Practices such as delayed payment of wages and failure to make social
security contributions on employees' pay are relatively widespread among
Polish employers. The problem is not new but has recently received renewed
attention from trade unions and the media. Research conducted in May 2003 by
the Warsaw School of Economics sheds light on the nature of these unfair
employer practices, indicating that some 9% of employees do not receive their
wages on time and 17% do not have their social security contributions paid in
full. The situation is worst in smaller companies and those in private Polish
The unemployment rate in Poland rose to 18.1% in 2002, with over 3.2 million
people registered as jobless and long-term unemployment rising rapidly.
Unemployment is becoming a major and widespread problem, no longer confined
to specific industries or regions (though significant geographical
differences persist). This article examines the situation in 2002 in detail,
and looks at the measures being used in the fight against unemployment.
The development of policies and the delivery of services to promote the social inclusion of people with a chronic physical or mental illness or disability are crucial steps in achieving a more inclusive society. This report examines how to drive this process forward.
Changes to traditional gender roles and the labour market are forcing a rethink of conventional work-life patterns. Individuals are calling for a better quality of life, while employers require greater flexibility in the workplace. The idea of reorganising time over the whole course of working is one possible response. This report offers a conceptual framework to consider time arrangements and working life, linking this to measures to improve quality of life.
What are the working-time preferences of the workforce in Europe? Which schedules are the most compatible with family and other commitments? These questions are relevant to European employment policy and for the working-time policy negotiations of the social partners and are examined in this article.
In March 2003, a government-appointed commissioner presented a report on
'Artists and the social security systems' (Konstnärerna och
trygghetssystemen , SOU 2003: 21). According to his remit
(Kommittédirektiv 2001:90), the commissioner was charged with investigating
whether professional artists meet with particular problems in the social
security system and, if so, identifying the causes of these problems. In
presenting his findings, commissioner Anders Forsman concluded that artists
are 'atypical' in relation to the system and do indeed encounter many
problems. According to the report, most of the problems follow from the
application of various laws and regulations and not from the legal framework
itself. A considerable number of cases are taken to court, which is costly
both for the individual and for society. No common view of how to deal with
artists' problems exists among the various systems, and there is no
coordination among them. Until such a coordinated view is established, there
will never be any increased knowledge and the problems of application will
never be overcome, the commissioner concludes.
In December 2002, Lena Nekby, a researcher at the Trade Union Institute for
Economic Research (Fackföreningsrörelsens Institut för Ekonomisk
Forskning, FIEF), published a report on how long it takes various immigrant
groups to integrate on the Swedish labour market (How long does it take to
integrate? Employment convergence of immigrants and natives in Sweden ,
FIEF Working Paper Series, No. 185, 2002). The report uses longitudinal data
covering the period 1990–2000, with information on over 200,000
individuals, of whom more than 19,000 were born abroad.
In February 2003, the Minister of Labour proposed a draft 'pact for labour
and development' to trade unions and employers' organisations represented on
Poland's Tripartite Commission for Social and Economic Affairs, with the aim
of coming up with a comprehensive solution to address many of the problems
currently facing the country. Opposition to the idea of such a pact from the
NSZZ Solidarność trade union initially prevented progress on the proposal
but - following agreement to drop the term 'pact'- negotiations began in May
on the issues raised in the draft.
In 2001, new legislation in Poland established regional social dialogue
commissions, involving representatives of regional trade union and employers'
organisations, regional government and the national government. The role of
the 16 commissions is formally a consultative one, but participation in their
work is, on the whole, highly regarded by the social partners and by the
authorities. This article examines the development of the regional
commissions, which were subject to important legislative changes in 2002, and
their current position in 2003, drawing on recent research into their impact.
At the end of 2002, three-quarters of Dutch employees were covered by
collective agreements containing childcare arrangements. However, in 2003, in
anticipation of new childcare provision legislation due to come into force in
2005, employers are cutting back the proportion of childcare costs that they
meet under such agreements. At the same time, the cost of childcare is
increasing as market forces take hold in the childcare sector and labour
costs rise because of the abolition of state-subsidised employment and wage
increases for regular staff.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the electricity sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the electricity sector in the EU Member States.
This paper provides an analytical summary of state of the art academic and policy literature on the impact of climate change and policies to manage transitions to a carbon neutral economy on employment, working conditions, social dialogue and living conditions. It maps the key empirical findings around the impact of climate change and the green transitions on jobs, sectors, regions and countries in Europe, identifying the opportunities and risks that climate change policies bring to European labour markets.
Given that compliance with lockdown measures is a first line of defence against COVID-19, maintaining trust in institutions is vital to ensure a coordinated, comprehensive and effective response to the pandemic. This report investigates developments in institutional and interpersonal trust across time, with a particular emphasis on the COVID-19 pandemic period and its impact. It examines the link between trust and discontent and investigates the effect of multidimensional inequalities as a driver of distrust.
The civil aviation sector has been deeply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is one of the most severe crises the sector has ever experienced, giving rise to a number of significant challenges for companies and workers alike. This study will explore the role of social dialogue and collective bargaining in how the sector is adapting to the pandemic. What kinds of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have varied across sectors, occupations and categories of worker (for instance, according to gender, age or employment status). Hours worked have declined the most in sectors such as accommodation services and food and beverage services, and in occupations heavily reliant on in-person interaction, such as sales work. At the same time, it’s in these sectors that labour shortages have become increasingly evident as labour markets have begun to normalise.
This policy brief will provide an update on upward convergence in the economic, social and institutional dimensions of the European Union, as outlined in the European Pillar of Social Rights and its accompanying Social Scoreboard.
The COVID-19 pandemic has accentuated inequalities in many dimensions of European societies, including inequalities between women and men in several key domains. This report looks at gender inequalities that existed prior to the COVID-19 crisis and describes in what ways the pandemic has impacted on gender divides. It also analyses the various policy responses of national governments across the EU to address gender divides, and to prevent their widening during the pandemic.
The report provides an overview of the scale of teleworking before and during the COVID-19 crisis and gives an indication of ‘teleworkability’ across sectors and occupations. Building on previous Eurofound research on remote work, the report investigates the way businesses introduced and supported teleworking during the pandemic, as well as the experience of workers who were working from home during the crisis. The report also looks at developments in regulations related to telework in Member States and provides a review of stakeholders’ positions.
The hospital sector has been deeply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Hospitals and their workers are on the frontline in the fight against the virus, and they face a number of significant challenges in terms of resources, work organisation and working conditions. This study will explore the role of social dialogue and collective bargaining in how the sector is adapting to the pandemic. What kinds of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?
This report analyses the working lives of workers in Europe in 2021, when the continent was still in the grip of the COVID-19 pandemic. It examines working conditions during that period and the association between job quality and work outcomes such as health and well-being, work–life balance, and financial security. The report also considers how the shifts in working life during the pandemic are likely to affect work in the future.