Working conditions and sustainable work

Töötingimused ja kestlik töö: analüüs töökvaliteedi raamistiku põhjal

Flagship report
Avaldatud
26 Veebruar 2021
pdf
Formats and languages
Executive summary in 22 languages
Allalaadimine

Peamised tähelepanekud

  • Praegu on ELi töötajatel keskmiselt paremad töötingimused kui aastatuhande alguses. Selgelt on paranenud tööaja kvaliteet, kuid parem on ka füüsiline keskkond, eriti ametikohtadel, kus füüsilised ohud on suured.
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  • Praegu on ELi töötajatel keskmiselt paremad töötingimused kui aastatuhande alguses. Selgelt on paranenud tööaja kvaliteet, kuid parem on ka füüsiline keskkond, eriti ametikohtadel, kus füüsilised ohud on suured.
  • Töökohad nõuavad tänapäeval rohkem oskusi ja pakuvad suuremat autonoomsust kui varem. See kajastub oskuste ja kaalutlusindeksi paranemises.
  • Töötajate oskuste arengut takistab ebavõrdne juurdepääs tööandja tasustatud koolitustele ja nende rakendamine. Vanemad töötajad osalevad koolitustel vähem ning kasvab koolituste kättesaadavuse lõhe erineva lepingulise staatusega (täistööaeg vs. osaline tööaeg ja alaline või tähtajaline leping) töötajate vahel.
  • Tööturul püsiv sooline segregatsioon kajastub meeste ja naiste töökvaliteedi erinevustes. Üht võitjat siin aga pole. Soolised erinevused võivad kahjustada ka mehi, nt füüsilise keskkonna osas.
  • Kuigi karjäärivõimalused on üldiselt paranenud nii meeste kui ka naiste jaoks, on mehed säilitanud eelise selles töökvaliteedi dimensioonis. Tõenäoline põhjus on hoolduskohustuste ebavõrdne jaotus, mis väljendub naiste pikemates karjääripausides ja erinevas tööaja korralduses.
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Kokkuvõte

See juhtaruanne võtab kokku programmiperioodil 2017–2020 tehtud Eurofoundi töötingimuste uuringute peamised järeldused. Selles kaardistatakse alates 2000. aastast tehtud edusammud töötingimuste parandamisel ja vaadeldakse, kas kõik töötajad on positiivsetest muutustest võrdselt kasu saanud. AruanRead more

See juhtaruanne võtab kokku programmiperioodil 2017–2020 tehtud Eurofoundi töötingimuste uuringute peamised järeldused. Selles kaardistatakse alates 2000. aastast tehtud edusammud töötingimuste parandamisel ja vaadeldakse, kas kõik töötajad on positiivsetest muutustest võrdselt kasu saanud. Aruandes tuuakse välja, mis rühmadel on kõige suurem oht kogeda halbu töötingimusi ja mahajäetust Arvestades muutusi töömaailmas, tehakse kindlaks hea töökvaliteedi uued väljakutsed. Aruandes esitatakse ka tõendid meetmetest, mis aitavad saavutada ELis veelgi parema töökeskkonna ja kõigi jaoks õiglased töötingimused.

Analüüs näitab, et töökvaliteet ELis paraneb, kuigi aeglaselt. Kõik töötajad ei saa aga muutustest võrdselt kasu. Lisaks on sool, vanusel ja lepingulisel seisundil oluline mõju töötingimustele. Kuigi digiteerimine aitab lahendada mõningaid töökvaliteedi probleeme, loob see ka uusi väljakutseid. COVID-19 pandeemia on suundumusi võimendanud, tuues rohkem esile probleeme ja rõhutades kõigi jaoks töökvaliteedi saavutamise tähtsust.

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Formats and languages

  • Aruanne

    Lehekülgi: 
    80
    Viitenumber: 
    EF20021
    ISBN: 
    978-92-897-2150-9
    Katalooginumber: 
    TJ-03-21-030-EN-N
    DOI: 
    10.2806/938302
    Catalogue info

    Töötingimused ja kestlik töö: analüüs töökvaliteedi raamistiku põhjal

    Vormingud

    Väljaande viide: 

    Eurofound (2021), Working conditions and sustainable work: An analysis using the job quality framework, Challenges and prospects in the EU series, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg. 

