

ECSA; ICS

Ibec

na

na

S

na

na

 

IT

Confitarma

5.6

64.6

M+S

Yes

On a regular basis

Federtrasporto (Confindustria), Federazione del Mare; ECSA; BIMCO, ICS, International Shipping Federation, INTERTANKO, INTERCARGO, International Maritime Employers’ Committee

Fedarlinea

0.3

4.0

M+S

na

na

Confcommercio

Assorimorchiatori

0.8

2.7

M+S

Yes

On a regular basis

 

Federimorchiatori

0.2

1.2

M+S

Yes

On a regular basis

 

Assiterminal

2.3

16.2

M+S

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

Confindustria; FEPORT

Assologistica

1.3

5.4

M+S

Yes

On a regular basis

Confetra, Federtrasporto (Confindustria); FEPORT, European Cold Storage and Logistics Association; International Federation of Warehousing and Logistics Associations

Fise-Uniport

0.9

8.1

M+S

Yes

On a regular basis

Federazione Imprese di servizi (Fise), Federtrasporto (Confindustria)

Assoporti

0.8

3.2

M

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

European Sea Ports Organisation

Legacoop servizi

1.9

5.6

M+S

Yes

On a regular basis

Legacoop; Cecop-Cicopa; International Co-operative Alliance

Angopi

2.2

2.4

M

Yes

On a regular basis

Confcommercio; European Boatmen’s Association; International Boatmen's Linesmen Association

LT

LLSA

17.2

65.4

No

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

ECSA

LU

Fedil Shipping

1.8

89.6

M

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

FEDIL; ECSA

MT

MISC

na

na

na

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

ECSA

NL

KVNR

52.2

na

M

Yes

On a regular basis

VNO-NCW; ECSA; ICS

Nemea

20.1

73.0

M

No

na

KVNR (international representation is via KVNR)

Neptune

2.1

1.7

M

No

na

KVNR (international representation is via KVNR)

SMW

0.8

41.8

M

No

na

KVNR (international representation is via KVNR)

VWH

23.7

31.9

M

No

na

None

PL

ZAP

1.4

0.0

No

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

Employers of Poland (Pracodawcy RP); ECSA

PT

AAMC

0.5

1.6

No

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

Agência Portuguesa do Transporte Marítimo de Curta Distância, Comunidade Portuária do Douro e Leixões, Comunidade Portuária de Lisboa; ECSA; ICS

RO

OPOPC

na

4.0

M

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

National Confederation of Romanian Employers (CNPR); FEPORT; Pro Danube International

SE

SARF

9.5

na

M

Yes

On a regular basis

The Transport Group, Confederation of Swedish Enterprises; European Chamber of Shipping; ICS

SRF

6.1

na

No

Yes

On a regular basis

The Confederation of Swedish Enterprises; ECSA; ICS, IMO

SI

GIZ-ZLS

8.7

na

No

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

ECSA

UK

UK Chamber of Shipping

5.0

na

No

Yes

On an ad hoc basis

CBI Trade Association Forum; ECSA; ICS

Notes: * Collective bargaining involvement: S = single-employer bargaining; M = multi-employer bargaining. ** European affiliations in italics. a BSA was affiliated to ESCA in the period 2007–2012 and to ICS in the period 2005–2011. CB = collective bargaining. na = information not available; n/a = not applicable

Table A6: Employer organisations’ domain coverage and domain description in relation to the maritime transport sector, 2015

 

National association

Domain coverage*

Domain description

BE

KBRV-URAB

S

All kinds of private companies in the whole maritime transport sector

BG

BSA

S

Some companies in service activities incidental to water transportation in the Varna and Rousse regions

CY

KNE-CSC

SO

All kinds of companies in freight maritime transport and incidental activities plus shipping-related companies that provide supporting services to ship operators

DE

VDR

C

All kinds of companies in the whole maritime transport sector

DK

Rederiforening

O

All kinds of companies in all activities regarding the so-called 'Blue Denmark' which also include offshore activities

DI

SO

All kinds of companies in the whole maritime transport sector and manufacturing industry combined with transport and service

EE

ELL

O

All kinds of companies in the whole maritime transport sector, maritime education and maritime law

ES

ANAVE

C

All kinds of companies in the whole maritime transport sector

FI

SET

S

National companies in activities incidental to maritime transport

SV

C

All kinds of companies in the whole maritime transport sector

FR

Armateurs de France

C

All kinds of companies in the whole maritime transport sector

APERMA

S

All kinds of companies in activities incidental to maritime transport

GASPE

S

Public companies in freight and passenger maritime transport

EL

UGS

S

Deep sea vessels flying Greek, EU and other foreign flags

SEEN

S

All kinds of companies in maritime passenger transport

HR

CSA Mare nostrum

O

na

IE

ICS

S

Shipowners

Ibec

O

Companies in all areas of the economy

IT

Confitarma

S

Private companies in the whole maritime transport sector

Fedarlinea

S

Companies that are members of the previously state-owned Tirrenia Group carrying out freight and passenger transport, cruises and related ancillary services

Assorimorchiatori

S

Only tug owners

Federimorchiatori

C

All kinds of companies in the whole maritime transport sector

Assiterminal

S

Port handling sector and, in particular, vessel loading, unloading and trans-shipment as well as passengers and cargo handling, including ancillary services in the port area. It does not cover sea and coastal passenger water transport and sea and coastal freight water transport

Assologistica

SO

All kinds of companies in service activities incidental to water transportation. It also covers logistic companies, warehouses and cold stores, freight villages and airport terminal operators

Fise-Uniport

S

All kinds of companies in sea and coastal passenger water transports

Assoporti

S

Public port authorities

Legacoop servizi

SO

Cooperatives in the whole maritime transport sector and most of the activities of the tertiary sector

Angopi

S

Activities of pilotage and mooring connected with maritime transport and inland water

LT

LLSA

SO

All kinds of companies in passenger and cargo transportation. It also covers education sector

LU

Fedil Shipping

C

All kinds of companies in the whole maritime transport sector

MT

MISC

S

Shipowners

NL

KVNR

S

All kinds of companies in the whole maritime transport sector except activities incidental to water transportation

Nemea

S

All kinds of companies in the whole maritime transport sector except activities incidental to water transportation

Neptune

S

All kinds of companies in maritime freight transport

SMW

S

All kinds of companies in the whole maritime transport sector except activities incidental to water transportation

VWH

S

All kinds of companies in maritime freight transport

PL

ZAP

S

Big national companies in the whole maritime transport sector in the Pomerania, West Pomerania and Mazovia regions

PT

AAMC

O

All kinds of companies in the whole maritime transport sector, maritime tourism activities, management companies and vessels towing sector

RO

OPOPC

S

Private companies in the whole maritime transport sector in the Port of Constanta, Port of Mangalia and Port Midia

SE

SARF

S

Public-owned companies in the whole maritime transport sector

SRF

C

All kinds of companies in the whole maritime transport sector

SI

GIZ-ZLS

S

All kinds of companies in the whole maritime transport sector in Coast–Karst region

UK

UK Chamber of Shipping

O

All kinds of companies in the whole maritime transport sector and activities related to the maritime transport sector, such as crewing agencies, maritime training providers, maritime colleges, classification societies, law firms, accountancy firms and banks

Note: *Domain coverage: C = congruence; O = overlap; SO = sectional overlap; S = sectionalism.

