The first overview of minimum wage setting for 2022 shows that, while some negotiations are still ongoing, virtually all EU Member States have increased their nominal statutory rates. Compared to last year, when most countries settled for cautious increases against a background of deep uncertainty caused by the pandemic, growth in statutory rates for 2022 was stronger, reflecting an easing of the situation. This was especially the case in central and eastern European countries, where some increases were in double digits. Nevertheless, inflation is back in the picture and should be monitored in the coming months to get an insight into how the increases in nominal minimum wage rates translate into actual changes in the purchasing power of minimum wage earners.
This programming document describes Eurofound’s planned work over the programming period 2021–2024. It sets out the policy and institutional context for the programme, outlines the multiannual programme for the four-year period and sets out the work programme for 2022. Eurofound’s priorities for 2021–2024 are shaped by the key challenges for social cohesion and just transitions in a changing environment in the aftermath of the COVID-19 crisis. The Agency focuses on issues where it can draw on its core expertise in the areas of working conditions, industrial relations, employment and living conditions, to support its stakeholders, by providing evidence that can assist their policy action.
The European Union Agencies Network on Scientific Advice (EU-ANSA) consists of technical and regulatory agencies that provide scientific advice to EU policymakers. This report demonstrates how EU-ANSA member Agencies are addressing the socioeconomic effects of sustainable development. It is based on two surveys conducted among the member Agencies. The survey results show that the most researched areas include the economy, employment, skills and training, gender inequalities, health and safety, social aspects, the role of regulation and social dialogue.
Ylöspäin tapahtuva lähentyminen on EU:n toiminnan ytimessä. Jäsenvaltiot ja niiden kansalaiset sitoutuvat unioniin, koska odottavat jäsenyytensä johtavan tasapainoiseen taloudelliseen vaurauteen ja sosiaaliseen edistykseen eri maissa. Jäsenvaltioiden välisten erojen lisääntymistä, kuten vuosien 2008–2013 talouskriisin aikana tapahtui, voidaan pitää EU:n lupauksen pettämisenä ja mahdollisena tyytymättömyyden ja hajaannuksen lähteenä. Tämä kertomus päättää vuonna 2017 käynnistetyn Eurofoundin lähentymisen seurantatutkimuksen.
Teknologisen muutoksen nopeus kiihtyy jatkuvasti tiedon tallentamiseen, käsittelyyn ja viestintään käytettävien elektronisten laitteiden kapasiteetin kasvaessa. Digitalisaatio muuttaa EU:n taloutta ja työmarkkinoita: lähes kolmasosa EU:n työpaikoista on luokiteltu voimakkaasti digitalisoituneeksi. Mitkä ovat digitaalisen vallankumouksen vaikutukset työllistämiseen ja työhön? Ja miten se voi vaikuttaa sosiaaliseen dialogiin?
Yksi merkittävimmistä kehityssuuntauksista viimeisen puolen vuosisadan aikana on ollut naisten työmarkkinoille osallistumisen valtava kasvu. Kahteen kolmesta kahden viime vuosikymmenen aikana luodusta uudesta nettotyöpaikasta on palkattu nainen. Samaan aikaan ikääntyvien työntekijöiden työllisyysasteen jyrkkä nousu väestön ikääntymisen ja politiikan muutosten vuoksi on lisännyt vanhempien työntekijöiden osuutta työmarkkinoilla. Tässä raportissa tarkastellaan työvoiman tarjonnan muuttuvien ääriviivojen vaikutuksia Euroopan työllisyysrakenteeseen viimeisen 25 vuoden aikana (1995–2019).
Despite the increasing participation of women in the labour market and a higher share of women than men being hired into well-paid jobs in recent years, a gender pay gap exists across all EU Member States. Pay differentials between women and men have been shown to be significantly influenced by the economic sector where people work and the occupation they hold.
Digital transformation is changing the world of work. This report looks at how social partners – the actors involved in the regulation of employment relationships – are increasingly adopting technological solutions to improve the services that they provide to their members and facilitate collective bargaining processes. Technological tools offer social partners the opportunity to enhance consultation, engage with their members through digitised processes, improve services and increase networking activities, as well as addressing the issue of membership decline.
Tämän raportin tavoitteena on tukea eurooppalaisia yrityksiä covid-19-pandemian haasteissa. Siinä keskitytään työpaikan käytäntöihin ja ominaisuuksiin, jotka ovat auttaneet eri puolilla EU:ta toimivia yrityksiä kehittämään toiminnallista kestävyyttä ja samalla huolehtimaan työntekijöiden ja asiakkaiden turvallisuudesta.
This report analyses and compares the industrial relations landscape in several sectors and activities that form a public service cluster across the 27 EU Member States and the UK – altogether employing over 57 million workers and representing 25% of the total workforce in the economy. It is based on Eurofound’s representativeness studies on the central government administration (CGA), education, human health, local and regional government (LRG), and social services sectors.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an extraordinary level of provision of social services across the EU. Healthcare and care providers carried much of the burden and, together with essential services, played a crucial role in getting citizens through the crisis. This report explores how public services adapted to the new reality and what role was played by the digital transformation of services. The aim is to contribute to the documentation and analysis of changes in funding, delivery and use of healthcare and social services during the pandemic.
The use of artificial intelligence, advanced robotics and the Internet of Things technologies in the workplace can bring about fundamental changes in work organisation and working conditions. This report analyses the ethical and human implications of the use of these technologies at work by drawing on qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders, input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents and Delphi expert surveys, and case studies.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in European sectoral social dialogue taking place at cross-sectoral level. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations at cross-sectoral level in the EU Member States.