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  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    An April 1997 Government directive regulating the Portuguese fishing sector
    has unleashed major protests by ship-owners and fishing workers, although for
    different reasons. The trade unions are trying both to protect fish stocks
    and to defend living conditions. The central problem is that, as a
    consequence of collective bargaining in the sector, wages and other income
    depend directly on the amount of fish caught. In addition, under an agreement
    between Portugal and Spain signed in 1985, the Spanish fleet can still fish
    without restrictions in Portuguese waters.

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    Between 12 May and 16 May 1997, transport trade unions throughout Europe
    organised boycotts, strikes and demonstrations during the European week of
    action against substandard and flag of convenience (FOC) shipping.
    Coordinated by the London based International Transport Workers' Federation
    (ITF), the action took place against owners of flag of convenience ships in
    17 European countries. Suspect ships were tracked from port to port across
    the continent. The demand from the ITF was to force shipowners to recognise
    unions and to sign up for collective agreements which provide for minimum pay
    of USD 1,100 per month, inclusive of 120 hours overtime and five days'
    holidays. The ITF intends to enforce international minimum standards of
    employment on those shipowners who choose to operate their vessels under
    FOCs. The move followed a first week of action in June 1996 which saw 22
    separate boycott actions, involving seafarers and dockers, and resulted in
    some 43 collective bargaining agreements being signed. In the second week of
    action ITF-affiliated trade union inspectors were checking to see that
    agreements were being adhered to, as well as inspecting ships where no
    approved agreements exist.

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    Following failure to agree in their current round of negotiations, about 400
    journalists belonging to the Belgian Union of Professional Journalists
    (Algemene Vereniging van Belgische Beroepsjournalisten, AVBB) carried out a
    protest on Thursday 5 June 1997 in Brussels. The former collective agreement
    had expired in March and negotiations between the journalists and the Belgian
    Union of Newspaper Publishers (Belgische Vereniging van Dagbladuitgevers) had
    not led to any new agreement.

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    SAK and TT announced the renewal of their basic agreement on 6 June 1997. The
    new agreement permits SAK and TT's member organisations at industry level to
    agree on certain issues outside the auspices of the national agreement. The
    agreement also states that agreements on subcontracting and hired labour will
    include a clause whereby subcontractors or the company responsible for
    subcontracting commit themselves to complying with the relevant collective
    agreement as well as labour and social legislation. Furthermore, the new
    basic agreement includes a section on the notification of political strikes
    and sympathy strikes. The period of notification is four days.

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    A reform of Portugal's Statute on Teaching Careers is currently under
    negotiation in a context that has favoured strengthening the power of the
    teaching trade unions, given that education is one of the Government's
    priorities. This feature highlights the strategy employed by the teaching
    unions to assume greater control over their profession in terms of autonomy,
    social mobility and control of their labour market.

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    Apprenticeships, together with secondary vocational schools (ninth to 13th
    grade, around 15 to 19 years of age), form the backbone of the Austrian
    skill-formation system. They are a part of the formal educational structure,
    and are usually entered into at the age of 15, after completion of the
    compulsory nine years of schooling. They involve an employment relationship
    plus formal schooling over a period of three or sometimes four years.
    Schooling is for the equivalent of one and a half or two days per week.
    Apprentices graduate through a final examination in which they have to prove
    their theoretical and practical grasp of the occupation concerned. There are
    about 45,000 establishments having certified trainers among their employees.

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    On 21 May 1997, after five bargaining rounds, the miners' trade union
    Industriegewerkschaft Bergbau und Energie (IGBE), the salaried employees'
    union Deutsche Angestelltengewerkschaft (DAG) and the Unternehmensverband
    Ruhrbergbau (UVR) employers' association for the hard-coal mining industry in
    Northrhine-Westphalia, concluded a pilot agreement which covers roughly
    75,000 employees in the Northrhine-Westphalia hard-coal mining industry. The
    framework for the contents of the agreement was partly set by the "coal
    compromise" of 13 March 1997 (DE9703104F [1]).

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/miners-revolt-ends-in-corporatist-compromise

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    The aim of the ETUC day of action (EU9704120N [1]) was to mobilise pressure
    on the Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) (EU9704117F [2]) and the Amsterdam
    European Council meeting (EU9706133N [3]) for a strong commitment to
    employment creation in the revised European Union (EU) Treaty.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/etuc-organises-european-day-of-action-for-employment
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/progress-of-the-intergovernmental-conference
    [3] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/amsterdam-summit-agrees-new-draft-treaty

Series

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

  • European Jobs Monitor

    This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2016

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2015

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 1996

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2001

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2000

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Company Survey 2004

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

Forthcoming publications

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