Annex 2: Organisation abbreviations

Table A7: Trade union organisation names

 

Abbreviation

Full name

BE

ABVV-BTB/FGTB-UBT

Belgian Transport Union

ACV/CSC Transcom

Christian Transcom Union

CGSLB/ACLVB

Federation of Liberal Trade Unions of Belgium

BBTK/SETCa

Socialistic Trade Union for employees, technicians and executives

BG

FTTUB

Federation of Transport Trade Unions in Bulgaria

FTW Podkrepa

Federation of Transport Workers Podkrepa

STU

Seafarers’ Trade Union

CY

OMEPEGE-SEK

Federation of Transport, Petroleum and Agriculture Workers

SEGDAMELIN-PEO

Cyprus Agricultural, Forestry, Transport, Port, Seamen and Allied Occupations Trade Union

CZ

OSN

Czech Trade Union of Seafarers

DE

Ver.di

United Services Union

EVG

Railway and Transport Union

DK

3F

United Federation of Danish Workers

SL

Danish Maritime Officers’ Union

MMF

Danish Engineers’ Association

CO-SEA

Danish Union for Seafarers

EE

EMSA

Estonian Seamen’s Independent Union

EMAÜ

Estonian Seafarers’ Union

EL

PNO

Pan-Hellenic Seamen’s Federation

PASENT

Pan-Hellenic Association of Employees in Shipping and Tourism

ES

SMC-UGT

Federation of Services for Mobility and Consumption

FSC-CCOO

Federation of Citizen Services of the Trade Union Confederation of Workers’ Commissions

ELA Zerbitzuak 

Basque Workers’ Solidarity

FETYC-CGT

National Federation of Transport and Communications - General Confederation of Labour

SEOMM

Spanish Trade Union of Maritime Officers

FI

Luotsiliitto 

Finnish Maritime Pilots’ Association

SMU

Finnish Seafarers’ Union

SKL

Finnish Engineers’ Association

SLPL

Finnish Ships’ Officers’ Union

FR

FOMM-CGT

Federation of Merchant Marine Officers CGT

FNSM CGT

National Federation of Maritime Unions CGT

National union CGT of offshore employees of merchant fleets

National union CGT of offshore employees of merchant fleets

FGTE-CFDT

General Federation of Transport and Civil Engineering, Maritime Transport Sector

CFE-CGC

National union of seafarers’ managers of the merchant marine French Confederation of Professional and Managerial Staff – General Confederation of Professional and Managerial Staff

SNCNMM

National Union of Merchant Navy Executives

FECCNL-FO

Employees and Managers’ Federation CGT-FO of the Merchant Fleets

FEETS-FO

Maritime section of the Federation of Civil Engineering, Transport and Services, Merchant Navy Sector

CFTC Transports

General Federation CFTC Transports

HR

SPH

Seafarers’ Union of Croatia

IE

SIPTU

Services, Industrial, Professional and Technical Union

IMPACT

Irish Municipal Public and Civil Trade Union

PSEU

Public Service Executive Union

Unite

Unite

TEEU

Technical Engineering and Electrical Union

SUI

Seamen’s Union of Ireland

IT

FILT-CGIL

Italian Transport Workers’ Federation

FIT-CISL

Italian Transport Federation

UILTrasporti

Italian Transport Workers’ Union

USCLAC/UNCDiM/SMACD

Italian Masters/Chief Engineers/Officers Union

LT

LJS

Lithuanian Seamen's Union

LU

OGBL/ACAL

Independent Trade Union Confederation of Luxembourg – Road Transport Union

LCGB-Transport

Luxembourg Confederation of Christian Unions in Luxembourg– Transport

LV

LTFJA

Latvian Seafarers’ Union of Merchant Fleet

ŪTAF

Water Transport Trade Union Federation

LNJA

Latvian National Seafarers Trade Union

MT

MDU

Malta Dockers’ Union

GWU

General Workers’ Union

UHM

United Workers’ Union

NL

CMHF

The Federation of Intermediate and Higher Employees in Government and Education, Companies and Institutions

CNV

National Federation of Christian Trade Unions

FNV

Federation of Dutch Trade Unions

NINL/Nautilus

Nautilus International Netherlands

VPW

Union of Transport and Public Works Personnel

PL

OZZOiM

Polish Seafarers' Union

FZZ MiR

Seamen and Fishermen Trade Union Federation

KSM MiR NSZZ Solidarność

National Maritime Section of NSZZ Solidarność union

PT

OFICIAISMAR

Union of Captains, Official Pilots, Commissioners, and Engineers of the Merchant Marine

