EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

About the European Restructuring Monitor

The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) follows a specific methodology for collecting data related to large-scale restructuring events, with the support of the Network of Eurofound Correspondents in the EU Member States and Norway. Here you can find details about the data collection method, the statistical processing, the type of information collected in each database entry, the data limitations and the media sources used.

Data collection methodology

The extensive Network of Eurofound Correspondents in the EU27 and Norway gathers the information which is reported in the ERM restructuring events database. Using a media monitoring tool, correspondents carry out a wide-ranging daily screening of business press and online sources, recording large-scale company restructuring events. An event is included if it entails the announced destruction or creation of (1) at least 100 jobs or (2) implicates at least 10% of the workforce at sites employing more than 250 people. Cross-national restructuring events are also reported to the ERM.

Eurofound monitors the quality of the data supplied by correspondents in an ongoing process of feedback and evaluation. Restructuring events previously published in the database are updated when details of the case change and are covered in the main media titles. Each event is recorded in a standardised format, called a ‘factsheet’, which allows for the compilation of indicative statistics comparing countries, sectors or types of restructuring.

A comprehensive methodology description is available in the ERM annual report 2013 (pages 7-22):

Statistical processing

Descriptive analysis

The statistical analyses available on-line are descriptive. They describe the breakdown (in number and percentage):

  • of planned job reductions/job creation
  • according to one of the following three variables: sector, country or type of restructuring

The analysis also offers a breakdown (in number and percentage):

  • of cases recorded
  • according to one of the three variables chosen

Method of information-gathering

The descriptive analysis is carried out for all cases based on announcements in the press. Eurofound cross-checks the information by means of different sources, but it does not make specific enquiries of the companies or the trade unions concerned.

Definition of the fields in the monitoring tool

The fields used for the statistical analysis are:

  • country
  • sector
  • planned job reductions/job creation
  • type of restructuring

Important notes concerning the use of the country variable:

  • If a case of restructuring concerns several European countries, the field will contain the value 'European Union'.
  • If a case of restructuring concerns the European Union, among other countries, the field will show the value 'World'.
  • If a case concerns several countries of the European Union and the information given in the press is sufficiently precise, one factsheet per country and one factsheet for the European Union are created.
  • The information contained in a factsheet always refers to the geographical location mentioned in the factsheet. The planned job reductions, the number of employees, etc. will concern this country.

The ERM collects restructuring cases compiled in standardised fact sheets, some of which are related to different geographical locations (one or more countries and the European Union). In this case, the information is generated in such a way that planned job reductions/job creation are only counted once.

  • When calculating the breakdown regarding the number of planned job reductions per country, cases concerning the geographical entity 'EU' will not be included if they are also described in a country factsheet.
  • When calculating the breakdown regarding the number of planned job reductions per sector or per type of restructuring, cases collected in country factsheets will not be taken into account if there is an EU level factsheet.

Available information

The information gathered about restructuring events is recorded into a standard 'factsheet'. Each case contains the following information:

  • Company name and group
  • Geographic location: country, region and affected unit
  • The sector described using the NACE code (classification rev 2)
  • The number employed in the affected unit prior to restructuring
  • The announcement date when the restructuring is reported for the first time in the press
  • Type of restructuring event: bankruptcy, closure, offshoring/delocalisation, relocation, outsourcing, merger or acquisition, internal restructuring, business expansion
  • Number of announced job reductions/creation
  • Number of direct dismissals or other job reduction measures due to restructuring
  • The employment effect start date when the announced jobs are expected to be lost or created
  • The foreseen end date when the announced jobs are expected to be lost or created by
  • The media sources used to report the case (name of source and publication date of the article) and links to the original article when available

The type of restructuring field may take a single value. If the case involves different types of restructuring, the category selected should reflect the type of restructuring accounting for the greatest proportion of job losses. In the ERM, the type of restructuring should fall into one of the categories outlined below.

Field value Explanation

Relocation

When the activity stays within the same company, but is relocated to another location within the same country.

Outsourcing

When the activity is subcontracted to another company within the same country.

Offshoring/ delocalisation

When the activity is relocated or outsourced outside of the country’s borders.

Bankruptcy

When a company goes bankrupt for economic reasons not directly connected to relocation or outsourcing.

Closure

When a company or an industrial site is closed for economic reasons not directly connected to relocation or outsourcing.

Merger/Acquisition

When two companies merge or during an acquisition which then involves an internal restructuring programme aimed at rationalising organisation by reducing personnel.

Internal restructuring

When the company undertakes a job-cutting plan, which is not linked to another type of restructuring defined above or the restructuring entails a mix of measures of which none is dominant.

Business expansion

Where a company extends its business activities, hiring new workforce. 

In addition to the structured data, there is also very rich and useful information on individual cases, which forms the basis for subsequent qualitative research.

Data limitations

Given that the ERM restructuring events database relies on selected media titles, its coverage of restructuring activity in each Member State is indicative and cannot be considered representative.

In view of size thresholds for case inclusion, the monitor reports almost exclusively on restructuring in medium and larger-sized firms; this size bias in turn leads to an overrepresentation of the manufacturing sector where company size tends to be larger. Variability of national-level media coverage of restructuring events from country to country leads also to country biases. This is reflected in higher levels of ERM reporting in some Member States and lower levels in others.

lso, it should be taken into account that once reported in the media, the decisions announced by the companies may be changed for various reasons without necessarily giving rise to a second press article. We therefore underline that restructuring job losses are as originally announced; depending on the individual case, these figures may or may not tally with the actual final job loss or gain.

