Aruanne tutvustab Eurofoundi uuringut kaugtöö kohta COVID-19 pandeemia ajal 2020. ja 2021. aastal. Selles uuritakse kaugtöö sageduse muutusi, kodunt töötamise tingimusi ja kaugtöö eeskirjade muutumist. Selgus, et pandeemia tõttu sagenes kaugtöö järsult: 2021. aastal kaugtöötas kaks kümnendikku Euroopa töötajatest – ilma pandeemiata oleks see näitaja saavutatud kõige varem 2027. aastal. Tervisekriis vallandas sotsiaalse ja tehnoloogilise paindlikkuse potentsiaali seoses tööaja ning töötamiskohaga.
Eurofoundi poolt 2020. aasta alguses algatatud uuringu „Elamine, töötamine ja COVID-19“ eesmärk on kajastada pandeemia ulatuslikku mõju ELi kodanike tööle ja elule. Eurofoundi uuringu viies voor, mis viidi läbi kevadel 2022, käsitleb ka uut ebakindlat tegelikkust, mille on põhjustanud sõda Ukrainas, rekordiline inflatsioon ja elukalliduse järsk tõus. Katseuuringuna koostas Euroopa Koolitusfond (ETF) 10 Euroopa Liidu naaberriigis küsimustiku lühiversiooni.
Eurofound’s European Restructuring Monitor database reveals the impact of the energy crisis on employment in the EU. Following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, energy prices have hit record highs. The European Commission imposed sanctions and limitations on the import of oil and gas from Russia, which has reacted by reneging on supply commitments to many Member States. Compared to other countries, market disruption has been especially acute in the EU, given the bloc’s overdependence on Russian energy supply.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the electricity sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
Aruandes analüüsitakse sotsiaaldialoogi ja kollektiivläbirääkimiste rolli tsiviillennundussektori probleemide lahendamisel COVID-19 pandeemia ajal. Sotsiaalpartnerite osalemine pandeemia negatiivse mõju leevendamiseks võetud meetmetes oli Euroopa riikides erinev. Sotsiaaldialoogil ja kollektiivläbirääkimistel oli enamikus riikides oluline roll, kuigi mõnes oli neil piiratum roll. Aruandes uuritakse ka olemasolevatesse sotsiaaldialoogi ja/või kollektiivläbirääkimiste protsessidesse riiklikul tasandil tehtud kohandusi.
Aruandes analüüsitakse sotsiaaldialoogi ja kollektiivläbirääkimiste rolli COVID-19 pandeemia põhjustatud või süvendatud probleemide lahendamisel haiglasektoris. Samuti uuritakse, kas olemasolevaid sotsiaaldialoogi ja kollektiivläbirääkimiste protsesse riiklikul tasandil kohandati, et neid uusi probleeme lahendada. Uuring hõlmas kirjandusülevaadet haiglasektori struktuurilise eripära kontekstualiseerimiseks ning ELi 27 liikmesriigis ja Norras kriisi ohjamiseks tehtud poliitiliste algatuste analüüsi.
Aruanne koostatakse kolmeaastase katseprojekti (2021–2023) „Miinimumpalga roll üldise töögarantii kehtestamisel“ raames, mille Euroopa Komisjon on delegeerinud Eurofoundile. See keskendub projekti 3. moodulile, milles uuritakse miinimumpalka ja füüsilisest isikust ettevõtjate muid palgavorme. Teatud füüsilisest isikust ettevõtjate rühmade keerukate tingimuste tõttu on osa liikmesriike kehtestanud või kavatsevad kehtestada füüsilisest isikust ettevõtjate valitud kategooriatele seadusliku miinimumpalga mõne vormi.
Ranged rahvatervise piirangud, mida valitsused rakendasid 2020. aastal, et ohjeldada COVID-19 pandeemiat, muutsid järsult tööelu ja jätkasid selle kujundamist järgnenud kahe aasta jooksul. 2021. aasta märtsist novembrini peeti 36 riigis üle 70 000 vestluse Euroopa töötingimuste telefoniküsitluse (EWCTS) raames, mis oli kvaliteetne tõenäosuspõhine uuring. Eesmärk oli anda üksikasjalik ülevaade eurooplaste tööelust sellel erakordsel ajal.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the Food and drink sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of Eurofound’s studies on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the field of industrial relations in the EU Member States.
