The dawn of 2022 brought muted optimism to a Europe beginning to emerge from the COVID-19 pandemic, and the progress of vaccination programmes worldwide brought hope. Government and EU support during the pandemic had kept unemployment at bay, averting the widescale collapse of businesses. In step with the EU’s plans for the year, Eurofound’s focus was firmly on a post-pandemic Europe: the recovery and the twin transition to a green and digital economy. All this changed with Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the start of a war of aggression. The EU and its institutions were compelled to respond rapidly.
Europe faces a winter of uncertainty and potentially discontent. The cost of living is rising rapidly and the spectre of recession looms.
Economic concerns are affecting citizens’ trust in institutions. Research by Eurofound has indicated a decrease in trust in national institutions across the European Union – including in governments, healthcare systems and the police.
Aruanne tutvustab Eurofoundi uuringut kaugtöö kohta COVID-19 pandeemia ajal 2020. ja 2021. aastal. Selles uuritakse kaugtöö sageduse muutusi, kodunt töötamise tingimusi ja kaugtöö eeskirjade muutumist. Selgus, et pandeemia tõttu sagenes kaugtöö järsult: 2021. aastal kaugtöötas kaks kümnendikku Euroopa töötajatest – ilma pandeemiata oleks see näitaja saavutatud kõige varem 2027. aastal. Tervisekriis vallandas sotsiaalse ja tehnoloogilise paindlikkuse potentsiaali seoses tööaja ning töötamiskohaga.
Eurofoundi poolt 2020. aasta alguses algatatud uuringu „Elamine, töötamine ja COVID-19“ eesmärk on kajastada pandeemia ulatuslikku mõju ELi kodanike tööle ja elule. Eurofoundi uuringu viies voor, mis viidi läbi kevadel 2022, käsitleb ka uut ebakindlat tegelikkust, mille on põhjustanud sõda Ukrainas, rekordiline inflatsioon ja elukalliduse järsk tõus. Katseuuringuna koostas Euroopa Koolitusfond (ETF) 10 Euroopa Liidu naaberriigis küsimustiku lühiversiooni.
Eurofound’s European Restructuring Monitor database reveals the impact of the energy crisis on employment in the EU. Following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, energy prices have hit record highs. The European Commission imposed sanctions and limitations on the import of oil and gas from Russia, which has reacted by reneging on supply commitments to many Member States. Compared to other countries, market disruption has been especially acute in the EU, given the bloc’s overdependence on Russian energy supply.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the electricity sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
Aruandes analüüsitakse sotsiaaldialoogi ja kollektiivläbirääkimiste rolli tsiviillennundussektori probleemide lahendamisel COVID-19 pandeemia ajal. Sotsiaalpartnerite osalemine pandeemia negatiivse mõju leevendamiseks võetud meetmetes oli Euroopa riikides erinev. Sotsiaaldialoogil ja kollektiivläbirääkimistel oli enamikus riikides oluline roll, kuigi mõnes oli neil piiratum roll. Aruandes uuritakse ka olemasolevatesse sotsiaaldialoogi ja/või kollektiivläbirääkimiste protsessidesse riiklikul tasandil tehtud kohandusi.
Aruandes analüüsitakse sotsiaaldialoogi ja kollektiivläbirääkimiste rolli COVID-19 pandeemia põhjustatud või süvendatud probleemide lahendamisel haiglasektoris. Samuti uuritakse, kas olemasolevaid sotsiaaldialoogi ja kollektiivläbirääkimiste protsesse riiklikul tasandil kohandati, et neid uusi probleeme lahendada. Uuring hõlmas kirjandusülevaadet haiglasektori struktuurilise eripära kontekstualiseerimiseks ning ELi 27 liikmesriigis ja Norras kriisi ohjamiseks tehtud poliitiliste algatuste analüüsi.
