22 Meitheamh 2004
In diesem Kontext besteht das Ziel dieses Jahresberichts (bzw. dieser Fortschreibung) des Europäischen Observatoriums für die Entwicklung der Arbeitsbeziehungen (EIRO), der auf Beiträgen seiner nationalen Zentren basiert, darin, allgemeine Tendenzen hinsichtlich der Lohnerhöhungen in den Jahren 2002 und 2003 innerhalb der EU-Mitgliedstaaten (und Norwegens) und der zehn Beitritts- und Kandidatenländer aufzuzeigen.
01 Meitheamh 2004
It is arguable that employer organisations often receive rather less attention than trade unions in industrial relations research and reporting. The comparative supplement in this issue of EIRObserver seeks to redress the balance a little by examining employer organisations in the 15 ‘old’ European Union Member States, two new Member States (Hungary and Slovenia) and Norway.
07 Bealtaine 2004
This report highlights a number of major differences and a smaller number of similarities between the industrial relations systems in the EU, Japan and the USA. It examines a number of basic industrial relations actors, structures and processes: trade unions; employer organisations; collective bargaining; employee involvement; and employment legislation. It also looks at how the various industrial relations systems deal with two key topical issues: company restructuring and new forms of work.
25 Márta 2004
The comparative supplement in this issue of EIRObserver xamines the issue of workplace plans aimed at achieving greater equality between women and men through specific, concrete measures. Looking at the current EU, Norway, and a number of new Member States joining the EU in 2004, the supplement considers the regulatory framework for workplace gender equality plans and the extent and nature of such plans in practice.
23 Feabhra 2004
Growing economic globalisation and competition, along with the European Union's deepening economic integration, mean that the EU is increasingly tending to compare itself in many areas with the world's two other largest economies - Japan and the USA. This type of comparison and 'benchmarking' has become particularly important in the light of the EU's commitment, agreed at the European Council summit in Lisbon in 2000 (EU0004241F ), to becoming 'the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world capable of sustained economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion'. Industrial relations systems and developments play an important part in determining economic, employment and social outcomes and are thus a key area of comparison. More broadly, it is widely thought that there is a distinctive 'European social model', which is seen as differing significantly from the models of governing society, the economy and the labour market found in the USA, Japan and elsewhere. Definitions of what exactly constitutes the European social model differ, but it certainly includes the institutions and processes of industrial relations. International comparison in this area can thus help to make clearer what the European social model is and how, and by how much, it differs from the models which characterise other countries.  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-social-policies/lisbon-council-agrees-employment-targets
17 Samhain 2003
The comparative supplement in this issue of EIRObserver is the first to focus exclusively on some of the new Member States, looking at the way in which labour disputes, both individual and collective, are resolved in Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. The supplement looks at: individual dispute settlement, examining pre-court procedures and the role of trade unions, bargaining and labour inspectorates; collective dispute settlement, including arbitration, mediation and conciliation; and the regulation of, and recent trends in, strikes and other industrial action.
29 Meán Fómhair 2003
The comparative supplement in this issue of EIRObserver focuses on the situation across the EU (plus Norway) with regard to one specific issue raised by the growth of ICT at work - the relationship between internet/e-mail use at work and respect for workers’ privacy. It examines: the European and national legal framework on privacy at work, data protection, and workplace internet/e-mail use; guidelines and codes of conduct in this area; the views and activities of the social partners; and the extent to which collective bargaining deals with such topics. EIRObserver is the bi-monthly bulletin of the European Industrial Relations Observatory. It contains an edited selection of feature and news items, based on some of the reports supplied for the EIROnline database over each two-month period, in this case for July and August 2003. In addition to this, EIRO conducts comparative research on specific themes.
05 Lúnasa 2003
Set against the backdrop of preparations for enlargement of the European Union, this report provides a comparative overview of the most significant industrial relations developments during 2003, both at national and EU level. The fruit of a joint collaboration between the Foundation and the European Commission, the report presents the year’s main activities in European social dialogue and employment legislation and policy. It examines the key issues covered by collective bargaining and looks at the regulation of working time.
28 Iúil 2003
The comparative supplement in this issue of EIRObserver examines the subject of overtime in 19 European countries: the 15 EU Member States, Hungary, Norway, Poland and Slovakia. It outlines the following aspects: the regulation of overtime through legislation and collective agreements; the level of overtime working; and the positions, strategies and debates of the industrial relations actors. Working time also features as a topic in this issue relating to cases in Spain, Finland and Italy. EIRObserver is the bi-monthly bulletin of the European Industrial Relations Observatory. It contains an edited selection of feature and news items, based on some of the reports supplied for the EIROnline database over each two-month period, in this case for May and June 2003. In addition to this, EIRO conducts comparative research on specific themes.
30 Meitheamh 2003
Die Arbeitskosten, also alle Aufwendungen, die einem Arbeitgeber durch die Beschäftigung von Arbeitskräften entstehen, bilden zweifellos den Dreh- und Angelpunkt der Arbeitsbeziehungen. Zu den Hauptbestandteilen der Gesamtarbeitskosten, wie sie Eurostat im Einklang mit der von der International Conference of Labour Statisticians vereinbarten internationalen Begriffsbestimmung  definierte, zählen die Arbeitnehmerentgelte (darunter Löhne und Gehälter), die Sozialbeiträge der Arbeitnehmer, Aufwendungen für die berufliche Bildung und Steuern zu Lasten des Arbeitsgebers. Die Höhe des Direktentgelts wird in den meisten europäischen Ländern in Tarifverhandlungen festgelegt oder von diesen stark beeinflusst. Zugleich nehmen die Sozialpartner in zahlreichen Ländern (über Verhandlungen oder auf anderem Wege) auch auf Faktoren wie die Höhe der Arbeitgebersozialbeiträge oder die Aufwendungen für die berufliche Bildung Einfluss. Man könnte also mit Fug und Recht behaupten, dass es bei den Arbeitsbeziehungen zu einem großen Teil um die Festlegung der Arbeitskosten geht.  http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/stat/res/labcos.htm