Publications

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Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, regular articles on working life in Europe, presentations, working papers providing background material to ongoing or already concluded research, and reports arising from ad hoc requests by policymakers. Other corporate publications include annual reports, brochures and promotional publications. Web databases and online resources such as data visualisation applications are available in Data and resources.


  • European Parliament debates employee consultation measures

    At its plenary session of 13-17 January 1997, the European Parliament debated two important measures relating to employee consultation in European companies. After the European Works Councils (EWCs) Directive was passed in 1994, the Commission published a Communication on the future of employee consultation in November 1995, in order to revive a legislative issue which has been under discussion in various forms for over 15 years. Its aim was to explore whether the model used for determining the structure and operation of EWCs could be used in a wider context as a basis for making progress with the long-delayed European Company Statute.
  • Strikes hit 60-year high

    Figures from the Confederation of Norwegian Business and Industry ( Næringslivets Hovedorganisasjon or NHO) show that over 530,000 working days were lost in industrial conflict during the 1996 wage negotiations. These figures cover only private sector companies which are members of NHO, but nearly all industrial conflicts in 1996 took place within this area. This is the highest number of working days lost since 1986, when Norway experienced a major lockout in the private sector. In 1996, lawful strikes accounted for all the lost working days, and the number of working days lost in strikes alone (ie, excluding lock-outs) is thus the highest since the 1930s. The major strikes all came in the private sector and among unions affiliated to the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge, or LO). The Government did not, as often before, intervene to stop strikes with compulsory arbitration. Three strikes accounted for the majority of lost working days. These came in the metal industry, the hotel and restaurant industry and in the electrical installation industry.
  • Employers and unions disagree on the duration of new collective agreements

    1997's collective bargaining in the private sector is concentrating on three main issues: 100% wage compensation during maternity leave; further negotiations over the pension scheme initiated in 1991; and a limited wage increase to allow for inflation. The social partners in the different bargaining areas are largely in agreement on the content of the new collective agreements, but the central social partner organisations - the Danish Confederation of Trade Unions (LO) and the Danish Employers' Confederation (DA) - still cannot agree whether the new collective agreements should be of two or three years' duration.
  • Union opposes end of postal delivery monopoly

    As the legislation regulating the postal delivery monopoly will expire by the end of 1997, on 18 February Germany's governing coalition parties proposed a new law which would limit the exclusive licence of Deutsche Post AG, the national postal service, to handling letters weighting under 100g, and this only until the end of 2002. According to the Ministry responsible, this proposal would reduce Deutsche Post's current monopoly to 87% of the standard letter market. The proposed new law would also open completely the bulk mail market to licensed competitors from 1 January 1998.
  • Two-year collective agreement for government employees

    On 21 February 1997, theMinistry of Finance and the Danish Central Federation of State Employees (CFU) signed a new collective agreement for the period 1997-9, covering 225,000 government employees. The parties agreed on a total 4.25% increase, of which 2.9% is to be allocated for a general pay rise, and 1.35% for pensions and other purposes. Additionally, a wage adjustment scheme has been introduced to take account of private sector increases
  • TUC launches pre-election campaign

    The Trades Union Congress (TUC) launched its campaign to put workers' rights at the centre of the general election on 14 February 1997. The campaign, which will cost GBP 1 million, includes newspaper and cinema ads, billboards and leaflets.
  • Basic pay up 2.3% in western Germany in 1996

    According to a recent analysis by the Institute for Economics and Social Science (Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut, WSI) basic wages and salaries in western Germany grew on average by about 2.3% in 1996. Thus, pay increased by about 0.8 percentage points above the inflation rate, which stood at 1.5% in 1996. Altogether, about 15.1 million employees were covered by collective agreements signed in 1996. The highest pay increases, at 2.8%, were in the energy and water industry and in the iron and steel industry. The lowest increases were in banking (1.5%), post and telecommunications (1.4%) and public services (1.3%).
  • Social partners start discussions on reform of the July 1993 agreement

    The issue of wage flexibility as a means of promoting employment growth was initially put forward by the ex-president of Confindustria (the most important Italian employers' association), Luigi Abete, as a problem which had not been adequately dealt with in the 1993 income policy agreement. CISL, one of the three main trade union confederations, later took up the wage flexibility issue and proposed flexibility in starting wages (the so-called "entrance salary") as a means of tackling the extremely serious employment crisis in some southern regions of Italy.
  • Future of the Post Office under debate

    In February, the Communication Workers' Union (CWU) launched a consultative paper aimed at influencing the pre-election commitments of both the Conservative Party and Labour Party. The union, which is firmly against privatisation of the Post Office, has called for legislation to turn it into an independent corporation, with the level of dividends pegged at 40% of post-tax profits. The union feels that its proposals will have equal appeal to all political parties because of the weight of public opinion opposing privatisation.
  • Union recognition still an issue

    Declining union membership and a legal and ideological attack on the role of trade unions over the past 17 years may have left many with the opinion that employees no longer value the right to act collectively. It has been argued that the attack on the unions throughout the 1980s and 1990s has left the unions weak and unable to protect members' rights. Alternatively, it has been argued that people now prefer to negotiate their own employment contracts individually and do not need trade unions.

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