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  • Article
    27 Abril 1997

    For the first time in many years, six trade unions in the Paris region have
    decided to take part in a single demonstration for Labour Day, 1997,
    protesting against racism and xenophobia.

  • Article
    27 Abril 1997

    On 22 April 1997, the management board at Ford Germany and the company works
    council (Gesamtbetriebsrat) signed a new works agreement to secure
    investment. In the agreement, Ford management promises new investments at the
    five German Ford plants at Cologne, Düren, Berlin, Wülfrath and Saarlouis.
    Although the exact figures have not been published it is estimated that
    investments will total about DEM 10 billion in the next few years.

  • Article
    27 Abril 1997

    On 6 April 1997, the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions (LO) and the
    Confederation of Norwegian Business and Industry (NHO) agreed on a proposal
    for an agreement which they could recommend to their members in this year's
    bargaining round. LO won acceptance for its demands on the extension of the
    voluntary early retirement scheme, while the pay increases agreed centrally
    may be described as moderate.

  • Article
    27 Abril 1997

    A new pay award announced in April by the Agricultural Wages Board (AWB) for
    England and Wales after two days of talks, gives farm workers a minimum wage
    of GBP 4.12 per hour. The AWB is the only wages council - setting statutory
    minimum pay rates for a particular sector - left in the UK after the rest
    were abolished in 1993 (UK9703112F [1]). When the Conservative Government was
    originally looking at abolishing the wages councils in 1986, the proposal was
    delayed because employers were not in favour of them being abolished, as they
    at least set some minimum floor of standards with which employers could work.
    The case for this was made most strongly by agricultural employers, and this
    was why the AWB was left in place after 1993.


  • Article
    27 Abril 1997

    The recent proposal by the EU agriculture commissioner, Franz Fischler, to
    alter the method of granting Community aid to olive farmers fell like a
    bombshell in Spain. This reform would not only have serious economic
    repercussions, but would also lead to the loss of at least 70,000 jobs,
    according to some trade unions in the sector. Farm-owners' organisations,
    cooperatives, trade unions and the regional and central administrations have
    rejected the proposal and are preparing all kinds of protest action.

  • Article
    27 Abril 1997

    The President of the French Republic's decision to dissolve the National
    Assembly and to call early legislative elections in May-June 1997 has
    prompted numerous reactions from the unions, which fear the beginning of a
    shift towards liberal economic policies.

  • Article
    27 Abril 1997

    On 2 April 1997 it became public that during the ongoing collective
    bargaining at the German automobile company, Volkswagen, management had made
    a proposal to create a new "internal temporary employment agency"
    (Zeitarbeitsgesellschaft). Depending on the incoming orders, the agency's
    newly hired employees would be set to work at the different Volkswagen
    plants. Volkswagen proposed to pay the new temporary employees under the
    terms and conditions of the current branch-level collective agreement in the
    metalworking industry.

  • Article
    27 Abril 1997

    In April 1997, the Norwegian Supreme Court found the Government not guilty of
    abusing compulsory arbitration in order to stop industrial conflict. The
    Federation of Offshore Workers' Trade Unions (OFS), which brought the
    domestic lawsuit against the Government, lost on all counts.

  • Article
    27 Abril 1997

    An international comparison of labour disputes from 1986 to 1995 by /Labour
    Market Trends/ (April 1997) highlights that the UK had the fourth-lowest
    strike rate of the 22 member countries of the Organisation for Economic
    Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 1995. Only Austria, Switzerland and
    Germany had a lower level of strikes than the UK. The UK strike rate has been
    below the OECD average since 1986 and below the EU average since 1990.
    Between 1991 and 1995 the average rate in the UK was 24 working days lost per
    1,000 workers - an 82% fall over the previous five-year period. But the UK's
    rise in the international "league table" of two places since 1994 took place
    despite an increase in the strike rate itself.

  • Article
    27 Abril 1997

    In the framework of negotiations for the two-year National General Collective
    Agreement covering the years 1996 and 1997, the GSEE (Greek General
    Confederation of Labour) trade union confederation placed on the agenda of
    discussions with the employers its demand for the reduction of weekly working
    hours to 35 without a reduction in pay. The negotiations led to the creation
    of a working party of technical experts from both sides of industry to study
    the issue and its effects on employment and competitiveness.


  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications

  • Report
    Mayo 2024

    The report maps trends in income inequality and examines the situation of the middle classes in the EU during 2020, the year most associated with the COVID-19 lockdowns. It charts developments in the size and composition of middle-class households across countries, identifies those that suffered disproportionately in 2020. Taking a longer lens, the report describes the evolution of income inequalities over the last 15 years, comparing the Great Recession (2007–2009) with the COVID-19 pandemic, and outlines the trends both between and within Member States.

  • Report
    Diciembre 2024

    This report explores the implications of the right of all EU citizens to live independently. It investigates the barriers faced by people who wish to live independently, and the situation of people at risk of living in institutional settings. It maps the various measures taken by EU Member States to foster independent living and autonomy. The report also includes policy pointers to support future decision-makers and provides a review of lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic.