Organizing on-demand: Representation, voice, and collective bargaining in the gig economy

This paper examines challenges to freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining for workers in the gig economy, and explores the broad range of strategies that gig-economy workers are using to build collective agency, and to promote effective regulation of gig work. The paper presents an overview of gig and platform work and the structural and institutional challenges that gig- and platform-based workers encounter in building collective, group agency. This is followed by a review of gig-worker organising strategies, such as union renewal strategies and new organising initiatives, worker forums, worker centres and cooperatives. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the barriers that self-employed platform workers face to effectively achieve collective bargaining and efforts to achieve effective representation and collective bargaining for workers in the gig economy.

Johnston, H.; Land-kazlauskas, C. (2018), 'Organising on-demand: Representation, voice and collective bargaining in the gig economy', Conditions of work and employment series No. 94, ILO, Geneva.


  • no specific sector focus
  • Other
  • 2018
  • Research publication
  • employment status, representation, industrial relations, social dialogue
  • English
  • ILO (International Labour Organisation) (Research institute)
  • Qualitative research
  • Open access
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