FESMAR

Federation of Sea Workers

SIMAMEVIP

Union Workers at the Merchant Marine, Transport Agents and Fishery

Sindicato XXI

Trade union association of administrative workers, technicians and operators of containerised cargo terminals of the Port of Sines

STFCMM

Union of River and Coastal Transports and of the Merchant Marine

SITEMAQ

Union of Seamanship at the Merchant Marine, Energy and Stokers on Land

RO

SLN

Romanian Seafarers Free Union

SE

SEKO

Swedish Union for Service and Communication Employees

SBF

Maritime Officers’ Association

Lotsförbundet

The Swedish Pilots´ Association

Unionen

Unionen

SI

SPS

Seamen’s Union of Slovenia

SPDS

Docker’s Union of Slovenia

SDPS-KS 90

Trade Union of Workers in Maritime Slovenia - KS 90

SDSP-KNSS

Trade Union of Workers in Maritime Slovenia - KNSS

SPSP-ZSSS

Trade Union of Workers in Maritime Slovenia - ZSSS

SŽPD

Trade Union of Crane Operators - Luka Koper

UK

RMT

National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers

Nautilus

Nautilus International

Prospect

Prospect

TSSA

Transport Salaried Staffs’ Association

Unite

Unite the Union

Table A8: Employer organisation names

 

Abbreviation

Full name

BE

KBRV-URAB

Royal Belgian Shipowners’ Association

BG

BSA

Bulgarian Shipowners’ Association

CY

KNE-CSC

Cyprus Shipping Chamber

DE

VDR

German Shipowners’ Association

DK

Rederiforening

Danish Shipowners' Association

DI

Confederation of Danish Industry

EE

ELL

Estonian Shipowners’ Association

EL

UGS

Union of Greek Shipowners

SEEN

Greek Shipowners’ Association for Passenger Ships

ES

ANAVE

Spanish Shipowners’ Associations

FI

SET

Finnish employers’ organisation for special vessels

SV

Finnish Shipowners’ Association

FR

Armateurs de France

French Shipowners’ Association

APERMA

Professional association of maritime towing companies

GASPE

Grouping of owners of public water passages services

HR

CSA Mare nostrum

Croatian Shipowners’ Association - Mare Nostrum

IE

ICS

Irish Chamber of Shipping

Ibec

Ibec

IT

Confitarma

Italian Shipowners’ Confederation

Fedarlinea

Italian Association of Shipping Lines

Assorimorchiatori

Italian Tugowners’ Association

Federimorchiatori

Italian Tugowners’ Federation

Assiterminal

Italian Association of Terminal Operators

Assologistica

Assologistica

Fise-Uniport

National Union of Port Companies

Assoporti

Italian Ports Association

Legacoop servizi

Legacoop - Services

Angopi

National Association of Mooring Workers and Boatmen Groups of Italian Ports

LT

LLSA

Lithuanian Shipowners’ Association

LU

Fedil Shipping

Fedil Shipping

MT

MISC

Malta International Shipping Council

NL

KVNR

Royal Association of Netherlands Shipowners

Nemea

Netherlands Maritime Employers’ Association

Neptune

Maritime Employers’ Association Neptune

SMW

Social Maritime Employers’ Association

VWH

Association of Employers in Merchant Shipping

PL

ZAP

Polish Shipowners’ Association

PT

AAMC

Portuguese Shipowners’ Association

RO

OPOPC

Constanta Port Operators’ Association

SE

SARF

Swedish Shipowners’ Employer Association

SRF

Swedish Shipowners’ Association

SI

GIZ-ZLS

Slovenian Association of Shipowners

UK

UK Chamber of Shipping

UK Chamber of Shipping

 

EF/16/28

Useful? Interesting? Tell us what you think. Hide comments

Añadir nuevo comentario