After a decade of their operation in Spain, active employment policies have
led to only limited results in promoting job creation. This feature examines
the variety of policies that have been introduced and the results of relevant
experiments, and looks at social partners' reactions.
A special "holiday jobs line" set up by the young workers' secretariat of the
Dutch Federation of Trade Unions receives complaints every day about
violations of the recently amended law protecting young workers. In 1997, the
Labour Inspectorate is conducting an extensive nation-wide campaign
concerning holiday jobs.
The Socio-Economic Council of Flanders, the consultative body of the Flemish
employer and employee representatives, annually submits an advisory report on
the regional budget to the Flemish authorities. For 1998, according to the
report, there is a "freely disposable" margin of BEF 7.4 billion (out of a
total budget of BEF 570.4 billion). The Council has advised the Flemish
Government to use this budgetary margin as far as possible for job creation.
Budget surpluses in recent years have been used chiefly to reduce debt, but
now there is a call for a policy aimed at halving unemployment in the medium
term. Concrete measures to accomplish this will be worked out in the
tripartite autumn bargaining round, which is intended to result in a Flemish
Employment Act for 1998-9. The Socio-Economic Council has already expressed
the view that Flanders spends too little on training employees and
job-seekers in comparison with, for example, the Netherlands and Germany.
On 1 July 1997 Germany's largest car-tyre manufacturer, Continental AG,
announced the conclusion of a new works agreement  for its tyre production
plant in Hannover-Stöcken. The new works agreement, which affects about
2,700 employees at the Stöcken site, foresees a sharp reduction in labour
costs mainly through:
At the beginning of July 1997, Britain's largest general workers unions, GMB
and TGWU, were calling for members in the construction industry to back
industrial action on up to 50 "prestige" building sites, including the
millennium dome project in London's docklands, Manchester airport and the
The high unemployment rate in Finland was one of the main factors which led
to the current national collective agreement on incomes policy, signed in
September 1995. Both employers and trade unions would like to see a new
centralised agreement on incomes policy to maintain economic stability as the
Finnish Government seeks to reach the inflation target for joining EU
Economic and Monetary Union (EMU).
In May 1998, the General Confederation of Portuguese Workers (Confederação
Geral dos Trabalhadores Portugueses, CGTP) lodged a complaint with the
Ombudsman on a legal question relating to its representation on the country's
trilateral social concertation bodies.
In May 1997, the executive committee of Italy's CGIL trade union
confederation approved a plan to create a single union centre by 2000, a
development welcomed by the CISL confederation. This article reviews the
moves towards trade union unity and their background.
The Chinese company CMIC may continue its controversial demolition of two
blast furnaces on the premises of the Dutch steel concern Hoogovens, after
the Central Office of the Employment Service decided in July 1997 against
suspending its work permit.
In summer 1997, the Norwegian Government put forward a new legislative
proposal regarding opening hours in the retail trade. The Government proposes
to make opening hours dependent on the size of the outlet. If the proposal is
passed, the opening hours for many outlets will be restricted compared with
current practice, while some smaller outlets will be able to extend their
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
In 2022, the European Semester was streamlined to integrate the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) established on 19 February 2021 (Regulation (EU) 2021/241). While facing the geopolitical and economic challenges triggered by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, Member States have been implementing the national Recovery and Resilience Plans (RRPs) for more than one year and around 100 billion euro in RRF funds have already been disbursed.
This report explores the association between skills use and skills strategies and establishment performance, and how other workplace practices, in terms of work organisation, human resources management and employee involvement, can impact on this. It looks at how skills shortages can be addressed, at least in part, by creating an environment in which employees are facilitated and motivated to make better use of the skills they already have. This further supports the business case for a more holistic approach to management.
This paper provides an analytical summary of state of the art academic and policy literature on the impact of climate change and policies to manage transitions to a carbon neutral economy on employment, working conditions, social dialogue and living conditions. It maps the key empirical findings around the impact of climate change and the green transitions on jobs, sectors, regions and countries in Europe, identifying the opportunities and risks that climate change policies bring to European labour markets.
With the expansion of telework and different forms of hybrid work as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important for policymakers to consider both the opportunities and the negative consequences that may result. This report will explore potential scenarios for such work. In doing so, it will identify trends and drivers, and predict how they might interact to create particular outcomes and how they are likely to affect workers and businesses. Policy pointers will outline what could be done to facilitate desirable outcomes and to avoid undesirable ones.
This report explores the drivers of economic and social convergence in Europe, using a selected set of economic and social indicators to examine trends in the performance of individual Member States. It also investigates what role the Economic and Monetary Union plays in convergence, particularly in southern and eastern Member States. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on convergence is analysed and initial conclusions are drawn about the impact of EU recovery packages and their ability to prevent divergence.
As economies emerge from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, labour shortages are becoming increasingly evident. These include shortages exacerbated by the crisis in some sectors and professions where they had been endemic for some time. This report will look at measures implemented at national level to tackle labour shortages in the health, care and information and communications technology sectors, as well as those arising from the twin digital and green transitions.
Adequate, affordable housing has become a matter of great concern, with an alarming number of Europeans with low or lower household incomes unable to access any, especially in capital cities. Housing was a key factor in people’s experience of the COVID-19 pandemic: its quality and level of safety significantly affected how lockdowns and social distancing measures were experienced, with those who had no access to quality housing at higher risk of deteriorating living conditions and well-being.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an extraordinary level of provision of social services across the EU. Healthcare and care providers carried much of the burden and, together with essential services, played a crucial role in getting citizens through the crisis. This report explores how public services adapted to the new reality and what role was played by the digital transformation of services. The aim is to contribute to the documentation and analysis of changes in funding, delivery and use of healthcare and social services during the pandemic.
The urban-rural divide in EU countries has grown in recent years, and the depopulation of certain rural areas in favour of cities is a challenge when it comes to promoting economic development and maintaining social cohesion and convergence. Using data from Eurofound and Eurostat, this report will investigate the trends and drivers of the urban-rural divide, in various dimensions: economic and employment opportunities, access to services, living conditions and quality of life.
Building on previous work by Eurofound, this report will investigate intergenerational dynamics over time. During the 2008 double-dip recession, worrying intergenerational divides appeared in many Member States, and while some of the economic and social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is universal, early data suggests disparities across demographic cohorts. Eurofound will examine how different age groups may have been affected in terms of their health, labour market participation, quality of life and financial needs, both in the short term and in the long term.