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  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    Apprenticeships, together with secondary vocational schools (ninth to 13th
    grade, around 15 to 19 years of age), form the backbone of the Austrian
    skill-formation system. They are a part of the formal educational structure,
    and are usually entered into at the age of 15, after completion of the
    compulsory nine years of schooling. They involve an employment relationship
    plus formal schooling over a period of three or sometimes four years.
    Schooling is for the equivalent of one and a half or two days per week.
    Apprentices graduate through a final examination in which they have to prove
    their theoretical and practical grasp of the occupation concerned. There are
    about 45,000 establishments having certified trainers among their employees.

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    The aim of the ETUC day of action (EU9704120N [1]) was to mobilise pressure
    on the Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) (EU9704117F [2]) and the Amsterdam
    European Council meeting (EU9706133N [3]) for a strong commitment to
    employment creation in the revised European Union (EU) Treaty.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/etuc-organises-european-day-of-action-for-employment
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/progress-of-the-intergovernmental-conference
    [3] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/amsterdam-summit-agrees-new-draft-treaty

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    On 21 May 1997, after five bargaining rounds, the miners' trade union
    Industriegewerkschaft Bergbau und Energie (IGBE), the salaried employees'
    union Deutsche Angestelltengewerkschaft (DAG) and the Unternehmensverband
    Ruhrbergbau (UVR) employers' association for the hard-coal mining industry in
    Northrhine-Westphalia, concluded a pilot agreement which covers roughly
    75,000 employees in the Northrhine-Westphalia hard-coal mining industry. The
    framework for the contents of the agreement was partly set by the "coal
    compromise" of 13 March 1997 (DE9703104F [1]).

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/miners-revolt-ends-in-corporatist-compromise

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    Jarmo Lähteenmäki, the chair of the Finnish Paperworkers' Union- one of the
    most powerful unions in the Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions
    (SAK) - announced after a meeting on 11 June 1997 that the union will not
    enter national negotiations on incomes policy. Instead, "the Paperworkers'
    Union will focus directly on talks with individual unions" - ie, it will
    engage only in direct industry-level negotiations with employers in its
    sector. The union cited special problems in its sector which prevented it
    from participating in comprehensive national incomes policy discussions, such
    as the utilisation of outside labour in factories, the move to shorten
    working hours, the contracting-out of different factory operations, and the
    decision by two of the largest firms in the forestry industry to discontinue
    personnel funds (a form of profit-sharing scheme).

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    The high priority currently given to budget consolidation has been translated
    by the Austrian Government into, among other measures, a need to limit
    increases in civil service costs - currently ATS 215 billion per year - to no
    more than 1.3% annually. The Government is trying to achieve this aim by
    reducing the number of civil service employees, keeping salary increases
    moderate in real terms, and reducing pensions.

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    The eradication of bullying at school has long been an important aim, and
    even though it still occurs, there is a genuine wish to stamp it out.
    However, relatively few people are aware of the seriousness of bullying
    within the workplace. Surveys have been highlighting this point for a long
    time - the table below provides some recent examples - but now at last it
    seems that the social partners are beginning to realise the hidden costs of
    bullying, and attempting to wipe it out.

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    On 3 March 1997, the Hanover regional branch of the metalworkers' trade union
    Industriegewerkschaft Metall (IG Metall) and the management of PPS Personal-,
    Produktions- und Servicegesellschaft mbH, Salzgitter, concluded a company
    agreement on partial retirement - the first such agreement in the
    metalworking industry. Negotiations between IG Metall and the metalworking
    employers' association Gesamtverband der metallindustriellen
    Arbeitgeberverbände (Gesamtmetall), first about industry-wide and later
    about regional collective agreements on partial retirement, reached an
    impasse in June 1997. Although the agreement at PPS was signed in March,
    reliable information has only recently been publicised.

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    The Norwegian labour market parties have, during spring 1997, been commenting
    on the proposed principles for a revision of the Labour Dispute Act. The
    committee which reviewed the Act proposed a strengthening of the
    confederations' position with regard to collective bargaining. Although the
    Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions (LO) and the Confederation of
    Norwegian Business and Industry (NHO) basically support the proposal, there
    is significant opposition to it, particularly from several employee
    organisations.

Series

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications