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  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    A new collective agreement was concluded in May 1997 for Luxembourg's banking
    sector. In contrast to the previous 1993 agreement, the accord was signed by
    all the main trade unions in the sector.

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    The confederation of Critical Shareholders (Kritische Aktionäre) is an
    alliance of about 35 small shareholders' groups and other non-governmental
    organisations such as environmental, consumer and anti-militaristic groups.
    Currently, the Critical Shareholders are active in about 40 German
    corporations including the most important German banks as well as various
    industrial corporations in the automobile, electronic, chemical and food
    industries. They can call on up to 5% of the votes cast in some of the
    companies.

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    The European Council meeting in Amsterdam on 16 and 17 June 1997 concluded
    the Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) with the agreement of a new draft
    Treaty. The conclusion of the IGC leaves the path open for launching the
    enlargement process, and the timetable for the single currency has equally
    been reaffirmed. Economic stability, growth and employment also featured
    prominently in talks between the governments of the 15 member states.
    Reinforced by the participation of members from the two new left-of-centre
    governments of France and the United Kingdom, the European Council agreed to
    give fresh momentum to keeping employment firmly at the top of the European
    Union's agenda.

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    On 4 June, Padraig Flynn, the European Commissioner responsible for social
    affairs, employment and industrial relations, launched a consultation
    document on "information and consultation of workers within the national
    framework" (EU9706132F [1]). The document constitutes the first stage of
    consultation of the European-level social partners under the Maastricht
    social policy Agreement procedure, and could thus lead to a European-level
    agreement and/or Community legislation. If the Commission's proposals bear
    fruit, there would be minimum standards across Europe to ensure that workers
    enjoy rights to be informed and consulted. These rights would apply to all
    workers in enterprises above a certain size (50 employees has been suggested
    as a possible threshold). The new measure would reinforce existing
    requirements on national information and consultation over transfers of
    undertakings, collective redundancies and health and safety issues.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/working-conditions-undefined/european-social-partners-discuss-the-social-impact-of-restructuring

  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    The debate on reforming the law to permit trade unions in the PSP - in
    relation specifically to policemen and women - broke out again in Portugal at
    the end of 1996, and has been continuing ever since. The debate, fully
    covered in the media and commented on by the main political parties,
    culminated on 21 April 1997 with a meeting of PSP members, many of whom wore
    their uniforms. The meeting turned into a public demonstration at the
    Ministry of the Interior- the Ministry in charge of that particular police
    force - with harsh words being shouted at the Minister.

  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    Tourism is one of Austria's major industries, contributing an estimated 10%
    of the GDP. There are about 70,000 businesses with a turnover that has
    recently stabilised at about ATS 180,000 million. Employment is about 142,000
    on annual average, or roughly 5% of the national total. In the peak season,
    in mid-summer, the industry employs about 160,000 people. Neither employment
    figure includes the employers themselves, who are an important part of the
    workforce in the industry. The median gross income for a complete full-time
    working month of 30 days in 1995 was ATS 15,980, as against ATS 22,600 for
    all industries together. The low incomes correlate with a large share of
    female employees. In 1995, the number of people employed for at least one day
    stood at 221,127. Of these, 134,614 were women, of whom 119,865 were employed
    on a waged basis and only 14,749 on salaries. Such a small share of salaried
    employees, both among men and women is unusual. At the same time, the
    profitability of large parts of the industry is repeatedly cast in doubt by
    commentators.

  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    Under the terms of a new bill, announced in April 1997, employees in the
    Netherlands will be entitled to benefits if they interrupt their careers for
    care or study leave, on condition that the employer hires an unemployed
    person for the same period

  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    On 25 April 1997, the Saxon metalworking employers' association
    (Arbeitgeberverband der Sächsischen Metall- und Elektroindustrie, VSME) and
    the metalworkers' trade union, IG Metall, signed new collective agreements
    for the 87,000 employees in the Saxon metal industry. The agreements include
    a new agreement on wages and salaries, new framework agreements for white-
    and blue-collar workers, and a new agreement to secure employment
    (Beschäftigungssicherungstarifvertrag). The agreements mainly follow the
    pattern of the agreements which have already been agreed in other regions of
    eastern Germany, and conclude the 1997 collective bargaining round in east
    German metalworking.

  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    In what legal experts in Ireland have highlighted as a landmark case on the
    issue of indirect sex discrimination, Ireland's Supreme Court has asserted
    the primacy of EU law over domestic law. Mary Honan, a legal expert with the
    Employment Equality Agency said that the decision also established the
    correct legal framework for establishing unlawful indirect discrimination.

  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    Meeting on 17 April 1997, the Labour and Social Affairs Council of Ministers
    took stock of initiatives by the European Commission and the Council
    Presidency aimed at improving information, consultation and participation
    mechanisms for employees. Padraig Flynn, the commissioner responsible for
    employment, industrial relations and social affairs, highlighted the
    importance of such initiatives in the light of the Renault crisis (EU9703108F
    [1]). He also reported on the current status of the work by the high-level
    expert working group on worker involvement.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-working-conditions/the-renault-case-and-the-future-of-social-europe

Series

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    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

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  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

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  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications