Viimastel aastatel, välja arvates mõned katkendlikud hüpped, on töövõitlused ELi liikmesriikides üldiselt vähenenud. COVID-19 pandeemia ajal see suundumus jätkus ning pole üllatav, et kõige olulisemad töövaidlused esinesid inimeste tervishoiu- ja sotsiaalteenuste sektoris, haridussektoris ning transpordi- ja logistikasektoris. Käesolevas aruandes analüüsitakse Eurofoundi poolt ajavahemikul 2018–2019 töövõitluse seire andmebaasi katsetamise käigus kogutud andmeid.
Käesolevas aruandes käsitletakse COVID-19 kriisi mõju eakate kodanike elukvaliteedile, sealhulgas mõju nende heaolule, rahaasjadele, tööhõivele ja sotsiaalsele kaasatusele. Aruandes uuritakse mõju hooldusteenuste kasutamisele ja eakate sõltumist muust toetusest. Aruandes tutvustatakse poliitikameetmeid, mida on ELi liikmesriikides rakendatud eakate toetamiseks kõigis eespool nimetatud mõõtmetes.
The first overview of minimum wage setting for 2022 shows that, while some negotiations are still ongoing, virtually all EU Member States have increased their nominal statutory rates. Compared to last year, when most countries settled for cautious increases against a background of deep uncertainty caused by the pandemic, growth in statutory rates for 2022 was stronger, reflecting an easing of the situation. This was especially the case in central and eastern European countries, where some increases were in double digits. Nevertheless, inflation is back in the picture and should be monitored in the coming months to get an insight into how the increases in nominal minimum wage rates translate into actual changes in the purchasing power of minimum wage earners.
This programming document describes Eurofound’s planned work over the programming period 2021–2024. It sets out the policy and institutional context for the programme, outlines the multiannual programme for the four-year period and sets out the work programme for 2022. Eurofound’s priorities for 2021–2024 are shaped by the key challenges for social cohesion and just transitions in a changing environment in the aftermath of the COVID-19 crisis. The Agency focuses on issues where it can draw on its core expertise in the areas of working conditions, industrial relations, employment and living conditions, to support its stakeholders, by providing evidence that can assist their policy action.
The European Union Agencies Network on Scientific Advice (EU-ANSA) consists of technical and regulatory agencies that provide scientific advice to EU policymakers. This report demonstrates how EU-ANSA member Agencies are addressing the socioeconomic effects of sustainable development. It is based on two surveys conducted among the member Agencies. The survey results show that the most researched areas include the economy, employment, skills and training, gender inequalities, health and safety, social aspects, the role of regulation and social dialogue.
Ülespoole suunatud lähenemine on ELi projekti keskmes. Liikmesriigid ja nende kodanikud nõustuvad liiduga ühinema, kuna eeldavad, et liikmelisusega kaasneb tasakaalustatud majanduslik jõukus ning sotsiaalne progress kõigis riikides. Liikmesriikide vaheliste erinevuste suurenemist, nagu toimus 2008.–2013. aasta majanduskriisi ajal, võib käsitada ELi lubaduse reetmisena ning võimaliku rahulolematuse ja hajumise alusena. Käesolev juhtaruanne on kokkuvõte Eurofoundi 2017. aastal algatatud seireuuringust, mis käsitles lähenemist ELis.
Tehnika muutumine kiireneb, sest elektroonikaseadmed suudavad talletada, töödelda ja edastada üha rohkem teavet. Digitaliseerimine on muutmas ELi majandust ja tööturgu: peaaegu kolmandik ELi töökohtadest on liigitatud väga digitaliseeritud töökohtadeks. Mis on digitaalse revolutsiooni tagajärjed tööhõivele ja tööle? Ja kuidas võib see mõjutada sotsiaalset dialoogi?
Viimase poole sajandi üks silmatorkavamaid arenguid on olnud naiste tööturul osalemise tohutu kasv. Viimase kahe aastakümne jooksul ELis loodud kolmest uuest töökohast kaks said endale naised. Samal ajal on elanikkonna vananemisest ja poliitilistest muudatustest tingitud järsult kasvav tööhõive määr vanemate töötajate hulgas suurendanud vanemate töötajate osakaalu tööturul. Käesolevas aruandes uuritakse tööjõupakkumise muutuvate kontuurijoonte mõju tööhõivestruktuurile viimase veerandsajandi jooksul Euroopas (1995–2019).
Despite the increasing participation of women in the labour market and a higher share of women than men being hired into well-paid jobs in recent years, a gender pay gap exists across all EU Member States. Pay differentials between women and men have been shown to be significantly influenced by the economic sector where people work and the occupation they hold.
Digital transformation is changing the world of work. This report looks at how social partners – the actors involved in the regulation of employment relationships – are increasingly adopting technological solutions to improve the services that they provide to their members and facilitate collective bargaining processes. Technological tools offer social partners the opportunity to enhance consultation, engage with their members through digitised processes, improve services and increase networking activities, as well as addressing the issue of membership decline.
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
The interaction between workers and machines has increased due to the rapid advancement of automation technologies. The new wave of robots can perform tasks with more flexibility, greater sophistication and in a way that protects workers’ physical safety. Drawing on case studies of advanced robotics, this report explores the benefits and risks that come with closer human–machine interaction, the organisational practices needed to deal with emerging issues and the real concerns and challenges.
The report describes trends in social and economic discontent across the EU between 2002 and 2020, highlighting in particular the turbulent times brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. The report explores the evolution of social cohesion and its impact on economic and social discontent. It assesses the relationship between social cohesion and discontent during the pandemic, allowing for a comparison of the situation as it stands in 2023. The focus of the report is on regions where social cohesion is low, where a contrast is drawn with regions where social cohesion is much higher.
This report analyses the working conditions and job quality of different types of self-employed workers. Drawing on data from the European Working Conditions Survey, it looks into policies in Member States aimed at addressing the challenges and opportunities associated with specific types of self-employment.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the chemical sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the chemical sector in the EU Member States.
The focus of this report is on the role that human capital plays in determining inequalities across the EU, as well as within Member States. Using Cedefop’s work in this area, the report provides a comparative analysis of national trends in education and lifelong learning, including differences between educational groups in terms of income, living conditions and health.
The report maps trends in income inequality and examines the situation of the middle classes in the EU during 2020, the year most associated with the COVID-19 lockdowns. It charts developments in the size and composition of middle-class households across countries, identifies those that suffered disproportionately in 2020. Taking a longer lens, the report describes the evolution of income inequalities over the last 15 years, comparing the Great Recession (2007–2009) with the COVID-19 pandemic, and outlines the trends both between and within Member States.
This report explores the implications of the right of all EU citizens to live independently. It investigates the barriers faced by people who wish to live independently, and the situation of people at risk of living in institutional settings. It maps the various measures taken by EU Member States to foster independent living and autonomy. The report also includes policy pointers to support future decision-makers and provides a review of lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic.