Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, r...Read more
Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, regular articles on working life in Europe, presentations, working papers providing background material to ongoing or already concluded research, and reports arising from ad hoc requests by policymakers. Other corporate publications include annual reports, brochures and promotional publications. Web databases and online resources such as data visualisation applications are available in Data and resources.
As of 1 April 2002, a new Labour Code for the private sector and new labour
legislation for the public sector came into force in the Slovak Republic. The
previous Labour Code (adopted in 1965), amended more than 30 times, played a
very important role in providing a comprehensive codification of employment
and working conditions in Czechoslovakia, and as from 1 January 1993 (the
date that the independent Slovak Republic was established) in Slovakia, too.
It applied to all employees and employers equally, regardless of whether they
were active in companies conducting a business or in public organisations.
During late May 2002, several new collective agreements were concluded in the
bargaining area covering 'semi-privatised' organisations, represented by the
NAVO employers' body. The new agreements were all concluded with the
assistance of the state mediator, and the negotiations were reported to have
been complex and demanding.
This report compares the work situation of permanent workers and those in 'non-standard' employment: part-time jobs, non-permanent employment and self-employment. It covers aspects such as working time, task flexibility, skills development, physical risk factors and psycho-social demands. Its findings are based on data from the Foundation's Third European Survey on Working Conditions 2000.
The comparative study was compiled on the basis of individual national
reports submitted by EIRO's national centres. The text of each of these
national reports is available below in Word format. The reports have not been
edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living
and Working Conditions. The national reports were drawn up in response to a
questionnaire  and should be read in conjunction with it.
Foundation papers aim to highlight knowledge and analysis emanating from the Foundation’s research themes: employment, equal opportunities, social inclusion, time use and diversity. The objective of the papers is to make past, present and future work of the Foundation relevant and accessible in a synthesised format. The subject of each paper will be linked to current social policy issues and offers therefore a timely contribution to the debate at European level. The second Foundation paper focuses on improving access to employment, specifically for groups who are disadvantaged in the labour market.
This national report examines the main trends in temporary agency work and the problems and challenges it poses in the UK. It puts the spotlight on the working conditions of temporary agency workers, and the specific features of such work that might help explain these conditions.
In May 2002, Portugal's new government announced a number of measures to
address the mounting public deficit, including restructuring, a freeze on
public service recruitment, the non-renewal of fixed-term contracts and
possible greater mobility for civil servants. Trade unions, which believe
that 50,000 jobs may be under threat, are seeking negotiations, while
organising protests and threatening legal action.
In 1993, the rules of the occupational injury insurance scheme governing the
possibility of having an injury or a disease recognised as having been caused
by work were made much stricter, and this has attracted considerable
criticism since. The number of recognised work injuries decreased
considerably after 1993, as did insurance costs. The number of reported cases
fell from 250,000 a year to about 108,000, while the number of injuries and
diseases recognised as such by the social insurance service fell from 67,000
cases in 1992 to 7,300 in 1997 (SE0106106F ). Female workers especially
had difficulties in having their injuries recognised as being work-related.
During the past few years however, the number of reported cases has started
to rise again. Between 1997 and 1999 the number of work-related diseases
reported by female workers increased by 60%, while for male workers, the
increase was 40%. The rise continued in 2000.
May 2002 saw the publication of the findings of Spain's EPA labour force
survey for the first quarter of 2002. This was the first set of EPA
statistics since a number of methodological changes were made as part of a
process of greater EU harmonisation. One major and controversial effect of
the changes is to narrow the group of people considered as unemployed by the
EPA, excluding some 500,000 people from the official figures. However,
despite the statistical changes, there was a major rise in unemployment in
the first quarter of 2002.
From 1 July 2002, the daily rate of unemployment benefit will be increased.
Benefit stands at 80% of former pay, but subject to a maximum cash figure.
The minimum daily rate will be increased from SEK 270 to SEK 320. During the
first 100 days of unemployment, the maximum rate will be raised from SEK 680
to SEK 730. From the 101st day onward, the maximum is increased from SEK 580
to SEK 680.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
This policy brief investigates the evolution of female labour market participation in the last decade and calculates the monetary cost of the persisting gender employment gap to Europe in that period. The analysis also highlights the disproportionate effects that the current COVID-19 crisis is having on working women and how this threatens decades of gains achieved in gender equality.
The long-term care (LTC) sector employs an increasing share of workers in the EU, with increasing shortages. The LTC workforce is mainly female and a relatively large and increasing proportion is 50 or older. Migrants are often concentrated in certain LTC jobs. This report maps the working conditions, the nature of employment and the role of collective bargaining in the sector. It also discusses policies to make the sector more attractive, combat undeclared work and to improve the situation of a particular vulnerable group of LTC workers: live-in carers.
Member States are autonomous when it comes to the design of their social protection systems. However, EU recommendations and treaties oblige them to address the convergence of these systems and policies with other Member States. At the same time, convergence may also come about as a result of economic integration and endeavours to reduce social imbalances. This report looks at the main long-term trends in social protection expenditure and performance across the Member States to assess the extent to which they are converging in this policy area.
Social, economic and technological changes are giving rise to new forms of employment. These differ from 'traditional' work either in the relationship between employer and employee or in the unconventional work patterns and places of work that characterise them. While these new forms of employment can contribute to more inclusive labour markets, legalise undeclared work and offer preferential working conditions, some also raise concerns about, for example, job quality and representation. This report updates Eurofound's 2015 mapping of emerging trends.
New digital technologies have expanded the possibilities of employee monitoring and surveillance, both in and outside the workplace. In the context of the increasing digitalisation of work, there are many issues related to employee monitoring that warrant the attention of policymakers. There are the often-cited privacy and ethical concerns but also important implications for worker–employer relations, as digitally enabled monitoring and surveillance inevitably shift power dynamics in the workplace.
How can working conditions be improved to make work more sustainable over the life course? This question has been the guiding principle for analysis of the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey data during the period of Eurofound’s work programme for 2017–2020. This flagship report brings together the different research strands from this work and gives a comprehensive answer to the question. It includes an analysis of trends in working conditions, examining whether these are the same for all workers or whether inequalities between different groups of workers are increasing.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the local and regional administration sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
This flagship report consolidates findings in the industrial relations field from research conducted by Eurofound over the course of its multiannual work programme for 2017–2020. It considers the strengths and weaknesses of European social dialogue, including the linkages with national social dialogue and the capacity constraints of the actors. A national comparative analysis draws on projects that have mapped the key features of national industrial relations systems.
This report builds on Eurofound's existing research on social mobility, assessing the distribution and transmission of wealth in Member States. It examines the roles of inheritance and household debt in explaining the transmission of advantage or disadvantage between the generations across Member States. The analysis is based on Eurosystem's Household Finance and Consumption Survey (HFCS).
This report analyses the involvement of the national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, and their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs) and other key policy documents of the European Semester cycle.