Aruandes uuritakse, kuidas arenes kodanike usaldus institutsioonide, sh riikide valitsuste, ELi, teaduse ja meedia vastu COVID-19 pandeemia ajal 2020. ja 2021. aastal. Analüüsitakse meedia rolli, eelkõige seost sotsiaalmeedia kasutamise ja usalduse ning väärinfo (ebaõige või eksitav teave) ja desinformatsiooni (tahtlikult petlik teave) mõju vahel kriisiperioodil. Tuginedes põhjalikule kirjanduse ülevaatele, kirjeldatakse aruandes COVID-19 poliitikameetmete tagajärgi, keskendudes kodanike usaldusele oma riigiasutuste ja ELi vastu.
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
In 2022, the European Semester was streamlined to integrate the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) established on 19 February 2021 (Regulation (EU) 2021/241). While facing the geopolitical and economic challenges triggered by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, Member States have been implementing the national Recovery and Resilience Plans (RRPs) for more than one year and around 100 billion euro in RRF funds have already been disbursed.
This report explores the association between skills use and skills strategies and establishment performance, and how other workplace practices, in terms of work organisation, human resources management and employee involvement, can impact on this. It looks at how skills shortages can be addressed, at least in part, by creating an environment in which employees are facilitated and motivated to make better use of the skills they already have. This further supports the business case for a more holistic approach to management.
This paper provides an analytical summary of state of the art academic and policy literature on the impact of climate change and policies to manage transitions to a carbon neutral economy on employment, working conditions, social dialogue and living conditions. It maps the key empirical findings around the impact of climate change and the green transitions on jobs, sectors, regions and countries in Europe, identifying the opportunities and risks that climate change policies bring to European labour markets.
As part of its response to Russia’s war on Ukraine, the EU swiftly activated its Temporary Protection Directive for those fleeing the conflict in Ukraine – enabling displaced persons to settle in the EU and have access to the labour market and basic public services. This policy brief highlights the main barriers encountered by these refugees (over 5 million people to date) when seeking a job and provides suggestions on how to facilitate their integration.
With the expansion of telework and different forms of hybrid work as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important for policymakers to consider both the opportunities and the negative consequences that may result. This report will explore potential scenarios for such work. In doing so, it will identify trends and drivers, and predict how they might interact to create particular outcomes and how they are likely to affect workers and businesses. Policy pointers will outline what could be done to facilitate desirable outcomes and to avoid undesirable ones.
Living and working in Europe, Eurofound’s 2022 yearbook, provides a snapshot of the latest developments in the work and lives of Europeans as explored in the Agency’s research activities over the course of 2022. Eurofound’s research on working and living conditions in Europe provides a bedrock of evidence for input into social policymaking and achieving the Agency’s vision ‘to be Europe’s leading knowledge source for better life and work’.
The term ‘hybrid work’ became popular due to the upsurge of telework during the COVID-19 pandemic. The term has been increasingly used to refer to situations in which (teleworkable) work is performed both from the usual place of work (normally the employer’s premises) and from home (as experienced during the pandemic) or other locations. However, the concept of hybrid work is still blurry, and various meanings are in use. This topical update brings clarity to this concept by exploring available information from recent literature and the Network of Eurofound Correspondents.
Housing affordability is a matter of great concern across the EU. Poor housing affordability leads to housing evictions, housing insecurity, problematic housing costs and housing inadequacy. These problems negatively affect health and well-being, create unequal living conditions and opportunities, and come with healthcare costs, reduced productivity and environmental damage. Private market tenants face particularly large increases in the cost of housing.
Eurofound's annual review of minimum wages reports on the development of statutory and collectively agreed minimum wages across the EU and the processes through which they were set. The focus of this year’s report is on the impact of high inflation on the setting of minimum wage rates. In addition, new figures on the net value of minimum wages are presented, along with the latest policy-relevant research in the EU Member States and Norway.
Building on previous work by Eurofound, this report will investigate intergenerational dynamics over time. During the 2008 double-dip recession, worrying intergenerational divides appeared in many Member States, and while some of the economic and social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is universal, early data suggests disparities across demographic cohorts. Eurofound will examine how different age groups may have been affected in terms of their health, labour market participation, quality of life and financial needs, both in the short term and in the long term.