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  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    The 1997 collective bargaining round for the 1.3 million employees in the
    German construction industry started on 27 February. In contrast to most
    branch-level bargaining, which takes place at regional level, negotiations in
    the construction industry are traditionally held at national level. The
    collective bargaining parties - the construction union IG Bauen-Agrar-Umwelt
    (IG BAU) and the two employers' associations, Hauptverband der Deutschen
    Bauindustrie (HDB) and Zentralverband des Deutschen Baugewerbes (ZDB) - had
    to find new agreements on at least four main issues:

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    The renewal of the Spanish system of occupational classification is marked by
    the change from the old system of "Labour Ordinances", which were established
    by law, to a new classification system based on occupational groupings, which
    is the result of collective bargaining. This process has been accelerated by
    the labour reforms of the 1990s: the 1994 reform established a deadline for
    the replacement of the Ordinances, and the 1997 reform established an
    agreement on occupational classification for those sectors in which one had
    not yet been established.

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    The Unemployment Insurance Act (Arbeitslosenversicherungsgesetz, AlVG) makes
    benefit entitlements, but not contributions, dependent on nationality. On 16
    September 1996 the European Court of Human Rights found this inequality to be
    in violation of human rights, creating the need to amend the law, and on 11
    June 1997 Parliament passed the requisite act.

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    A traditional characteristic of Sweden's trade union movement has been that,
    with rare exceptions, the unions do not compete with each other for members.
    It is true that there is a revolutionary syndicalist union that organises all
    categories of workers, but it is no real competitor to the others. So if a
    worker wants to join a union, it has often been more or less self-evident
    which organisation he or she should belong to. For example a blue-collar
    worker in the paper industry would apply for membership of thePaper Workers'
    Union, a non-graduate white-collar worker in the same enterprise would join
    the Union for Clerical and Technical Employees in Industry (SIF) while the
    company's graduate engineers would belong to the Association of Graduate
    Engineers (CF). The employer is thus bound by different collective agreements
    for different categories of employees.

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    The European framework agreement on part-time work was formally signed on 6
    June 1997 (EU9706131F [1]) by the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC),
    the Union of Industrial and Employers' Confederations of Europe (UNICE) and
    the European Centre of Enterprises with Public Participation and of
    Enterprises of General Economic Interest (CEEP). The stated purpose of the
    agreement is to remove discrimination against part time workers, improve the
    quality of part-time jobs and facilitate part-time work on a voluntary basis.
    The European Commission will propose a Directive implementing the agreement
    to the Council of Ministers later this year.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/social-partners-reach-framework-agreement-on-part-time-work

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    On 6 June 1997, the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), the Union of
    Industrial and Employers' Confederations of Europe (UNICE) and the European
    Centre of Enterprises with Public Participation and of Enterprises of General
    Economic Interest (CEEP) formally signed a European framework agreement on
    part-time work, in the presence of social affairs Commissioner Padraig Flynn,
    Dutch Prime Minister Wim Kok and Dutch Social Affairs Minister Ad Melkert.
    The agreement seeks to establish a general framework for the elimination of
    discrimination against part-time workers, and hopes to contribute towards the
    development of opportunities for part-time working on a basis which is
    acceptable to employers and workers alike. The agreement is the result of
    nine months of intense negotiation, during which success did not always
    appear likely.

  • Article
    27 Juuni 1997

    On 3 June 1997, after three months of negotiations, the chemical workers'
    union, IG Chemie, and the sectoral employers' association,
    Bundesarbeitgeberverband Chemie (BAVC), agreed on the introduction of a new
    "opening clause" in the national pay framework agreement
    (Bundesentgelttarifvertrag) which covers about 590,000 workers in the west
    German chemicals industry. The opening clause provides for the introduction
    of a "wage corridor" which, under certain circumstances, allows companies to
    reduce the collectively agreed wage by up to 10% for a limited period of
    time.

Series

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

  • European Jobs Monitor

    This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2016

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2015

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 1996

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2001

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2000

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Company Survey 2004

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2009

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2013

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.

Forthcoming publications