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  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    After 18 years in the wilderness, being frozen out of influence in the
    corridors of government by Conservative administrations, trade unions have
    been informed that they will be offered places on working groups being formed
    to advise various government departments. The Trades Union Congress (TUC)
    reports a substantially changed mood in Whitehall and Westminster, after
    years of unions being systematically excluded from representing their

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    According to a recent study of 1997 provisions by the Institute for Economics
    and Social Science (Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut, WSI),
    most employees in Germany receive a collectively agreed holiday bonus, though
    there are significant sectoral differences in the amount of the bonus. While
    most employees are due 30 days' paid leave per year, the average annual
    holiday bonus for a blue collar worker in a middle-range income group ranges
    between DEM 200 and DEM 2,587.

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    Since the original introduction of early retirement schemes some 20 years
    ago, the number of employees aged 60-66 taking early retirement has more than
    tripled, from about 40,000 in 1980 to 127,000 in February 1997, equal to more
    than two-thirds of everyone in that age group. In 1976 more than 75% of all
    men remained in the labour force until they were 65; today only 28% stay on
    until they become entitled to a pension at 67. Over the course of the last 20
    years the average age of those taking early retirement has fallen from 63 to
    60. TheMinistry of Finance estimates that there will be 160,000 recipients of
    early retirement benefits by 2005, whereas theDanish Employers' Confederation
    (DA) estimates that this figure will double to some 260,000 people. The wide
    difference of opinion between the government estimates and those of the DA
    accounts for the disagreement as to whether legislation is needed to stem the
    flow of those opting to take early retirement.

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    During the last few months the attention of Italian industrial relations
    practitioners has been drawn by two new kinds of agreement - "gradual
    alignment" agreements and so-called "discount agreements". They are quite
    different, but both deal in a distinct way with the same problem: wage
    flexibility. A deeper analysis of their origins and scope is important, as
    the issue of wage flexibility is one of the most prominent in the debate on
    the reform of Italian industrial relations, and is put forward with
    increasing emphasis by employers' organisations, also with reference to the
    forthcoming revision of the tripartite agreement of July 1993, which is due
    to start at the end of June 1997.

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    Entrusted with facilitating partnership between employers, employees and
    unions, a National Centre for Partnership was formally established on 15 July
    1997, meeting a government commitment in Ireland's three-year economic and
    social pact, /Partnership 2000/ (IE9702103F [1]).The Centre's activities will
    be directed towards facilitating trust and partnership between employers,
    employees and unions and, in this regard, it will seek to facilitate
    appropriate agreed local arrangements rather than to prescribe particular
    partnership mechanisms.


  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    Spanish trade unions and employers' organisations recently agreed on a major
    labour market reform. The three objectives of the "April agreements" of 1997
    are to reduce the instability of the labour market, to promote collective
    bargaining, and to plug the gaps in sectoral regulation that were left
    following the final repeal of the Labour Ordinances.

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    The demonstration for jobs originally organised by the European Trade Union
    Confederation for 28 May 1997, actually took place in France on 10 June, due
    to the timing of the general election.

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    Over the last 10 or so years, the Dutch labour market has been characterised
    by increasing flexibility and fragmentation. There is greater variety and
    flexibility with respect to working time, pay, job descriptions, the location
    of work and the term and type of employment contracts. Part-time work has,
    for example, become very popular in the Netherlands. More than one in every
    three Dutch employees (mainly women) has a part-time job, in contrast to an
    average of one in seven for the EU as a whole. There are also various types
    of contract flexibility, such as temporary work, freelance work, on-call
    employment, homeworking and teleworking. Whilst the percentage of flexible
    employment contracts stood at 7.9% of the working population in 1987, by 1995
    it had increased to 10% (Arbeidsverkenning 1987/94. CBS (Central Statistics
    Bureau) (1995)). Nowhere else in Europe does temporary work (through private
    temporary employment agencies) flourish as it does in the Netherlands.
    Temporary workers constitute about 3% of the total available labour supply.


  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications