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  • Article
    18 Marzo 2002

    On 5 March 2002, a proposal for new legislation on the protection of
    'personal integrity in working life' (Personlig integritet i arbetslivet,
    /SOU 2002:18/) was submitted to the government by the commissioner it had
    appointed to look into the issue, Reidunn Laurén (a former president of the
    Administrative Court of Appeal). The commissioner was asked in September 1999
    to examine the risks to 'personal integrity' and privacy raised by modern
    working life, with a view to possibly proposing increased protection for
    employees and job applicants related to new technology, medical examinations
    and drug testing (SE9911105N [1]).


  • Article
    18 Marzo 2002

    February 2002 was a bad month for employees in the telecommunications sector.
    At the beginning of the month, the mobile phone operator mm02, which was
    recently demerged from British Telecom (BT), announced that it was to cut
    1,900 jobs across its British and German operations. Less than a fortnight
    later, the BT group announced that it was to cut 1,000 jobs in the UK, a move
    which came hot on the heels of the announcement of 500 job cuts in its German
    operations. This feature examines the details of these job cuts in the
    context of the restructuring in the sector more generally.

  • Article
    18 Marzo 2002

    On 9 March 2002, a conference organised by the Unions 21 network drew
    together an audience of trade unionists, policy-makers and researchers to
    discuss the challenges and opportunities currently facing the British labour
    movement. Launched in 1993, Unions 21 [1] is associated with the 'modernising
    Left' and exists to provide a forum for debate on how trade unions can win
    support and influence in a changing political, economic and social climate.
    The 2002 conference, on the theme of 'Making unions matter', addressed a
    range of issues including:


  • Article
    18 Marzo 2002

    In January 2002, the Unified Service Sector Union (Vereinte
    Dienstleistungsgewerkschaft, ver.di) announced a new plan to support sex
    industry workers. While it has been estimated that some 400,000 prostitutes
    work in Germany, offering their services a total of 1.2 million times a day,
    trade union have not given them much consideration until recently. In an
    unprecedented effort, ver.di's sectoral unit number 13 (Fachbereich 13),
    which is in charge of 'special services', intends to change this situation
    and help prostitutes to improve their living and working conditions. This
    initiative comes at a time when the current 'red-Green' coalition government
    has enacted a new law which will give sex workers improved rights in the
    fields of contract law, criminal law and social security. According to
    ver.di's spokesperson, Klaus Utz, it is in particular during the time when
    these new legal rights are being established that prostitutes need trade
    union assistance most.

  • Article
    16 Marzo 2002

    Following a series of one-day strikes, a new collective agreement for the
    Dutch childcare sector was concluded through a process of mediation in
    January 2002. This brought an end to a dispute which had seen a split among
    the trade unions and an unsuccessful effort by employers to prevent
    industrial action through recourse to the courts.

  • Article
    16 Marzo 2002

    2001 saw a raft of new legislative measures in the Netherlands, aimed at
    improving employees' protection and rights. These included: new rights for
    fixed-term contract workers; a right to refuse Sunday working; new
    entitlements to leave for care purposes; and measures to combat
    discrimination on grounds of disability and age.

  • Article
    16 Marzo 2002

    On 5 February 2002, the general council of the Norwegian Confederation of
    Trade Unions (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge, LO) made public the
    confederation's demands for the forthcoming spring wage negotiations.
    Bargaining demands have also been issued by the other main union
    confederations. This marks the beginning of the 2002 wage round in Norway,
    when all the current two-year collective agreements are to be renegotiated.
    In the private sector, the 2002 round will take place at industry level and
    start in March 2002 with the negotiations in manufacturing industry. As in
    previous years, there is great suspense associated with the outcome of the
    2002 settlement, not least in the public sector, where a number of groups
    have warned of significant wage demands. Nurses in state-owned hospitals are
    striking for higher wages (NO0202102N [1]).


  • Article
    12 Marzo 2002

    On 1 January 2002, the 11,000-strong Agricultural Workers' Union
    (Lantarbetareförbundet) joined the Swedish Municipal Workers' Union (Svenska
    Kommunalarbetareförbundet, Kommunal), the largest affiliate of the
    blue-collar Swedish Confederation of Trade Unions (Landsorganisationen, LO)
    with around 600,000 members. Some 80% of Kommunal's members are women, and
    65% of members are part-time workers. The largest group of members works in
    the healthcare sector for the municipalities and county councils as nurses,
    ward orderlies and other personnel. Other occupations represented in Kommunal
    include childcare workers, firefighters, cemetery workers, bus drivers,
    cleaners, and parks and sports grounds attendants.

  • Article
    12 Marzo 2002

    In February 2002, the Italian government and trade unions reached a general
    framework accord on the forthcoming renewal of national collective agreements
    for public sector workers. The agreement meets most trade union demands.
    Average wage increases have been set at 5.56% for 2002-3 and it has been
    established that collective bargaining takes precedence over legislation in
    the regulation of employment conditions.

  • CAR
    12 Marzo 2002

    Labour costs - the total expenditure borne by employers in order to employ
    workers - are without doubt at the heart of industrial relations. The main
    components of total labour costs - as defined by Eurostat in line with the
    international definition [1] agreed by the International Conference of Labour
    Statisticians- include compensation of employees (including wages and
    salaries), employers' social security contributions, vocational training
    costs and taxes relating to employment. The level of direct pay/compensation
    is set or powerfully affected by collective bargaining in most countries in
    Europe, while the social partners (by bargaining or other means) also have a
    strong influence in many countries on factors such as the level of employers'
    social security contributions or the cost of vocational training. It could be
    said, indeed, that much of industrial relations is largely concerned with
    setting labour costs.



  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

Forthcoming publications