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  • Article
    27 toukokuu 1997

    The high-level expert group on worker involvement was established in 1996
    with the aim of developing solutions to break the 25-year deadlock on
    European Commission proposals containing clauses on worker involvement, and
    in particular, the European Company Statute (ECS). The Commission has
    repeatedly stressed the importance of such a statute, enabling the
    incorporation of companies at EU level, in order to improve the
    competitiveness of European companies. Such proposals have long remained
    blocked in the Council of Ministers, largely because of concerns from
    countries with advanced employee participation systems which fear that the
    ECS could be used by companies to circumvent national legislation in this
    area. Similarly, a solution would have to avoid imposing foreign models of
    employee representation upon member states where there is currently no
    provision for the appointment of worker representatives to the boards of
    companies.

  • Article
    27 toukokuu 1997

    The majority of pilots' trade unions represented in the Air France group took
    part in a relatively successful strike from 20-23 May 1997, protesting at the
    setting up of a two-tier salary system.

  • Article
    27 toukokuu 1997

    During the fourth bargaining round for its 90,000 employees, the German car
    producer Volkswagen AG announced the creation of several hundred new jobs.
    According to an agreement between management and the IG Metall trade union,
    the newly hired employees will be employed exclusively on a temporary basis
    and will de facto be remunerated below the level of the company agreements.
    Although being hired on the terms of the current company agreements, the
    newly hired employees will not be eligible for the compensatory extra pay
    component which was agreed when Volkswagen established the four-day working
    week in 1994, and thus they will be paid 10% less than core employees.
    According to the agreement, details will be fixed by the social partners at
    establishment level. During the negotiations, the IG Metall rejected
    Volkswagen's plans to pay the newly hired employees according to the
    branch-level metalworking agreement. The compensation of the new temporary
    staff will still be around 10% higher than the pay other employees receive on
    the basis of the current branch-level metalworking agreement.

  • Article
    27 toukokuu 1997

    On 21 April 1997, trade unions, employers' associations and the Government of
    Andalucia signed an /Agreement on employment policy and economic development
    for Andalucia/. This is the third tripartite agreement to be reached in this
    region. It covers a period of two years (1997-8) and involves an investment
    of about ESP 200 billion .

  • Article
    27 toukokuu 1997

    On 7 May 1997 the Labour Court gave its judgment in a case that has attracted
    much attention. It concerned three ambulance drivers, two men and one woman,
    who had been dismissed on the grounds of disloyalty to their employer, a
    private company that runs the ambulance service in parts of southern
    Stockholm on contract.

  • Article
    27 toukokuu 1997

    In its recently published opinion on the conclusion of the Intergovernmental
    Conference (IGC), the Union of Industrial and Employers' Confederations of
    Europe (UNICE) underlines the need for the negotiating parties to "place a
    strengthening of Europe's competitiveness at the heart of the (new) Treaty,
    since promotion of competitiveness is the sine qua non to increase
    employment". The promotion of employment can, according to UNICE, never be
    treated in isolation. While European employers have repeatedly pronounced
    themselves in favour of the Essen employment strategy, they are keen to
    underline that responsibility for employment policy must continue to lie
    primarily with the member states.

  • Article
    27 huhtikuu 1997

    On 1 April 1997, the whole air transport sector, including cabotage(domestic
    flights within other member states), was officially opened to EC-wide
    competition. Cabotageno longer has to be the continuation of a flight
    originating outside a particular country. So nothing now remains of Air
    Inter's monopoly in France, which had already been severely challenged by the
    European Commission in 1994, following a complaint from TAT, now one of
    British Airways' French subsidiaries.

  • Article
    27 huhtikuu 1997

    Based on the so-called Dual System (of Vocational Training) [1] (Duales
    System), practical vocational training [2] in Germany is given at work in the
    participating employer's establishment, backed up by statutory theoretical
    training and general education provided in vocational training school [3] s.
    The characteristic feature of the system is that the provision of knowledge
    and skills is linked to the acquisition of the required job experience.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/efemiredictionary/dual-system-of-vocational-training-0
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/efemiredictionary/vocational-training-2
    [3] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/efemiredictionary/vocational-training-school

  • Article
    27 huhtikuu 1997

    With 270,000 persons either on early retirement, unemployed or otherwise
    excluded from the labour market, theSocial Democrat-led Government is anxious
    to involve the social partners in producing workable alternatives for job
    creation for these groups of workers, rather than simply paying lip-service
    to the idea. In the 1995 collective bargaining round, the social partners
    were invited to elaborate on social clauses in their collective agreements.
    Accordingly, 90% of the bargaining units in the are covered by the LO trade
    union confederation and DA employers' confederation agreed on what have
    become known as "Social Chapters", which contain framework provisions on job
    creation on special terms of employment - ie, content of work, working hours
    and pay - to be negotiated and elaborated upon at local and company level.
    Similarly, the bargaining parties in government employment agreed on Social
    Chapters in their 1995 collective agreements. Employees in local government
    at regional and municipal level were also covered by a framework agreement
    negotiated in May 1996.

  • Article
    27 huhtikuu 1997

    After three months' bargaining, the annual revision of the national
    collective agreement covering banks and other credit institutions was
    concluded in April 1997. It is the first collective agreement in Portugal to
    grant five weeks' paid holidays, and also increases pay and improves
    maternity and paternity provisions

Series

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

  • European Jobs Monitor

    This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2016

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2015

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 1996

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2001

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2000

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Company Survey 2004

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2009

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2013

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.

Forthcoming publications