In spite of these biases and data limitations, the dataset does generate a picture of labour market restructuring, especially in relation to sectoral restructuring activity that is broadly consistent with data coming from more representative sources such as the European Labour Force Survey. It has also tended to anticipate well overall trends in (un)employment in European labour markets while providing unique data on the proportion of overall larger-scale restructuring-related job loss accounted for by different forms of restructuring (such as offshoring, internal restructuring). Other positive advantages of the restructuring events database are its timeliness, its identification of individual cases of restructuring based on publicly available information and its uniqueness as an EU-wide dataset of larger-scale restructuring events.

Media sources

The information concerning restructuring events is extracted from national media sources. Each restructuring case clearly quotes all sources that have been used to report the information. The media sources list is updated on a regular basis upon the suggestion of the national correspondents.

The following sources are used regularly:

Country

Media sources

Austria                

Der Standard

Die Presse

Kleine Zeitung

Niederösterreichische Nachrichten

Oberösterreichische Nachrichten

Orf online

Kurier

Salzburger Nachrichten

Tiroler Tageszeitung

Wiener Zeitung

Wirtschaftsblatt

Belgium

De Redactie

De Standaard

De Tijd

La Libre Belgique

L'Echo

Le Soir

Het Laaste Nieuws

Het Nieuwsblad

Gopress

RTBF

Trends

Bulgaria

Capital

Dnevnik

Investor

Standart news

Trud

24 chasa

Croatia

Poslovni dnevnik

24sata

Banka

Jutarnji List

Vecernji List

Lider

Glas Slavonije

Novi list

 

Cyprus

Cyprus Mail

Dialogos nes portal

Kathimerini

Phileleftheros

Politis

Stockwatch

Sigma Live

Czechia

Financni Noviny

Hospodarske Noviny

iDNES

Lidové noviny

Právo

CzechInvest

Denik

Denmark

Avisen.dk

Berlingske Business

Berlingske Tidende

Børsen

Fyens Stiftstidende

Jyllands-Posten

Politiken

Ritzau

3f.dk

Estonia

Aripaev

Delfi

Postimees

ERR

Finland

Helsingin Sanomat

Hufvudstadsbladet

Kansan Uutiset

Kauppalehti

Talouselama

Taloussanomat

Tekniikka & Talous

Uutispaiva Demari

YLE

France

L'Expansion

L'Usine nouvelle

La Tribune

Les Echos

Le Figaro

Le Monde

Libération

Ouest France

La Voix du Nord

France 3

Germany

Die Welt

Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung

Frankfurter Rundschau

Hamburger Abendblatt

Handelsblatt

Stuttgarter Zeitung

Süddeutsche Zeitung

Tagesspiegel

Greece

Efimerida ton Syntakton

Ethnos

Imerisia

Kathimerini

Kerdos

Naftemboriki

Real News

Ta Nea

To Vima

Hungary

Budapest Business Journal

HR Portal

Menedzserek

Napi

Népszabadság

Világgazdaság

Ireland                

The Irish Times

The Irish Independent

The Irish Examiner

Industrial Relations News

RTE

Silicon Republic

Italy      

Il Sole 24 Ore

Il Corriere della Sera

La Repubblica

Il Diario del Lavoro

Il Fatto Quotidiano

Rassegna

Ansa

Latvia   

Delfi

Diena

Dienas Bizness

The Baltic Course

Baltic News Network

Financenet

Nozare.lv

Lithuania

DELFI

Invest Lithuania

Lietuvos rytas

Lithuanian Labour Exchange

Verslo zinios

Luxembourg     

La Voix du Luxembourg

Le Quotidien

Luxemburger Wort

L'Essentiel

Le Jeudi

PaperJam

Tageblatt

Malta   

L-Orizzont

Malta Today

Malta independent

Netnews.com

The Times of Malta

Netherlands

De Financiele Telegraaf

De Gelderlander

De Volkskrant

Het Financieele Dagblad

NRC Handelsblad

Norway               

Aftenposten

Bergens Tidende

Dagens Naringsliv

E24

NRK

Offshore.no

Stavanger Aftenblad

Sysla

Poland

Bankier

Dziennik Gazeta Prawna 

Gazeta Wyborcza

Onet

Puls Biznesu

Portal Spozywczy

Rzeczpospolita

Strefa Biznesu

Portugal

Boas Notícias

Correio da Manhã

Diário Económico

Diário de Notícias

Dinheiro Vivo

Emprego pelo mundo

Expresso

Económico

Noticias ao minuto

Público

Jornal de Notícias

Jornal de Negocios

Sol

TSF

Romania

Adevarul

Capital

Curentul

Daily Business

Economistul

Gandul

Monitorul Oficial

Ziarul Financiar

Wall-Street.ro

Slovakia

Hospodářské noviny

Pravda

SME

Webnoviny

Slovenia

Delo

Dnevnik

Finance

Spain

ABC

Cinco Dias

El Diario

El Mundo

El Pais

Expansion

La Gaceta de los Negocios

La Razón

La Vanguardia

Sweden

Dagens Arbete

Dagens Industri

Dagens Nyheter

Göteborgs Posten

Norbottens Kuriren

Svenska Dagbladet

Sveriges Radio

Sveriges Television

Sydsvenskan

World/EU

BBC

Daily Job Cuts

The Financial Times

Les Echos

The Guardian

Handelsblatt

NRC Handelsblatt

La Tribune

Reuters

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