Under a novel provision in the Finance Bill, 1997 which gives effect to this
year's Budget, employees are now entitled to tax relief on individual
lump-sum payments paid in the context of company restructuring. The payments
can be made by companies to their employees for agreeing to pay
restructuring, which must involve overall pay reductions of at last 10% of an
employee's average salary for the previous two years and must remain in force
for at least five years. While it is possible that basic pay could be hit by
the measure, the sort of payroll reductions envisaged are more likely to
effect non-basic pay items such as overtime, bonus payments and shift
In the Netherlands, there has been a long struggle over how responsibilities
for administering social security should be divided between social partners
and the government. The Dutch social security administration has been
reorganised - most recently from March 1997 - under pressure of criticism
about organisations in which the social partners play a dominant role.
Financing the social security system has become a structural problem in the
relations between the Government and the social partners. This has become
especially manifest in conflicts concerning the level at which social
security contributions should be set.
The incidence of collective bargaining across a variety of sectors in
Portugal has tended slightly to decrease in the first quarter of 1997.
However, at the same time, the number of strikes has been increasing - often
to enforce reductions in working time
In France, regulation of the working week is based on a piece of legislation
passed in 1936, which laid down a work schedule spread over five days.
Decrees on the application of this law made special provision, in each
sector, for the way in which these hours would be organised. The one
concerning banking dates from 1937.
According to the report /Reported industrial injuries in the building and
construction sector, 1993-1995/, from the Labour Inspectorate, the sector
experienced a 22% increase in industrial accidents over the course of
1993-1995. The general increase in industrial accidents in the period was
11%. Whereas approximately 5% of the workforce are employed in the building
and construction sector, this sector reported 8% of all industrial accidents.
Every month one fatal and 50 serious accidents occur in the sector, and 84
fatal accidents took place at all Danish workplaces in 1995. The increased
number of accidents in the building and construction sector, according to the
Labour Inspectorate, can largely be explained by the sector's 9% job-growth
and the improved reporting of industrial accidents.
In the wake of Renault's announcement of the closure of its plant at
Vilvoorde (EU9703108F ) European trade unions, the European Commission and
the European Parliament have called for tougher measures to protect the
interests of employees in the event of large-scale redundancies, business
transfers and relocation. In an address to the European Parliament (EP) in
March, Padraig Flynn, the commissioner responsible for industrial relations,
employment and social affairs, reminded member state governments that they
had rejected such tougher measures in 1992. While he argued that existing
legislation covered the situation at Renault, there had to be a serious
question mark over the deterrent effect of the level of sanctions currently
available. He told MEP s that he would "propose to the Commission that we
proceed in the coming weeks with the first stage of consultations with the
social partners at European level on this issue and I sincerely hope that we
are able, through this action, the strengthen the protection of workers"
(reported in RAPID, 11 March). He also pronounced himself in favour of the
institution of general rules to complement existing measures, aimed at making
information and consultation compulsory at member state level.
The Belgian Defence Minister, Jean-Pol Poncelet, has announced measures that
will prompt far-reaching changes in the personnel structure of the Belgian
armed forces, covering the army, navy and airforce. The policy directly or
indirectly affects about 40,000 military personnel. Mr Poncelet's plans are
innovative and rather unusual for the armed forces, which are not normally
known for their swift changes in organisational structure and personnel
management. The Minister feels, however, that the armed forces should not be
exempt from moves towards greater flexibility, currently a prominent theme in
labour negotiations in Belgium. Moreover, changes in the armed forces can
serve as an example for other sectors of the Belgian economy.
Taking into account significant changes in the international environment and
their impact on the Greek economy, the Government in March 1997 announced
that it would invite the social partners to a process of social dialogue on a
set of three themes: development, competitiveness and employment. The first
meeting is scheduled to take place towards the end of May. Participants in
the dialogue include representatives of Ministries, employer and employee
organisations from both the private and the public sectors and the Chambers
of Commerce, amongst others.
The /Seymour-Smith/ case has raised the issue of the legality of the two-year
qualifying period of employment before employees may bring a claim for unfair
dismissal. The /Observer/ in April reported that many employees are having
their employment contracts terminated only days before completing the
two-year period which is necessary to gain employment protection. At present,
full-time employees must have accumulated two years' continuous service,
while for employees who work between eight and 16 hours per week, the
qualifying period is five years.
Ireland's largest trade union, the Services Industrial Professional and
Technical Union (SIPTU), has a new president after a closer than expected
ballot of its 180,000 members. The tight result - announced in early April
1997 - surprised the union's leadership, given the fact that a left-wing
activist polled almost 42% of the votes cast compared with the 56% who voted
for former vice-president, Jimmy Somers.
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
This report examines people's optimism about the future, for themselves and for others, and the extent to which it varies depending on one's social situation and perceptions of the quality of society. The study includes an analysis of the relationships between people’s perceptions of fairness and objective indicators of their social and economic situation and living standards.
This report examines the labour market changes brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has affected sectors and occupations quite differently. It identifies those labour market categories most exposed to negative labour market outcomes. It analyses how differences in confinement and public health approaches may have contributed to different outcomes. It addresses previous assessments of the extent of occupational ‘teleworkability’ and of the sectoral impact of confinement rules. The report draws on EU Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) data for its analysis.
This report investigates the convergence of Member States in various dimensions of living conditions. Indicators are drawn from the European Quality of Life Surveys and other surveys. The analysis pays special attention to particular subgroups such as young people and women. The analysis also investigates the key drivers of convergence in living conditions.
This report addresses the main developments in statutory and collectively agreed working time regulation in 2019 and 2020. It covers several aspects of the duration of working time in the EU, such as information on maximum numbers of working days and weeks, normal working weeks and paid annual leave across the countries and within selected sectors. The report focuses on the education, health, transport, retail and public administration sectors, and provides accounts of major developments in working time regulation as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Digital technologies have made it possible for many workers to carry out their work anytime and anywhere, with consequent advantages and disadvantages. Disadvantages, for remote workers and teleworkers in particular, include the risk to health and well-being linked to long working hours. To address this issue, there have been calls for the ‘right to disconnect’. This report includes case studies that chart the implementation and impact of the right to disconnect at workplace level.
This policy brief uses the data from the European Company Survey 2019 to examine the workplace practices of export-oriented companies and to analyse how these practices relate to outcomes. It also examines why these companies choose the workplace practices they adopt.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the audiovisual sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the audiovisual sector in the EU Member States.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the live performance sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the live performance sector in the EU Member States.
This joint publication with the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents the findings from complementary research carried out simultaneously by both agencies on the socioeconomic impacts of climate policies and measures. While Eurofound focuses particularly on the distributional effects of these policies based on the experiences of Member States, the EEA analyses scientific research about the monetary and non-monetary social impacts of climate mitigation policies and its outcome in terms of inequalities.
This report analyses and compares the industrial relations landscape in a number of sectors and activities that form a public service cluster. The report draws on Eurofound’s recent representativeness studies investigating the following sectors: education, human health, central government administration and local and regional government sector (including social services).