In June 1999, an enterprise-level collective agreement for 1999-2000 was
signed by the management of the Public Power Corporation (DEI) and the DEI
General Staff Federation (GENOP-DEI). Among other provisions, the accord
provides for job security in the current reorganisation and deregulation of
the electricity market.
In May 1999, a national conference brought together all those involved in
drawing up collective agreements in Luxembourg, with the aim of examining the
opportunities for implementing the Grand-Duchy's National Action Plan for
employment through bargaining.
In June 1999, the Federation of Finnish Enterprises, representing small and
medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), was given a mandate by four of its
affiliates to participate in national incomes policy negotiations. The
organisation thus aims to achieve the status of a central social partner
organisation with negotiation rights. The existing central organisations are
unsympathetic toward such a move and would like to maintain the status quo
Under the terms of a Royal Decree dated 1 June 1999, the Belgian government
has agreed to make payments backdated to 1 January 1999 to cross-border
workers in compensation for inequalities in their remuneration compared with
other employees. The Decree will be in force initially for three years. Such
compensation payments have already been in existence since 1994 for Belgian
workers employed in the Netherlands, but the system is now being improved.
Wage ceilings have been increased, cross-border workers who started work
after 1993 are now included and part-timers covered on a pro rata basis. For
Belgians working in France, no system had been in operation, and inequalities
have developed gradually over time as a result of the same unfavourable
combination of social contributions and high taxes.
The FNV trade union confederation has successfully persuaded the Dutch
government to revise the new tax system scheduled to take effect in 2001,
which was up for debate in parliament at the end of June 1999. The unions are
concerned about employees who work limited hours in part-time jobs and who,
under the terms of the plan, would not have been eligible for a new annual
tax exemption of NLG 1,500. The government has now extended the concession to
a much larger group.
Several years ago, the Danish government suggested a target of creating
40,000 "flexi-jobs" - subsidised jobs on special terms for people with a
disability, illness or reduced ability to work - before 2005 (DK9704108N
). In mid-1999, it appears that a total of 36,500 people are presently
employed in this way. Figures from the Central Statistical Office (Danmarks
Statistik) that 20,406 people receive disability pensions in addition to
being wage earners employed on special terms of some kind, while private
sector employers employ more than 16,000 people in special sheltered jobs
which are not publicly subsidised. In addition, the number of jobs with
special flexible working hours has doubled in the course of a year.
On 5-6 February 1999, the Mining, Chemical and Energy Union (IG Bergbau
Chemie Energie, IG BCE) held a conference in Hanover, bringing together
around 270 local union members in order to evaluate recent developments in
German collective bargaining. The contributions to the conference, which were
subsequently published by the union, give a broad overview of the experiences
in IG BCE-related sectors (/Allgemeine Arbeitsbedingungen - tarifliche
Bindung oder betriebliche Gestaltung. Protokoll der Fachtagung in Hannover am
5/6 Februar 1999/, IG BCE (ed)).
Temporary employment is increasing significantly in Greece, and now
constitutes the basic form of employment for many workers, according to data
published in June 1999 by the Institute of Labour of the Greek General
Confederation of Labour (INE/GSEE).
In May 1999, the immigrants' department of Luxembourg's OGB-L trade union
confederation has called for the regularisation of the position of foreign
workers in an irregular situation, and for the introduction of a 40-hour
working week in the hotels, catering and cafés sector.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
Closing gender gaps in the labour market by achieving the equal participation of women is among the key objectives of the new Gender Equality Strategy 2020–2025. Despite significant progress in reducing the gender employment gap, it has stagnated over the past few years. Moreover, segregation in employment across sectors and occupations is still pervasive.
The long-term care (LTC) sector employs an increasing share of workers in the EU, with increasing shortages. The LTC workforce is mainly female and a relatively large and increasing proportion is 50 or older. Migrants are often concentrated in certain LTC jobs. This report maps the working conditions, the nature of employment and the role of collective bargaining in the sector. It also discusses policies to make the sector more attractive, combat undeclared work and to improve the situation of a particular vulnerable group of LTC workers: live-in carers.
The EU strives for the upward convergence of its Member States, where their performance improves and gaps between them decrease. Nearly a decade after the Great Recession, the COVID-19 crisis has again put this objective under pressure. This policy brief focuses on convergence in material well-being in Europe. Trends in several indicators largely follow the economic cycle, with upward convergence in good times and downward divergence in bad times.
Social, economic and technological changes are giving rise to new forms of employment. These differ from 'traditional' work either in the relationship between employer and employee or in the unconventional work patterns and places of work that characterise them. While these new forms of employment can contribute to more inclusive labour markets, legalise undeclared work and offer preferential working conditions, some also raise concerns about, for example, job quality and representation. This report updates Eurofound's 2015 mapping of emerging trends.
New digital technologies have expanded the possibilities of employee monitoring and surveillance, both in and outside the workplace. In the context of the increasing digitalisation of work, there are many issues related to employee monitoring that warrant the attention of policymakers. There are the often-cited privacy and ethical concerns but also important implications for worker–employer relations, as digitally enabled monitoring and surveillance inevitably shift power dynamics in the workplace.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the local and regional administration sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
This flagship report consolidates findings in the industrial relations field from research conducted by Eurofound over the course of its multiannual work programme for 2017–2020. It considers the strengths and weaknesses of European social dialogue, including the linkages with national social dialogue and the capacity constraints of the actors. A national comparative analysis draws on projects that have mapped the key features of national industrial relations systems.
How can working conditions be improved to make work more sustainable over the life course? This question has been the guiding principle for analysis of the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey data during the period of Eurofound’s work programme for 2017–2020. This flagship report brings together the different research strands from this work and gives a comprehensive answer to the question. It includes an analysis of trends in working conditions, examining whether these are the same for all workers or whether inequalities between different groups of workers are increasing.
This report builds on Eurofound's existing research on social mobility, assessing the distribution and transmission of wealth in Member States. It examines the roles of inheritance and household debt in explaining the transmission of advantage or disadvantage between the generations across Member States. The analysis is based on Eurosystem's Household Finance and Consumption Survey (HFCS).
This report analyses the involvement of the national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, and their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs) and other key policy documents of the European Semester cycle.