The impact of COVID-19 has moved public health up the EU social policy agenda. As the EU directs its efforts towards establishing a European Health Union to guard against future health crises, this policy brief examines the extent to which the EU achieved upward convergence in terms of health and healthcare outcomes, as well as health expenditures and delivery, prior to the pandemic. It also examines convergence patterns in infections and deaths from COVID-19 and in the mitigating measures adopted by the EU and national governments.
Suurimmassa osassa EU:n aluetta epävarmuus tulevaisuudesta on yleistynyt yli vuosikymmenen ajan. Monet uskovat yhteiskunnan taantuvan, mikä lisää yleistä pessimismiä. Ovatko vallanpitäjiä vastustavien puolueiden kasvava suosio ja lisääntyvä pessimismi yhteydessä toisiinsa? Kielteinen mieliala voi huonontaa yksittäisten jäsenvaltioiden poliittista ilmapiiriä ja heikentää Euroopan yhdentymishankkeen legitimiteettiä.
Digitaaliteknologian ansiosta monet työntekijät voivat tehdä työtään milloin tahansa ja missä tahansa. Tällä on sekä etuja että haittoja. Eurofoundin tiedot osoittavat, että etätyöntekijät tekevät kaksi kertaa muita todennäköisemmin töitä enemmän kuin 48 tuntia, lepäävät liian vähän ja tekevät töitä vapaa-aikanaan, millä on haitallisia vaikutuksia heidän fyysiseen terveyteensä ja mielenterveyteensä. Tämän ongelman ratkaisemiseksi on vaadittu ”oikeutta olla tavoittamattomissa”.
The COVID-19 pandemic prompted a surge in telework, with dramatic increases in the number of employees working from home (teleworking) in many European countries. What for many employees started out as a mandatory move seems to have transformed into a preference among the majority for part-time or full-time telework.
Following the declines in employment rates and working hours across Europe in 2020, economies began to show signs of recovery during the first quarter of 2021. The gradual rekindling of economic activity has led to a surge in demand for workers and reawakened concerns over labour shortages. Difficulty filling vacancies was thought to be among the key factors holding back growth, competitiveness and service delivery in a number of sectors prior to the COVID-19 outbreak. Despite a temporary weakening in demand for labour during the pandemic, this was not the case in all sectors, with some seeing pre-existing shortages worsen.
Vaikka työttömyys on edelleen valtava haaste Euroopassa, joissakin maissa ja ammateissa sekä joillakin toimialoilla on työvoimavajeita. Raportissa selitetään erilaisia lähestymistapoja työvoimavajeiden määrittämiseen ja kartoitetaan, minkälaisia poliittisia keskusteluja ongelmasta on käyty kansallisesti. Siinä esitetään julkisia ja työmarkkinaosapuolten toimenpiteitä, joilla työvoimavajeita on korjattu.
Over the last decade, the EU has made slow progress towards gender equality. As achievements in gender equality vary considerably by Member State, it is important to understand the evolution of disparities between the Member States and the implications this has for upward economic and social convergence in the EU. Crucially, the impact of the COVID-19 crisis not only threatens to undo past achievements but may well result in increasing disparities between Member States.
Eurofound welcomed Ivailo Kalfin to his new role as Executive Director on 1 June. After one month in the job, he reflects on the challenges facing the EU, how they will impact on the work of Eurofound and his priorities for shaping the Agency over the next five years.
EU ottaa Euroopan vihreän kehityksen ohjelmalla käyttöön toimintalinjoja ja toimenpiteitä, joiden tarkoituksena on ehkäistä ja lieventää ilmastonmuutoksen vaikutuksia. Päätavoitteena on aloittaa siirtyminen kohti ilmastoneutraalia taloutta. Tällä kipeästi kaivatulla ilmastopolitiikalla voi kuitenkin olla ei-toivottuja henkilöihin ja yrityksiin kohdistuvia jakaumavaikutuksia. Tarkoitettujen vaikutusten lisäksi tietyillä toimenpiteillä, kuten hiiliverolla, voi olla pienituloisille henkilöille myös haitallisia regressiivisiä vaikutuksia, ja tämä vähentää toimenpiteiden hyväksyttävyyttä.
This report describes Eurofound's activities, particularly its research, information and communication programmes and policy achievements, in relation to the objectives set in the Work Programme 2020. It also covers the management and external evaluation control systems, key performance indicators, and financial and HR information.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The urban-rural divide in EU countries has grown in recent years, and the depopulation of certain rural areas in favour of cities is a challenge when it comes to promoting economic development and maintaining social cohesion and convergence. Using data from Eurofound and Eurostat, this report will investigate the trends and drivers of the urban-rural divide, in various dimensions: economic and employment opportunities, access to services, living conditions and quality of life.
Adequate, affordable housing has become a matter of great concern, with an alarming number of Europeans with low or lower household incomes unable to access any, especially in capital cities. Housing was a key factor in people’s experience of the COVID-19 pandemic: its quality and level of safety significantly affected how lockdowns and social distancing measures were experienced, with those who had no access to quality housing at higher risk of deteriorating living conditions and well-being.
The use of artificial intelligence, advanced robotics and the Internet of Things technologies in the workplace can bring about fundamental changes in work organisation and working conditions. This report analyses the ethical and human implications of the use of these technologies at work by drawing on qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders, input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents and Delphi expert surveys, and case studies.