Aruanne koostatakse kolmeaastase katseprojekti (2021–2023) „Miinimumpalga roll üldise töögarantii kehtestamisel“ raames, mille Euroopa Komisjon on delegeerinud Eurofoundile. See keskendub projekti 3. moodulile, milles uuritakse miinimumpalka ja füüsilisest isikust ettevõtjate muid palgavorme. Teatud füüsilisest isikust ettevõtjate rühmade keerukate tingimuste tõttu on osa liikmesriike kehtestanud või kavatsevad kehtestada füüsilisest isikust ettevõtjate valitud kategooriatele seadusliku miinimumpalga mõne vormi.
Ranged rahvatervise piirangud, mida valitsused rakendasid 2020. aastal, et ohjeldada COVID-19 pandeemiat, muutsid järsult tööelu ja jätkasid selle kujundamist järgnenud kahe aasta jooksul. 2021. aasta märtsist novembrini peeti 36 riigis üle 70 000 vestluse Euroopa töötingimuste telefoniküsitluse (EWCTS) raames, mis oli kvaliteetne tõenäosuspõhine uuring. Eesmärk oli anda üksikasjalik ülevaade eurooplaste tööelust sellel erakordsel ajal.
The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This report explores the potential socio-economic implications of the transition to a climate-neutral economy on different EU regions and groups of people. It adopts a foresight approach to envision potential actions that can be taken to shape the future. After consulting with stakeholders and experts, three scenarios were developed to consider emerging economic and social inequalities at EU and regional level. The report includes policy pointers which outline measures to be taken to achieve a just transition to a sustainable, climate-neutral economy where no one is left behind.
This report explores how environmental performance has converged – or diverged – among the EU Member States since the early 2000s. With environmental goals piling up at the EU level, is it reasonable to expect Member States to adhere to this emerging EU environmental aquis? And, just as importantly, can we expect Member States to reach these goals at the same time? This report attempts to provide answers to these and other questions high on the political agenda.
This report investigates the potential individual and societal impacts of labour market insecurity, focusing on workers with non-permanent contracts, part-time and self-employed workers, and workers who perceive their job as insecure. It explores the impact of labour market insecurities on health and well-being, social exclusion, trust in people and the perception of fairness, as well as trust in institutions. Policies aimed at reducing labour market instability following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic are also presented.
This policy brief aims to contribute to the effective monitoring and evaluation of the European Child Guarantee. Progress at EU level is measured by a monitoring framework which monitors the key areas of the European Child Guarantee: early childhood education and care; education, including school-based activities and at least one healthy meal each school day; healthcare; healthy nutrition; and adequate housing. The policy brief explores trends and disparities in these areas using a convergence analysis, which tracks any disparities among EU Member States.
This report highlights the prevalence of psychosocial risks across countries, sectors and occupations during the later phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. It outlines the specific working conditions that can lead to work-related health problems. In particular, the report investigates the potential pitfalls related to the expansion of telework, the role of job and income insecurity as a psychosocial risk and the phenomenon of adverse social behaviour and discrimination at work. In addition, it offers policy pointers on tackling the increase in work absenteeism due to mental health problems.
This report – published every two years – covers important developments resulting from legislative reforms in collective bargaining at national or sectoral level in 2021 and 2022. It examines the average weekly working hours set by collective agreements, both across national economies and in five sectors: education, health, transport, retail and public administration.
This policy brief provides facts and figures on the working life and job quality of so-called ‘essential workers’ and is based on data from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) extraordinary edition 2021. It will define various subgroups of essential workers, describe the challenges they face and outline the type of responses provided, or being developed, to address those challenges.
The urban-rural divide in EU countries has grown in recent years, and the depopulation of certain rural areas in favour of cities is a challenge when it comes to promoting economic development and maintaining social cohesion and convergence. Using data from Eurofound and Eurostat, this report will investigate the trends and drivers of the urban-rural divide, in various dimensions: economic and employment opportunities, access to services, living conditions and quality of life.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the professional football sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the professional football sector in the EU Member States.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the construction sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the construction sector in the EU Member States.