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  • Article
    27 Juuli 1999

    Following the publication of statistics indicating a sharp rise in
    unemployment in Greece, and government analyses of the connection between
    unemployment and the increased presence of immigrants, the GSEE trade union
    confederation has reiterated its positions on addressing rising unemployment
    and on dealing with economic immigrants.

  • Article
    27 Juuli 1999

    In July 1999, after long-running protest actions, three trade unions - UGT,
    CC.OO and UTS - reached agreement with Telefónica, the Spanish
    telecommunications provider. The unions have agreed a redundancy procedure
    affecting 10,800 workers and a new collective agreement that guarantees the
    employment and working conditions of the rest of the employees.

  • Article
    27 Juuli 1999

    The Confederation of Vocational Unions (Yrkesorganisasjonenes Sentralforbund,
    YS) held its eighth national conference [1] on 15-16 June 1999. The YS chair,
    Randi Bjørgen was re-elected for a second period, and at the top of the
    agenda was the proposed creation of a new trade union confederation with the
    Confederation of Academic and Professional Associations (Akademikernes
    Fellesorganisasjon, AF). In her opening speech, Ms Bjørgen also announced
    willingness for closer cooperation with the Norwegian Confederation of Trade
    Unions (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge, LO). The Confederation of Norwegian
    Business and Industry (Næringslivets Hovedorganisasjon, NHO) was heavily
    criticised for allegedly undermining the legitimacy of the national system of
    collective bargaining.


  • CAR
    27 Juuli 1999

    /It seems inevitable that increasing economic integration and competition
    within Europe will have some influence on national collective bargaining. The
    aim of this comparative study is to provide an assessment, as of summer 1999,
    of the extent to which the processes and outcomes of bargaining in the 15
    Member States of the EU, plus Norway, are developing a cross-border, European
    dimension. The study outlines the diverse processes, both implicit and
    explicit, which can be said to be leading towards a "Europeanisation" of
    collective bargaining. Developments across the 16 countries concerned are
    examined at intersectoral, sectoral and enterprise levels, with a special
    focus on metalworking and financial services, and the views of the social
    partners are summarised./

  • Article
    27 Juuli 1999

    An analysis of labour disputes in 1998, published by the Office for National
    Statistics in the June 1999 issue of /Labour Market Trends/, showed that
    strike activity remains at its lowest level since records began in 1891. The
    number of recorded disputes was the smallest ever and the number of workers
    involved the fewest for 70 years, while the number of days not worked because
    of industrial action was lower than in every previous year except 1997.
    Stoppages in summer 1998 on the railways and the London Underground
    (UK9806132N [1]) accounted for much of the latter figure.


  • Article
    27 Juuli 1999

    In a ruling issued on 8 June 1999, the Supreme Court (Højesteret) rejected
    the argument that it should be illegal for trade unions and employers'
    organisations to conclude closed-shop agreements. Under such agreements, in
    order to be able to work at a certain workplace, an employee has to be a
    member of the trade union with which the employer has concluded the
    closed-shop agreement. The ruling came in case against the Danish Cooperative
    Society (Foreningen af Danske Brugser, FDB), brought by Denmark's Free Trade
    Union (Danmarks Frie Fagforening, DFF) on grounds of alleged violation of the
    Council of Europe's Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and
    Fundamental Freedoms by operating a closed-shop agreement. In its ruling, the
    Supreme Court clearly rejected the idea that such a violation had occurred.

  • Article
    27 Juuli 1999

    In July 1999, the Federal Statistical Office (Statistisches Bundesamt)
    published new figures on the development of annual incomes in the
    manufacturing sector. According to the statistics, a full-time employee in
    manufacturing earned an average of DEM 68,646 in 1998, including collectively
    agreed annual income as well as other annual bonuses (Christmas bonus,
    holiday bonus, annual profit-sharing payments etc). In comparison with the
    previous year, average income increased by about 2.6% in 1998.

  • Article
    27 Juuli 1999

    Since the UK introduced its National Minimum Wage in April 1999 (UK9904196F
    [1]), Ireland is the only EU Member State that currently has no provisions
    for either a statutory or collectively agreed national minimum wage, or a
    system of legally-binding industry-level collective agreements setting
    minimum pay rates across almost all sectors of the economy. Not for long,
    however: the current Fianna Fail/Progressive Democrat coalition government
    has committed itself to introducing a National Minimum Wage (NMW) in April
    2000. A rate of IEP 4.40 per hour for full-time adult workers (and IEP 3.08
    for those aged under 18) has been proposed, following the publication of a
    report by the National Minimum Wage Commission (NMWC) in April 1998
    (IE9804246F [2]).


  • Article
    27 Juuli 1999

    Backdated to 1 January 1999, the minimum income level which people must
    attain in order to be entitled to sick pay benefits, has been raised from
    approximately NOK 23,000 a year to around NOK 57,000. The implication of the
    changes is that the number of employees not entitled to sick pay benefits
    from the state - ie benefits beyond the first 16 days covered by the employer
    - will increase by approximately 200,000 persons.


  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

Forthcoming publications