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  • Article
    27 Febrero 1997

    The Austrian Trade Union Federation (Österreichischer Gewerkschaftsbund,
    ÖGB) and the Austrian Chamber of the Economy (Wirtschaftskammer Österreich,
    WKÖ) agreed the outlines of a reform of the apprenticeship system on 1 March
    1997. The precise details are to be agreed in a working group comprising
    officials of the social partners, the Ministry of Labour, the Ministry of the
    Economy, and experts from other, as yet unspecified, organisations.

  • Article
    27 Febrero 1997

    The statutory minimum wage in Luxembourg has been increased by 3.2% from 1
    January 1997, as a result of legislation, and additionally by 2.5% from 1
    February 1997, under the terms of an index-linked mechanism.

  • Article
    27 Febrero 1997

    Following the freezing of civil servants' salaries imposed by the Government
    for 1996, the Government announced the convening of pay negotiations which
    have been continually put off since the spring of 1996, but which will now
    not take place at all.

  • Article
    27 Febrero 1997

    As the 1 May election date draws nearer, both the Conservative Government and
    the main opposition party, Labour, have begun to fight their campaigns by
    taking opposite stances on the social policy Agreement annexed to the
    Maastricht Treaty on European Union - the so-called "social chapter", from
    which the UK has "opted out". In February, the Government launched an attack,
    stating that if the Labour Party were to win the general election, its
    commitment to "signing up" to the social chapter would cost the UK 500,000

  • Article
    27 Febrero 1997

    Employers and unions want to reduce the amount of temporary recruitment and
    the number of types of employment contract. They also want to increase their
    freedom to negotiate labour market issues through collective bargaining.
    These are the key issues in the current debate over a new round of labour
    market reforms in Spain.

  • Article
    27 Febrero 1997

    In January 1997, the European Commission adopted a report on the Promotion of
    Participation by Employed Persons in Profits and Enterprise Results,
    including equity participation (PEPPER II). The report suggests that
    profit-sharing schemes lead to higher productivity, whatever method, model
    specification and data are used. The macroeconomic situation was found to
    have little effect on government or social partner support for such schemes,
    but recent debates relating to enhancing productivity and wage flexibility
    are stimulating discussions on proposals. However, in most member states,
    trade unions can be expected to oppose the use of financial participation
    schemes to promote wage flexibility.

  • Article
    27 Febrero 1997

    In the Works Constitution [1] Act (Betriebsverfassungsgesetz) of 1972, works
    councils [2] in Germany are given extensive rights of information,
    consultation and co-determination [3]. The employer has to provide the works
    council with both timely and comprehensive information on all matters related
    to the discharge of its functions. In establishments with over 20 employees,
    information must be given "in full and in good time" on reductions in
    operations and the introduction of new working methods. Consultation rights
    cover planned structural alterations to the plant and prospective changes in
    equipment and working methods that affect job requirements, all decisions
    relating to manpower planning, and individual dismissals.


  • Article
    27 Febrero 1997

    Recently-announced plans by banks to levy service charges on the accounts
    into which employees' salaries and wages are paid, have resulted in trade
    union protests and the dropping of the proposals.


  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications