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  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    The importance of continuing vocational education is increasingly being
    recognised by policy-makers across the European Union, not only because of
    its positive impact on maintaining the competitiveness of enterprises, but
    also because of its potential contribution to the free movement of labour and
    the improvement of employment prospects. This is particularly important in
    the context of the evolving "information society". The Commission has given
    particular emphasis and resources to continuing training through its
    vocational training programme, LEONARDO, and in declaring 1996 the European
    Year of Lifelong Learning.

  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    Part-time workers have traditionally not been allowed into the same
    occupational pension schemes as full-time workers, but because there are far
    more women than men among part-timers the practice was challenged on the
    grounds of sex discrimination through the European Court of Justice (ECJ). In
    1994, the ECJ ruled in a set of linked cases that the practice did amount to
    sex discrimination. The judgment was not welcomed by the then Conservative
    Government, so the Trades Union Congress (TUC) advised qualifying individuals
    that they should register their cases with industrial tribunals. After a
    number of test cases in the UK tribunals, it was ruled that part-timers who
    had been denied access to occupational pension schemes could not claim
    backdated pension rights any further back that two years prior to the ECJ's
    ruling - that is, 1992. After appeals were turned down, the cases are still
    waiting to be heard by the House of Lords.

  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    Occupational pension schemes are becoming more and more important in Italy
    even though their full implementation is still difficult, both because the
    legal framework has not yet been consolidated, and because their form and
    content must be defined by the social partners through collective bargaining.
    The latter point still remains problematic, as no agreement has yet been
    reached as to whether pension schemes should be developed at national or
    local level. Nevertheless, evidence from recent collective bargaining at
    national and local levels shows that occupational pension scheme issues are
    growing in importance.

  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    Two separate committees - a group of professors appointed by the Government
    and a committee of economists from the Finnish social partners - published
    reports in early May 1997 on the industrial relations implications of EU
    Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) for Finland The social partners themselves
    have adopted a joint declaration on EMU membership.

  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    In elections held in April 1997, a joint list of socialist and communist
    trade unionists narrowly won control of Portugal's South and Islands Banking
    Union (Sindicato dos Bancários do Sul e Ilhas, SBSI), which will continue to
    be affiliated to the General Workers' Union (União Geral de Trabalhadores,

  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    "Negotiate a reduction of working time - or else public opinion will force
    through legislation". That was the message in an article written jointly by
    Prime MinisterGöran Persson and the chair of the Swedish Metal Workers'
    Union, Göran Johnsson, and published in the evening paper /Aftonbladet/ on
    28 April 1997. Considering that one of the authors is the Prime Minister of
    Sweden, it could be seen as a veiled threat to the employers. In the 1997
    bargaining round, several trade unions called for a cut in working hours, and
    the employers consistently rejected them.

  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    The hard core of the strike threat are 10,000 civil servants in internal
    revenue collection and in the customs service. They have two complaints:

  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    The first annual review of the social dialogue process at the European Union
    level was adopted by the Commission on 6 May 1997. The review characterises
    1996 as "a particularly fruitful and productive year" for the social dialogue
    at European level. Despite this overall positive assessment, the review
    highlights the fact that, despite endeavours towards the establishment of a
    dialogue between the social partners, and in some cases, negotiation, this
    represents only the background of a European-scale industrial relations
    systems which is yet to take shape.

  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    The first of the two recently-announced mergers, which is to take effect from
    1 July 1997, is between the National and Provincial Building Society Staff
    Association (NAPSA) and the Banking, Insurance and Finance Union (BIFU). The
    National and Provincial Building Society was recently taken over by the Abbey
    National, but NAPSA members voted to become part of BIFU rather than the
    Abbey National's own staff association. Despite the strong support for BIFU
    from NAPSA members, the company has refused to recognise the union. BIFU said
    that "in the merger and conversion mania which is sweeping this country there
    is little regard for the impact on staff. They are the casualties - that's
    why it is important for unions to work together". BIFU, which has 115,000
    members, hope that this will be the first of many mergers which will ensure
    it a stronger role in the financial sector.

  • Article
    27 Mai 1997

    One of the most significant transformations of British industrial relations
    in recent years has been the shift from national to enterprise-level
    bargaining. Multi-employer bargaining arrangements have tended to be replaced
    with multi-establishment, single employer bargaining, although there are also
    signs of decentralisation within the individual firm. Similarly, within the
    public sector (UK9702104F [1]), efforts have been made to fragment
    traditional bargaining arrangements through the introduction of "Agency"
    status and market-testing to the civil service and local authorities, and by
    further institutional decentralisation through the promotion of National
    Health Service (NHS) Trusts and local management of schools. These changes
    have occurred alongside a dramatic decline in coverage of collective
    bargaining, largely due to the decline of manufacturing employment and the
    expansion of the service sector.



  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications

  • Report
    Avril 2024

    The focus of this report is on the role that human capital plays in determining inequalities across the EU, as well as within Member States. Using Cedefop’s work in this area, the report provides a comparative analysis of national trends in education and lifelong learning, including differences between educational groups in terms of income, living conditions and health.

  • Report
    Mai 2024

    The report maps trends in income inequality and examines the situation of the middle classes in the EU during 2020, the year most associated with the COVID-19 lockdowns. It charts developments in the size and composition of middle-class households across countries, identifies those that suffered disproportionately in 2020. Taking a longer lens, the report describes the evolution of income inequalities over the last 15 years, comparing the Great Recession (2007–2009) with the COVID-19 pandemic, and outlines the trends both between and within Member States.

  • Report
    Décembre 2024

    This report explores the implications of the right of all EU citizens to live independently. It investigates the barriers faced by people who wish to live independently, and the situation of people at risk of living in institutional settings. It maps the various measures taken by EU Member States to foster independent living and autonomy. The report also includes policy pointers to support future decision-makers and provides a review of lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic.