Following the publication of statistics indicating a sharp rise in
unemployment in Greece, and government analyses of the connection between
unemployment and the increased presence of immigrants, the GSEE trade union
confederation has reiterated its positions on addressing rising unemployment
and on dealing with economic immigrants.
In July 1999, after long-running protest actions, three trade unions - UGT,
CC.OO and UTS - reached agreement with Telefónica, the Spanish
telecommunications provider. The unions have agreed a redundancy procedure
affecting 10,800 workers and a new collective agreement that guarantees the
employment and working conditions of the rest of the employees.
The Confederation of Vocational Unions (Yrkesorganisasjonenes Sentralforbund,
YS) held its eighth national conference  on 15-16 June 1999. The YS chair,
Randi Bjørgen was re-elected for a second period, and at the top of the
agenda was the proposed creation of a new trade union confederation with the
Confederation of Academic and Professional Associations (Akademikernes
Fellesorganisasjon, AF). In her opening speech, Ms Bjørgen also announced
willingness for closer cooperation with the Norwegian Confederation of Trade
Unions (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge, LO). The Confederation of Norwegian
Business and Industry (Næringslivets Hovedorganisasjon, NHO) was heavily
criticised for allegedly undermining the legitimacy of the national system of
/It seems inevitable that increasing economic integration and competition
within Europe will have some influence on national collective bargaining. The
aim of this comparative study is to provide an assessment, as of summer 1999,
of the extent to which the processes and outcomes of bargaining in the 15
Member States of the EU, plus Norway, are developing a cross-border, European
dimension. The study outlines the diverse processes, both implicit and
explicit, which can be said to be leading towards a "Europeanisation" of
collective bargaining. Developments across the 16 countries concerned are
examined at intersectoral, sectoral and enterprise levels, with a special
focus on metalworking and financial services, and the views of the social
partners are summarised./
An analysis of labour disputes in 1998, published by the Office for National
Statistics in the June 1999 issue of /Labour Market Trends/, showed that
strike activity remains at its lowest level since records began in 1891. The
number of recorded disputes was the smallest ever and the number of workers
involved the fewest for 70 years, while the number of days not worked because
of industrial action was lower than in every previous year except 1997.
Stoppages in summer 1998 on the railways and the London Underground
(UK9806132N ) accounted for much of the latter figure.
Under a national health service reform approved in June 1999, the role and
work of Italian doctors is set to change. "Meritocracy" and training will
become the key factors in career advancement, while a single job grade for
senior doctors will be introduced, and doctors must choose whether or not to
work exclusively in the public sector.
In a ruling issued on 8 June 1999, the Supreme Court (Højesteret) rejected
the argument that it should be illegal for trade unions and employers'
organisations to conclude closed-shop agreements. Under such agreements, in
order to be able to work at a certain workplace, an employee has to be a
member of the trade union with which the employer has concluded the
closed-shop agreement. The ruling came in case against the Danish Cooperative
Society (Foreningen af Danske Brugser, FDB), brought by Denmark's Free Trade
Union (Danmarks Frie Fagforening, DFF) on grounds of alleged violation of the
Council of Europe's Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and
Fundamental Freedoms by operating a closed-shop agreement. In its ruling, the
Supreme Court clearly rejected the idea that such a violation had occurred.
In July 1999, the Federal Statistical Office (Statistisches Bundesamt)
published new figures on the development of annual incomes in the
manufacturing sector. According to the statistics, a full-time employee in
manufacturing earned an average of DEM 68,646 in 1998, including collectively
agreed annual income as well as other annual bonuses (Christmas bonus,
holiday bonus, annual profit-sharing payments etc). In comparison with the
previous year, average income increased by about 2.6% in 1998.
Since the UK introduced its National Minimum Wage in April 1999 (UK9904196F
), Ireland is the only EU Member State that currently has no provisions
for either a statutory or collectively agreed national minimum wage, or a
system of legally-binding industry-level collective agreements setting
minimum pay rates across almost all sectors of the economy. Not for long,
however: the current Fianna Fail/Progressive Democrat coalition government
has committed itself to introducing a National Minimum Wage (NMW) in April
2000. A rate of IEP 4.40 per hour for full-time adult workers (and IEP 3.08
for those aged under 18) has been proposed, following the publication of a
report by the National Minimum Wage Commission (NMWC) in April 1998
Backdated to 1 January 1999, the minimum income level which people must
attain in order to be entitled to sick pay benefits, has been raised from
approximately NOK 23,000 a year to around NOK 57,000. The implication of the
changes is that the number of employees not entitled to sick pay benefits
from the state - ie benefits beyond the first 16 days covered by the employer
- will increase by approximately 200,000 persons.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
Access to key social services, especially education and healthcare, as well as stable family life and decent housing are necessary for the well-being and development of children. Ensuring that all children have these resources is an EU priority; the European Commission is currently undertaking to recommend a Child Guarantee to address the situations of children in need. Service provision has been complicated by the COVID-19 outbreak, however, and the pandemic has put psychological and material strains on families.
How can working conditions be improved to make work more sustainable over the life course? This question has been the guiding principle for analysis of the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey data during the period of Eurofound’s work programme for 2017–2020. This flagship report brings together the different research strands from this work and gives a comprehensive answer to the question. It includes an analysis of trends in working conditions, examining whether these are the same for all workers or whether inequalities between different groups of workers are increasing.
This report analyses the involvement of the national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, and their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs) and other key policy documents of the European Semester cycle.
This report builds on Eurofound's existing research on social mobility, assessing the distribution and transmission of wealth in Member States. It examines the roles of inheritance and household debt in explaining the transmission of advantage or disadvantage between the generations across Member States. The analysis is based on Eurosystem's Household Finance and Consumption Survey (HFCS).
This report will focus on assessing the employment impact of the COVID-19 crisis, including its effects across sectors and for different categories of workers. It will also be looking at measures implemented to limit negative effects following the Coronavirus outbreak in Europe.
This report examines the contribution of social and employment services in EU Member States to the inclusion of people with disabilities, specifically in relation to the impact these have on labour market integration – in line with the 2006 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The report includes a discussion of the costs and benefits of different approaches.
This report examines people's optimism about the future, for themselves and for others, and the extent to which it varies depending on one's social situation and perceptions of the quality of society. The study includes an analysis of the relationships between people’s perceptions of fairness and objective indicators of their social and economic situation and living standards.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the civil aviation (flight crew) sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
The European Green Deal is at the very top of Member State agendas across the EU. This topical update maps the national discussions – in policy, public and research debates – on the potential, ongoing or already felt impact on work and employment of the transition to a low-carbon economy. It attempts to identify the most active actors involved in these discussions (governments, social partners, NGOs and so on) and their perspectives.
This report will draw from case studies of establishments across the EU that have introduced advanced digital technologies in the workplace. The technologies in focus are the Internet of Things, 3D printing and virtual and augmented reality. Each case study – illustrated in the report - will explore the approach or strategy taken by the establishment to manage the digital transition and the impact of the deployment of the technology on the work organisation and job quality.