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  • Article
    27 Feabhra 1997

    In February, the Communication Workers' Union (CWU) launched a consultative
    paper aimed at influencing the pre-election commitments of both the
    Conservative Party and Labour Party. The union, which is firmly against
    privatisation of the Post Office, has called for legislation to turn it into
    an independent corporation, with the level of dividends pegged at 40% of
    post-tax profits. The union feels that its proposals will have equal appeal
    to all political parties because of the weight of public opinion opposing

  • Article
    27 Feabhra 1997

    On 31 January 1997, the Second National Agreement on Temporary Employment
    Agencies was signed. This is the second agreement reached in this sector
    since the activity of temporary employment agencies (TEAs) in Spain was
    approved in 1994. It will remain in force until 31 December 1999.

  • Article
    27 Feabhra 1997

    The European Commission has recently published its report on progress made in
    the implementation of equitable wage policies since 1993. The aim of
    providing all employees with an equitable wage was enshrined in the Charter
    of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers, which was adopted by 11 member
    states (with the exception of the UK) in 1989. In accordance with the 1989
    social Action Programme, the Commission published an Opinion in 1993, which
    stated that the pursuit of an equitable wage must be seen as part of the
    general drive to achieve higher productivity and employment creation, and to
    foster good relations between the two sides of industry. The member states
    were encouraged to give substance to their commitment made in adopting the
    Social Charter, by working towards the establishment of an equitable wages
    policy. This was to be achieved through greater labour market transparency
    with regard to wages. The social partners were also called upon to contribute
    to the achievement of this aim.

  • Article
    27 Feabhra 1997

    The central social partners - the Austrian Trade Union Confederation
    (Österreichischer Gewerkschaftsbund,ÖGB) and the Austrian Chamber of
    Commerce (Wirtschaftskammer Österreich, WKÖ), the statutory body grouping
    almost all nonagricultural enterprises - have for some time been discussing a
    range of changes to the 1969 Working Time Law (Arbeitszeitgesetz, AZG). The
    aim is to maintain competitiveness and employment by making possible a more
    uneven distribution of working hours over time, without financial penalty to
    the employer. This is expected to lead to higher productivity, better use of
    plant, lower inventories, and a capability to respond more swiftly to
    variations in demand. The trade unions also hope to achieve a reduction of
    hours worked by individual employees in favour of more employment.

  • Article
    27 Feabhra 1997

    In a context of increasingly difficult youth employment in France, and of
    social tension about what course of action to take, a recent national
    conference has defined a number of concrete objectives. These seek to secure
    employment for the most disadvantaged, and to expose students to the world of
    work for the first time. These aims are based on a series of commitments on
    the part of industry, Government and the social partners - who remain at odds
    in their analysis - the effects of which must be monitored.

  • Article
    27 Feabhra 1997

    Declining union membership and a legal and ideological attack on the role of
    trade unions over the past 17 years may have left many with the opinion that
    employees no longer value the right to act collectively. It has been argued
    that the attack on the unions throughout the 1980s and 1990s has left the
    unions weak and unable to protect members' rights. Alternatively, it has been
    argued that people now prefer to negotiate their own employment contracts
    individually and do not need trade unions.

  • Article
    27 Feabhra 1997

    Industrial action has accompanied trade unions' pay demands in Spain's public
    administration since late 1996, and the threat of further action has been
    made if negotiations are not started immediately.

  • Article
    27 Feabhra 1997

    In a recent press interview, Padraig Flynn, the European commissioner
    responsible for industrial relations and social affairs, expressed his unease
    at press reports that the social partners' negotiations on part-time work
    were heading for collapse, and stated that he remained hopeful of a positive
    outcome. Senior trade union negotiator and deputy general secretary of the
    European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), Jean Lapeyre, also stated that he
    remained convinced that the negotiations could succeed. He stressed, however,
    that if part-time work was to be made more attractive and acceptable for
    workers, assurance of "decent social protection" had to be offered.

  • Article
    27 Feabhra 1997

    Testing 1,2,3 Minimum wages in Austria are known as "collective agreement
    wages" because they are set by collective bargaining rather than by law,
    though it is unlawful to pay less than the collective agreement wage. Because
    of the large number of collective agreements concluded independently of each
    other, substantial variations in increases in the minimum wage can arise
    between industries or groups of employees. It is only possible to estimate
    the overall change of the minimum wage rate retrospectively. The annual
    estimate and the detailed monthly reporting are both carried out by the
    Central Statistical Office (Österreichisches Statistisches Zentralamt,
    ÖSTAT) based on reports received from the trade unions.


  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications