Europe faces a winter of uncertainty and potentially discontent. The cost of living is rising rapidly and the spectre of recession looms.
Economic concerns are affecting citizens’ trust in institutions. Research by Eurofound has indicated a decrease in trust in national institutions across the European Union – including in governments, healthcare systems and the police.
Le présent rapport expose les recherches d’Eurofound sur le télétravail pendant la pandémie de COVID-19 en 2020 et 2021. Il examine les changements dans l’incidence du télétravail, les conditions de travail des salariés travaillant à domicile et les modifications de la réglementation portant sur les questions liées à ce régime de travail.
L’enquête «Vivre, travailler et COVID-19», lancée pour la première fois par Eurofound au début de l’année 2020, vise à rendre compte de l’incidence considérable de la pandémie sur le travail et la vie des citoyens de l’Union. Le cinquième cycle de l’enquête d’Eurofound, qui a été mis en œuvre au printemps 2022, met également en lumière une nouvelle réalité incertaine causée par la guerre en Ukraine, une inflation record et une forte hausse du coût de la vie.
Eurofound’s European Restructuring Monitor database reveals the impact of the energy crisis on employment in the EU. Following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, energy prices have hit record highs. The European Commission imposed sanctions and limitations on the import of oil and gas from Russia, which has reacted by reneging on supply commitments to many Member States. Compared to other countries, market disruption has been especially acute in the EU, given the bloc’s overdependence on Russian energy supply.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the electricity sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
Le présent rapport analyse le rôle du dialogue social et de la négociation collective face aux défis rencontrés par le secteur de l’aviation civile au cours de la pandémie de COVID-19. La participation des partenaires sociaux aux mesures introduites pour atténuer les effets négatifs de la pandémie varie selon les pays européens. Le dialogue social et la négociation collective ont joué un rôle de premier plan dans la plupart des pays, mais plus limité dans d’autres.
Le présent rapport analyse le rôle du dialogue social et de la négociation collective pour faire face aux défis créés ou exacerbés par la pandémie de COVID-19 dans le secteur hospitalier. Il examine également si les processus existants de dialogue social et de négociation collective au niveau national ont été adaptés afin de relever ces nouveaux défis.
Ce rapport est réalisé dans le cadre du projet pilote triennal (2021-2023) intitulé «Le rôle du salaire minimum dans la mise en place de la garantie universelle des travailleurs», confié à Eurofound par la Commission européenne. Il porte sur le module 3 du projet, qui examine les salaires minimaux et les autres formes de rémunération pour les travailleurs indépendants.
Les restrictions sévères en matière de santé publique mises en œuvre par les gouvernements en 2020 pour maîtriser la pandémie de COVID-19 ont brutalement modifié la vie professionnelle et ont continué de la façonner au cours des deux années qui ont suivi. Entre mars et novembre 2021, plus de 70 000 entretiens ont été réalisés dans 36 pays dans le cadre de l’enquête européenne sur les conditions de travail (EWCTS), une enquête de haute qualité fondée sur les probabilités.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the Food and drink sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of Eurofound’s studies on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the field of industrial relations in the EU Member States.
The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the chemical sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the chemical sector in the EU Member States.
The focus of this report is on the role that human capital plays in determining inequalities across the EU, as well as within Member States. Using Cedefop’s work in this area, the report provides a comparative analysis of national trends in education and lifelong learning, including differences between educational groups in terms of income, living conditions and health.
The report maps trends in income inequality and examines the situation of the middle classes in the EU during 2020, the year most associated with the COVID-19 lockdowns. It charts developments in the size and composition of middle-class households across countries, identifies those that suffered disproportionately in 2020. Taking a longer lens, the report describes the evolution of income inequalities over the last 15 years, comparing the Great Recession (2007–2009) with the COVID-19 pandemic, and outlines the trends both between and within Member States.
This report explores the implications of the right of all EU citizens to live independently. It investigates the barriers faced by people who wish to live independently, and the situation of people at risk of living in institutional settings. It maps the various measures taken by EU Member States to foster independent living and autonomy. The report also includes policy pointers to support future decision-makers and provides a review of lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic.