Despite the well-known adverse effects of regular long working hours on workers’ health, well-being and performance, many workers in the EU continue to work beyond their normal hours. Part of this additional working time is classified as overtime. This report takes a comparative overview of how overtime is regulated in the EU Member States, Norway and the United Kingdom, including its definition, the limits on its use and the compensation received by workers for working extra hours.
One of the most striking developments of the last half-century has been the huge rise in female labour market participation in advanced economies. More than two out of every three net new jobs created over the last two decades in the EU have been taken up by women, who now account for 46% of the workforce in the EU27. In 2002, the comparable figure was less than 43% and in the early 1990s it was less than 40%. This is a reflection of growing opportunities for women as well as the consolidation of a broader trend towards dual earner households.
This paper provides a context for the questions to be explored within the Foundation Forum 2022. Europe is emerging from the COVID-19 crisis having managed to protect its economy in the face of a major shock and prevent mass unemployment. However, challenges remain. While the Member States up to now appear to have diverged only moderately, at most, on key economic and social indicators, it seems that the pandemic has widened many social inequalities. The mass shift to telework has raised questions over how the world of work will look in the future.
Joitakin ajoittaisia piikkejä lukuun ottamatta työtaistelutoimien määrä on yleisesti vähentynyt EU:n jäsenvaltioissa viime vuosina. Kehitys on jatkunut samansuuntaisena covid-19-pandemian aikana. Merkittävimmät työriidat ovat odotetusti terveydenhuolto- ja sosiaalipalvelualalla, koulutusalalla sekä liikenne- ja logistiikka-alalla. Tässä raportissa analysoidaan Eurofoundin Industrial Action Monitor (IAM) -tietokannan pilottivaiheen aikana vuosina 2018–2019 keräämiä tietoja.
Tämä kertomus antaa kuvan covid-19-kriisin vaikutuksista ikääntyneiden kansalaisten elämänlaatuun sekä ikääntyneiden hyvinvointiin, talouteen, työllisyyteen ja sosiaaliseen osallisuuteen. Siinä käsitellään hoitopalveluiden käyttöön kohdistuvia vaikutuksia ja ikääntyneiden riippuvuutta muista tuen muodoista. Kertomuksessa esitellään politiikkatoimia, joita on otettu käyttöön EU:n jäsenvaltioissa ikääntyneiden tukemisessa kaikkien edellä mainittujen ulottuvuuksien osalta.
The first overview of minimum wage setting for 2022 shows that, while some negotiations are still ongoing, virtually all EU Member States have increased their nominal statutory rates. Compared to last year, when most countries settled for cautious increases against a background of deep uncertainty caused by the pandemic, growth in statutory rates for 2022 was stronger, reflecting an easing of the situation. This was especially the case in central and eastern European countries, where some increases were in double digits. Nevertheless, inflation is back in the picture and should be monitored in the coming months to get an insight into how the increases in nominal minimum wage rates translate into actual changes in the purchasing power of minimum wage earners.
This programming document describes Eurofound’s planned work over the programming period 2021–2024. It sets out the policy and institutional context for the programme, outlines the multiannual programme for the four-year period and sets out the work programme for 2022. Eurofound’s priorities for 2021–2024 are shaped by the key challenges for social cohesion and just transitions in a changing environment in the aftermath of the COVID-19 crisis. The Agency focuses on issues where it can draw on its core expertise in the areas of working conditions, industrial relations, employment and living conditions, to support its stakeholders, by providing evidence that can assist their policy action.
The European Union Agencies Network on Scientific Advice (EU-ANSA) consists of technical and regulatory agencies that provide scientific advice to EU policymakers. This report demonstrates how EU-ANSA member Agencies are addressing the socioeconomic effects of sustainable development. It is based on two surveys conducted among the member Agencies. The survey results show that the most researched areas include the economy, employment, skills and training, gender inequalities, health and safety, social aspects, the role of regulation and social dialogue.
Ylöspäin tapahtuva lähentyminen on EU:n toiminnan ytimessä. Jäsenvaltiot ja niiden kansalaiset sitoutuvat unioniin, koska odottavat jäsenyytensä johtavan tasapainoiseen taloudelliseen vaurauteen ja sosiaaliseen edistykseen eri maissa. Jäsenvaltioiden välisten erojen lisääntymistä, kuten vuosien 2008–2013 talouskriisin aikana tapahtui, voidaan pitää EU:n lupauksen pettämisenä ja mahdollisena tyytymättömyyden ja hajaannuksen lähteenä. Tämä kertomus päättää vuonna 2017 käynnistetyn Eurofoundin lähentymisen seurantatutkimuksen.
Teknologisen muutoksen nopeus kiihtyy jatkuvasti tiedon tallentamiseen, käsittelyyn ja viestintään käytettävien elektronisten laitteiden kapasiteetin kasvaessa. Digitalisaatio muuttaa EU:n taloutta ja työmarkkinoita: lähes kolmasosa EU:n työpaikoista on luokiteltu voimakkaasti digitalisoituneeksi. Mitkä ovat digitaalisen vallankumouksen vaikutukset työllistämiseen ja työhön? Ja miten se voi vaikuttaa sosiaaliseen dialogiin?
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
With the expansion of telework and different forms of hybrid work as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important for policymakers to consider both the opportunities and the negative consequences that may result. This report will explore potential scenarios for such work. In doing so, it will identify trends and drivers, and predict how they might interact to create particular outcomes and how they are likely to affect workers and businesses. Policy pointers will outline what could be done to facilitate desirable outcomes and to avoid undesirable ones.
The urban-rural divide in EU countries has grown in recent years, and the depopulation of certain rural areas in favour of cities is a challenge when it comes to promoting economic development and maintaining social cohesion and convergence. Using data from Eurofound and Eurostat, this report will investigate the trends and drivers of the urban-rural divide, in various dimensions: economic and employment opportunities, access to services, living conditions and quality of life.
Adequate, affordable housing has become a matter of great concern, with an alarming number of Europeans with low or lower household incomes unable to access any, especially in capital cities. Housing was a key factor in people’s experience of the COVID-19 pandemic: its quality and level of safety significantly affected how lockdowns and social distancing measures were experienced, with those who had no access to quality housing at higher risk of deteriorating living conditions and well-being.
The use of artificial intelligence, advanced robotics and the Internet of Things technologies in the workplace can bring about fundamental changes in work organisation and working conditions. This report analyses the ethical and human implications of the use of these technologies at work by drawing on qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders, input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents and Delphi expert surveys, and case studies.