According to the 'Report on the social situation of inhabitants of the Slovak
Republic in 2001', published by the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and
Family  in mid-2002, the average nominal monthly wage amounted to SKK
12,365 in 2001. This represented an increase of 8.2% on the previous year,
when the figure stood at SKK 11,430. As the cost-of-living index for
employees increased by 7.0% over 2001, the year's increase in the average
nominal monthly wage represented a real pay increase of 1.1%, following two
years of decreases in real wages. The table below indicates real wage
developments over 1997-2001, showing the real wage level in each year as a
percentage of that in the previous year.
Following the recent acquisition of Lustucru pasta, flour and rice plants in
France from the Skalli group by Paribas Affaires Industrielles, the major
shareholder in the Panzani pasta company, some of the Lustucru operations
must be sold off to a third party to avoid a possible monopoly situation for
Panzani. The workforce at the Lustucru plants in Marseilles and Arles,
fearing their jobs might be in jeopardy, went on strike between 13 May and 13
June 2002, at the instigation of the CGT trade union. The strikers returned
to work following the negotiation of a financial package with management.
During June 2002, negotiations continued between the Italian government and
social partner organisations over the former's reform proposals for the
labour market and other areas. However, the Cgil trade union confederation
announced its intention to collect signatures to enable it to propose two
laws and hold two referenda to revoke parts of the government's labour market
reform, and to take a case to the Constitutional Court to have the
government's proposed changes to Article 18 of the Workers' Statute (relating
to the reinstatement of unfairly dismissed workers) declared
unconstitutional. The divisions between the unions have become more marked,
with the Cisl and Uil confederations prepared to sign an agreement with the
government under certain conditions.
Industrial action was staged in a range of countries around Europe on 19 June
2002 by employees working in air traffic control. The workers were protesting
against plans drawn up by the European Commission to create a 'European
single sky '– a single European airspace, replacing the current system
under which each EU Member State has its own national airspace.
A new collective agreement signed in June 2002 in Luxembourg's private bus
transport sector provides that drivers will receive at least seven hours' pay
for an 11-hour daily period of availability to work. Previously, they were
paid only for hours actually worked.
The 2001 annual report  of the Equality Authority, launched on 26 June
2002 by the Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform, Michael McDowell,
states that 405 claims were submitted to the Authority in 2001 under the
Employment Equality Act 1998 (IE9909144F ), and 675 claims under the Equal
Status Act 2000 (IE0109101F ) - an overall increase of over 800% on the
2000 figures. There was an increase in caseload across all nine
discrimination grounds of gender, marital status, family status, disability,
sexual orientation, age, religion, race and membership of the traveller
On 20 June 2002, the Unified Service Sector Union (Vereinte
Dienstleistungsgewerkschaft, ver.di) and the German Employers' Association
for Insurance Companies (Arbeitgeberverband der Versicherungsunternehmen in
Deutschland, AGV) signed a new collective agreement for the 240,000 or so
employees in the insurance sector.
A study by Belgium's bipartite consultative Central Economic Council,
published in May 2002, has highlighted the financial and organisational
difficulties faced by the mothers of young children when they attempt to
enter the labour market. At the heart of this problem lies the inadequacy of
facilities for looking after young children. The French-speaking Community
has promised to increase the supply of childcare by 2010.
The Public Service Benchmarking Body (PSBB), set up in 2000 to establish fair
comparisons between the pay of public service workers and similar groups in
the private sector, issued its report on 1 July 2002. The PSBB's report
recommends a wide range of pay increases - from 2.5% to as high as 25% -
averaging out at 8.9%. The pay rises are expected eventually to add EUR 1.1
billion to the government's annual public sector wage bill. The only
negotiable element of the report is precisely when the recommended increases
will be paid – not the actual awards - and whether trade unions will have
to concede productivity improvements.
In a joint statement on EU social policy , issued on 19 June 2002 in
advance of the Seville European Council meeting, the Confederation of British
Industry (CBI) and its Italian counterpart Confindustria stated that
'business is losing faith in the commitment of the [European] Commission and
some national governments to promote competitiveness and job creation.' The
two employers' organisations are critical of the 'disappointing progress'
made to date on the 'new social agenda' agreed at the 2000 Lisbon summit
(EU0004241F ) and accuse the European Commission of continuing to favour
'heavy-handed intervention' which reflect the 'old social agenda'.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
How can working conditions be improved to make work more sustainable over the life course? This question has been the guiding principle for analysis of the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey data during the period of Eurofound’s work programme for 2017–2020. This flagship report brings together the different research strands from this work and gives a comprehensive answer to the question. It includes an analysis of trends in working conditions, examining whether these are the same for all workers or whether inequalities between different groups of workers are increasing.
Access to key social services, especially education and healthcare, as well as stable family life and decent housing are necessary for the well-being and development of children. Ensuring that all children have these resources is an EU priority; the European Commission is currently undertaking to recommend a Child Guarantee to address the situations of children in need. Service provision has been complicated by the COVID-19 outbreak, however, and the pandemic has put psychological and material strains on families.
This report builds on Eurofound's existing research on social mobility, assessing the distribution and transmission of wealth in Member States. It examines the roles of inheritance and household debt in explaining the transmission of advantage or disadvantage between the generations across Member States. The analysis is based on Eurosystem's Household Finance and Consumption Survey (HFCS).
This report analyses the involvement of the national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, and their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs) and other key policy documents of the European Semester cycle.
This report will focus on assessing the employment impact of the COVID-19 crisis, including its effects across sectors and for different categories of workers. It will also be looking at measures implemented to limit negative effects following the Coronavirus outbreak in Europe.
This report examines the contribution of social and employment services in EU Member States to the inclusion of people with disabilities, specifically in relation to the impact these have on labour market integration – in line with the 2006 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The report includes a discussion of the costs and benefits of different approaches.
This report examines people's optimism about the future, for themselves and for others, and the extent to which it varies depending on one's social situation and perceptions of the quality of society. The study includes an analysis of the relationships between people’s perceptions of fairness and objective indicators of their social and economic situation and living standards.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the civil aviation (flight crew) sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
The European Green Deal is at the very top of Member State agendas across the EU. This topical update maps the national discussions – in policy, public and research debates – on the potential, ongoing or already felt impact on work and employment of the transition to a low-carbon economy. It attempts to identify the most active actors involved in these discussions (governments, social partners, NGOs and so on) and their perspectives.
This report will draw from case studies of establishments across the EU that have introduced advanced digital technologies in the workplace. The technologies in focus are the Internet of Things, 3D printing and virtual and augmented reality. Each case study – illustrated in the report - will explore the approach or strategy taken by the establishment to manage the digital transition and the impact of the deployment of the technology on the work organisation and job quality.