  • Executive summary

    Viitenumber: 
    EF20021EN1
    Catalogue info

    Töötingimused ja kestlik töö: analüüs töökvaliteedi raamistiku põhjal

    Autor(id): 
    Eurofound

    Allalaaditav 22 keeles

    Allalaadimine
  • Case studies and working paper

  • Data

    List of tables

    The report has the following list of tables:

    Table 1: Change in the composition of the workforce, EU27 and the UK, 2002–2019

    Table 2: Elements of the job demands–resources model based on the EWCS

    List of figures

    The report has the following list of figures:

    Figure 1: The seven dimensions of job quality and the indicators composing each dimension

    Figure 2: Indexed change in job quality indices, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 3: Physical environment index: mean and standard deviation, by occupational category, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 4: Work intensity index: mean and standard deviation, by sector, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 5: Work intensity index: mean and standard deviation, by country cluster, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 6: Skills and discretion index: mean and standard deviation, by occupational category, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 7: Skills and discretion index: mean and standard deviation, by country cluster, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 8: Participation in paid training (%), by employment and contractual status, EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 9: Associations between working time quality and occupational category, by country cluster

    Figure 10: Working time quality index: mean and standard deviation, by country cluster, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 11: Long working hours (%), by employment status, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 12: Prospects index: mean and standard deviation, by occupational category, EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 13: Prospects index: mean and standard deviation, by country cluster, EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 14: Scores on Prospects index, by employment and sociodemographic characteristics, EU27 and the UK, 2005 and 2015

    Figure 15: Receipt of support from colleagues and managers (%), EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 16: Receipt of support from colleagues and managers (%), by age group, EU27 and the UK, 2005 and 2015

    Figure 17: Exposure to adverse social behaviour (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2010 and 2015

    Figure 18: Perception of fair pay (%), by Member State and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 19: Perceived appropriateness of pay, by country cluster, EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 20: Job quality profiles: Scores on seven job quality indices, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 21: Distribution of workers according to job quality profiles, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 22: Job quality profiles of men, by job quality indices, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 23: Job quality profiles of women, by job quality indices, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 24: Distribution of employees according to predominant gender in occupation (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2010 and 2015

    Figure 25: Gender of immediate manager (%), by worker’s gender, EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 26: Female employees reporting good prospects for career advancement and gender gap (%), EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 27: Good prospects for career advancement (%), by age and gender, EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 28: Job insecurity according to predominant gender in occupation (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2010 and 2015

    Figure 29: Employability according to predominant gender in occupation (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2010 and 2015

    Figure 30: Employees reporting difficulty making ends meet according to occupation type (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 31: Employees reporting difficulty making ends meet according to household type (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 32: Employee experience of selected emotional demands (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2010 and 2015

    Figure 33: Average weekly working hours of employees across the life course, by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 34: Flexibility to take time off according to predominant gender in occupation (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2010 and 2015

    Figure 35: Additional components of earnings from main job (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 36: Employees’ perception of their work–life balance (%), by age, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 37: Employees’ participation in training (%), by age and training classification, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 38: Associations between demands and resources and workers’ health and well-being

    Figure 39: Proportion of workers with flexitime schedules and engaged in TICTM (%), EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 40: Workers reporting work–life balance problems (%), by work arrangement and presence or absence of children, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 41: Multiple-job holders as a proportion of total employment (%), by gender and country, EU27 and the UK, 2018

    Figure 42: Job quality profiles of multiple-job holders’ main jobs, by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 43: Job quality of selected critical occupations in relation to the workforce average

    Figure 44: Emotional demands on ISWs and extent of those demands (%), EU27 and the UK, 2015

  • Videos

    Members of Eurofound’s Management Board provide their reactions to and insights into Eurofound’s 2021 flagship report on Working conditions and sustainable work: An analysis using the job quality framework.

    • Impact of the Covid-19 pandemic
      Interview with Juha Antila, Head of Research and Development SAK, Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions.

    • Digitalisation
      Interview with Mario van Mierlo, Deputy Director, Social Affairs, The Dutch Confederation of Industry and Employers (VNO-NCW).

    • Making work sustainable
      Interview with Alain Piette, Ergonomist at the Belgian Federal Public Service Employment, Labour and Social Dialogue.

    • Role of different actors in improving job quality
      Interview with Rebekah Smith, Deputy Director for Social Affairs, BusinessEurope.

    • Persisting challenges
      Interview with Nelson Ferreira, Deputy General Inspector ACT, Portugal Labour Conditions Authority.

    • Remote working
      Interview with Esther Lynch, Deputy General Secretary of the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC).

This report presents the results of research conducted largely prior to the outbreak of COVID-19 in Europe in February 2020. For this reason, the results do not fully take account of the outbreak.

Uuringud, mis tehti enne Ühendkuningriigi lahkumist Euroopa Liidust 31. jaanuaril 2020 ja avaldati hiljem, võivad sisaldada andmeid 28 ELi liikmesriigi kohta. Pärast seda kuupäeva võetakse uuringutes arvesse ainult 27 ELi liikmesriiki (EL 28 miinus Ühendkuningriik), kui ei ole märgitud teisiti.

Part of the series

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

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