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  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    On 22 May 1997, a new employment alliance for eastern Germany was concluded
    between the German Federal Government, the German Trade Union Federation
    (DGB), the German Salaried Employees' Union (DAG), the Confederation of
    German Employers' Associations (BDA), the Confederation of German Industries
    (BDI), the German Association of Chambers of Commerce (DIHT), the Central
    Association of German Crafts (ZDH) and the Associations of the Credit
    Institutions (Kreditgewerbe). Its primary objectives are to: speed up the
    transformation process of the eastern German economy; boost growth; reduce
    unit labour costs; stabilise employment in 1997 at the level of 1996; and
    create 100,000 new jobs in each of the following years.

  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    On 13 January 1997, an agreement was signed on the introduction of new shop
    opening hours. Since 1990 shops have been allowed to open on a 24-hours a day
    basis in the wake of legislation to deregulate shop opening hours (article
    42, Law 1892/1990) in line with the then Conservative Government's policies
    on liberalisation. In late 1996, a number of businesses - members of the
    employers' organisation, SELPE- proceeded to introduce later working hours on
    Saturdays in Athens and its outer suburbs. In parallel, they took joint
    action with other bodies (including the Athens municipal authority and the
    Chamber of Commerce and Industry) to try to introduce Sunday shop opening. In
    response, the unions announced that they would fight this initiative and that
    they would demand amendments to Law 1892/1990.

  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    A two-year collective agreement was approved by the 225,000 employees in the
    government sector (DK9702103N [1]) and the 662,000 employees in the county
    and municipal bargaining area, offering a 4.25% pay increase, wage adjustment
    schemes, and improved pension and maternity leave provisions. However the
    1997 collective bargaining rounds represented more than adjustments of pay,
    pensions and maternity leave; it was, as the Minister of Finance, Mogens
    Lykketoft said, "a peaceful wage revolution", introducing a more flexible and
    decentralised salary-scale system.


  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    One of Ireland's smallest banks, the Ulster Bank, is seeking to replace its
    incremental-based pay system with a new performance-related reward scheme for
    most of its 1,000 staff in the Republic of Ireland. The bank's proposals have
    been resisted by members of the banking union, the Irish Bank Officials
    Association (IBOA). They have, however, been accepted by its staff in
    Northern Ireland who are part of the British industrial relations system.

  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    Total Quality Management (TQM) has been a leading development of the 1990s in
    Britain. Surveys find that almost three-quarters of organisations claim to
    have formal quality programmes, which are believed to work by increasing
    employees' interest in their jobs and their understanding of how their work
    contributes to organisational goals. Many of these programmes have been
    introduced in the past five years. Definitions of TQM vary but its core
    comprises: a focus on the customer; the improvement and inter-linking of
    business processes; and continuous improvement ("Making quality critical", A
    Wilkinson and H Willmott, eds, London, Routledge, 1995.).

  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    On 7 May, the Dutch Government withdrew a bill that would have allowed
    employers exemptions from paying the statutory national minimum wage [1]
    (NL9702103F [2]). Discussions in Parliament had arrived at a political


  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    In November 1996, the brewing group Interbrew, the still-expanding leader in
    the market, announced the ending of bottling activities at its Belle Vue
    Brewery in Molenbeek, an industrial district of Brussels. It meant the loss
    of 103 jobs out of 167 in the company's bottling section. Since then,
    management had been negotiating a company plan with the unions to avoid
    redundancies, and an original solution was eventually found and approved in a
    company referendum on 18 April 1997. This solution is based on the terms of a
    legislative measure that had been ratified on 13 March 1997, called the
    Vandelanotte order after the Flemish Socialist minister: it allows companies
    facing difficulties or restructuring to preserve jobs through a reduction of
    working time linked to the reduction of social security contributions over
    two years.

  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    On 28 April 1997, the German Public Services, Transport and Traffic Union
    (Gewerkschaft Öffentliche Dienste, Transport und Verkehr, ÖTV) and the
    German White-Collar Workers' Union (Deutsche Angestellten-Gewerkschaft, DAG)
    announced the foundation of a new joint subsidiary union for the employees of
    international and European organisations which are located in Germany.
    Through the newly established "International Public Servants Organisation"
    (IPSO), both unions want to create an effective interest representation for
    the employees working in organisations like the European Monetary Institute
    in Frankfurt or the European Patent Office in Munich. The foundation of IPSO
    should also avoid competition between ÖTV and DAG in the recruitment of
    members in international and European organisations, and should lead to a
    closer cooperation between the unions. The latter is particularly important
    because of the fact that the DAG is the only significant German trade union
    which is not a member of the German Federation of Trade Unions (Deutscher
    Gewerkschaftsbund, DGB).

  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    In Greece, temporary work, especially in the form of fixed-term contracts,
    constitutes a policy widespread amongst enterprises in both private and
    public sectors. Although the phenomenon of temporary work has decreased
    considerably in comparison with the early 1990s, when its incidence was twice
    that of the EU average (18% and 9% respectively), it is still quite high
    (10.5% and 11% respectively). A factor contributing to this decrease was the
    decision of the Government in the course of 1990 to dismiss 50,000 temporary
    public employees as part of its attempt to rationalise the functioning of the
    public sector.


  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications