This publication comprises individual country reports on developments in working life in each of the 27 EU Member States and Norway in 2022, based on national research and survey results. The topics covered include the policy responses of governments to inflation and how inflation has featured in collective bargaining; the role of the social partners in addressing labour shortages; and the working life of Ukrainian refugees. The reports also include updates on policy developments regarding issues such as the gender pay gap, health and safety, and work–life balance.
2022. aasta algas ettevaatliku optimismiga. Euroopa oli väljumas kaks aastat kestnud COVID-19 pandeemiast, kusjuures NextGenerationEU koostas taastamiskava, millega luuakse tugev ja jätkusuutlik tulevik. Venemaa sissetung Ukrainasse muutis aga aasta alguses olukorda dramaatiliselt, tekitades uusi rahutusi kogu kontinendil. Eurofound dokumenteeris aasta jooksul oma töös elukalliduse tõusu ja muude sõjast tulenevate arengute mõju eurooplaste majanduslikule ja psühholoogilisele heaolule.
On request by the Swedish Presidency of the Council of the European Union, Eurofound prepared a background paper as a basis for the discussion at the informal Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council (EPSCO) meeting on 3-4 May 2023. The paper outlines some of the key challenges on our labour markets in this regard, and points to some factors for improving the matching of skills and jobs, both in the short and long term.
Aruandes vaadeldakse usutavaid ja kujuteldavaid stsenaariume, uurides, kuidas võiksid ELis areneda kaugtöö ja hübriidtöö 2035. aastaks ning mis on nende mõju töömaailmale. Kui valmis on juhid ja töötajad, tööandjate organisatsioonid ja ametiühingud ning poliitikakujundajad nende töökorraldusviiside suuremaks levikuks? Kuidas nad saavad tagada, et tulevane kaugtöö- ja hübriidtöökorraldus oleks kasulik nii töötajatele kui ka organisatsioonidele?
This paper presents an analytical summary of current academic and policy literature on the impact of climate change and policies to manage the transition to a carbon-neutral economy on four key domains: employment, working conditions, social dialogue and living conditions. It maps the main empirical findings around the impact of climate change and the green transition on jobs, sectors, regions and countries in Europe, identifying the opportunities and risks that climate change policies bring to European labour markets.
Spiralling housing costs are causing despair across the EU. The situation is making people anxious that they will lose their accommodation or become homeless; they may become overburdened financially or forced to live in substandard accommodation; and many young people are unable to leave home. While renters in the private market have faced the largest cost increases and experienced the most problems with quality of accommodation, people with other types of housing tenure are in difficulty as well. Policy actions in line with the European Pillar of Social Rights and availing of Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) funds could both address and prevent problems.
Inimressursid aitavad kaasa organisatsiooni edule oma oskuste kaudu. Võimekuse, motivatsiooni ja võimaluste mudeli kohaselt sõltub töötajate panus organisatsiooni tulemustesse nende oskustest, motivatsioonist oskusi kasutada ja võimalustest seda teha. Organisatsioonid võivad kohandada võimekust toetavaid juhtimiskäsitlusi, hõlbustades õppimist, luues võimalusi, pakkudes töötajatele autonoomiat ja julgustades motivatsiooni, mida saab võimendada rahaliste ja mitterahaliste stiimulitega. Käesolev aruanne põhineb 2019. aasta Euroopa ettevõtete uuringul (ECS 2019).
In 2022, the European Semester process was updated to take into account the launch of the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) in February 2021. Over the past year, Member States have implemented national recovery and resilience plans (RRPs) in a context of huge geopolitical and economic upheaval triggered by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. This report analyses national social partners’ involvement in carrying out the reforms and investments included in the RRPs.
Ajal, mil majandus hakkab COVID-19 pandeemiast taastuma, suureneb tööjõupuudus hoolimata Ukraina sõja mõjust energia- ja kaubahindadele. See hõlmab töötajate puudust teatud sektorites ja kutsealadel, kus see on juba mõnda aega esinenud, kuid mida kriis on veelgi süvendanud. Aruandes vaadeldakse riikide tasandil rakendatud meetmeid, millega püütakse vähendada tööjõupuudust tervishoiu-, hooldus- ja IKT-sektoris, samuti rohe- ja digipöördest tulenevat töötajate nappust.
The European Commission declared 2023 as the European Year of Skills, stating ‘Helping people get the right skills for quality jobs and helping companies, in particular small and medium enterprises, address skills shortages in the EU is what this year is all about.’
The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
The report maps trends in income inequality and examines the situation of the middle classes in the EU during 2020, the year most associated with the COVID-19 lockdowns. It charts developments in the size and composition of middle-class households across countries, identifies those that suffered disproportionately in 2020. Taking a longer lens, the report describes the evolution of income inequalities over the last 15 years, comparing the Great Recession (2007–2009) with the COVID-19 pandemic, and outlines the trends both between and within Member States.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the chemical sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the chemical sector in the EU Member States.
This report explores the implications of the right of all EU citizens to live independently. It investigates the barriers faced by people who wish to live independently, and the situation of people at risk of living in institutional settings. It maps the various measures taken by EU Member States to foster independent living and autonomy. The report also includes policy pointers to support future decision-makers and provides a review of lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic.