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  • Article
    29 Juillet 2003

    Practices such as delayed payment of wages and failure to make social
    security contributions on employees' pay are relatively widespread among
    Polish employers. The problem is not new but has recently received renewed
    attention from trade unions and the media. Research conducted in May 2003 by
    the Warsaw School of Economics sheds light on the nature of these unfair
    employer practices, indicating that some 9% of employees do not receive their
    wages on time and 17% do not have their social security contributions paid in
    full. The situation is worst in smaller companies and those in private Polish

  • Article
    29 Juillet 2003

    The unemployment rate in Poland rose to 18.1% in 2002, with over 3.2 million
    people registered as jobless and long-term unemployment rising rapidly.
    Unemployment is becoming a major and widespread problem, no longer confined
    to specific industries or regions (though significant geographical
    differences persist). This article examines the situation in 2002 in detail,
    and looks at the measures being used in the fight against unemployment.

  • Report
    29 Juillet 2003

    Changes to traditional gender roles and the labour market are forcing a rethink of conventional work-life patterns. Individuals are calling for a better quality of life, while employers require greater flexibility in the workplace. The idea of reorganising time over the whole course of working is one possible response. This report offers a conceptual framework to consider time arrangements and working life, linking this to measures to improve quality of life.

  • Report
    29 Juillet 2003
    What are the working-time preferences of the workforce in Europe? Which schedules are the most compatible with family and other commitments? These questions are relevant to European employment policy and for the working-time policy negotiations of the social partners and are examined in this article.
  • Article
    28 Juillet 2003

    In March 2003, a government-appointed commissioner presented a report on
    'Artists and the social security systems' (Konstnärerna och
    trygghetssystemen [1], SOU 2003: 21). According to his remit
    (Kommittédirektiv 2001:90), the commissioner was charged with investigating
    whether professional artists meet with particular problems in the social
    security system and, if so, identifying the causes of these problems. In
    presenting his findings, commissioner Anders Forsman concluded that artists
    are 'atypical' in relation to the system and do indeed encounter many
    problems. According to the report, most of the problems follow from the
    application of various laws and regulations and not from the legal framework
    itself. A considerable number of cases are taken to court, which is costly
    both for the individual and for society. No common view of how to deal with
    artists' problems exists among the various systems, and there is no
    coordination among them. Until such a coordinated view is established, there
    will never be any increased knowledge and the problems of application will
    never be overcome, the commissioner concludes.


  • Article
    28 Juillet 2003

    In December 2002, Lena Nekby, a researcher at the Trade Union Institute for
    Economic Research (Fackföreningsrörelsens Institut för Ekonomisk
    Forskning, FIEF), published a report on how long it takes various immigrant
    groups to integrate on the Swedish labour market (How long does it take to
    integrate? Employment convergence of immigrants and natives in Sweden [1],
    FIEF Working Paper Series, No. 185, 2002). The report uses longitudinal data
    covering the period 1990–2000, with information on over 200,000
    individuals, of whom more than 19,000 were born abroad.


  • Article
    28 Juillet 2003

    In February 2003, the Minister of Labour proposed a draft 'pact for labour
    and development' to trade unions and employers' organisations represented on
    Poland's Tripartite Commission for Social and Economic Affairs, with the aim
    of coming up with a comprehensive solution to address many of the problems
    currently facing the country. Opposition to the idea of such a pact from the
    NSZZ Solidarność trade union initially prevented progress on the proposal
    but - following agreement to drop the term 'pact'- negotiations began in May
    on the issues raised in the draft.

  • Article
    28 Juillet 2003

    In 2001, new legislation in Poland established regional social dialogue
    commissions, involving representatives of regional trade union and employers'
    organisations, regional government and the national government. The role of
    the 16 commissions is formally a consultative one, but participation in their
    work is, on the whole, highly regarded by the social partners and by the
    authorities. This article examines the development of the regional
    commissions, which were subject to important legislative changes in 2002, and
    their current position in 2003, drawing on recent research into their impact.

  • Article
    28 Juillet 2003

    At the end of 2002, three-quarters of Dutch employees were covered by
    collective agreements containing childcare arrangements. However, in 2003, in
    anticipation of new childcare provision legislation due to come into force in
    2005, employers are cutting back the proportion of childcare costs that they
    meet under such agreements. At the same time, the cost of childcare is
    increasing as market forces take hold in the childcare sector and labour
    costs rise because of the abolition of state-subsidised employment and wage
    increases for regular staff.


  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications