The /Seymour-Smith/ case has raised the issue of the legality of the two-year
qualifying period of employment before employees may bring a claim for unfair
dismissal. The /Observer/ in April reported that many employees are having
their employment contracts terminated only days before completing the
two-year period which is necessary to gain employment protection. At present,
full-time employees must have accumulated two years' continuous service,
while for employees who work between eight and 16 hours per week, the
qualifying period is five years.
Ireland's largest trade union, the Services Industrial Professional and
Technical Union (SIPTU), has a new president after a closer than expected
ballot of its 180,000 members. The tight result - announced in early April
1997 - surprised the union's leadership, given the fact that a left-wing
activist polled almost 42% of the votes cast compared with the 56% who voted
for former vice-president, Jimmy Somers.
A separate agreement for white-collar employees in the Luxembourg iron and
steel was concluded in March 1997, despite efforts in negotiations to create
a single agreement for both white- and blue-collar staff.
The principal collective agreement in the Dutch information technology and
office equipment sector, concluded in April 1997 between the employers'
organisation and one of the trade unions, has been criticised by the other
unions and four large software and service companies
In the wake of Renault's announcement of the closure of its plant at
Vilvoorde (EU9703108F ) European trade unions, the European Commission and
the European Parliament have called for tougher measures to protect the
interests of employees in the event of large-scale redundancies, business
transfers and relocation. In an address to the European Parliament (EP) in
March, Padraig Flynn, the commissioner responsible for industrial relations,
employment and social affairs, reminded member state governments that they
had rejected such tougher measures in 1992. While he argued that existing
legislation covered the situation at Renault, there had to be a serious
question mark over the deterrent effect of the level of sanctions currently
available. He told MEP s that he would "propose to the Commission that we
proceed in the coming weeks with the first stage of consultations with the
social partners at European level on this issue and I sincerely hope that we
are able, through this action, the strengthen the protection of workers"
(reported in RAPID, 11 March). He also pronounced himself in favour of the
institution of general rules to complement existing measures, aimed at making
information and consultation compulsory at member state level.
The Belgian Defence Minister, Jean-Pol Poncelet, has announced measures that
will prompt far-reaching changes in the personnel structure of the Belgian
armed forces, covering the army, navy and airforce. The policy directly or
indirectly affects about 40,000 military personnel. Mr Poncelet's plans are
innovative and rather unusual for the armed forces, which are not normally
known for their swift changes in organisational structure and personnel
management. The Minister feels, however, that the armed forces should not be
exempt from moves towards greater flexibility, currently a prominent theme in
labour negotiations in Belgium. Moreover, changes in the armed forces can
serve as an example for other sectors of the Belgian economy.
In March 1997, the social partners in Italy's leather and suede sector agreed
a code of conduct providing for the application of International Labour
Organisation (ILO) Conventions on the rights of workers and the employment of
On 1 April 1997, the whole air transport sector, including cabotage(domestic
flights within other member states), was officially opened to EC-wide
competition. Cabotageno longer has to be the continuation of a flight
originating outside a particular country. So nothing now remains of Air
Inter's monopoly in France, which had already been severely challenged by the
European Commission in 1994, following a complaint from TAT, now one of
British Airways' French subsidiaries.
Based on the so-called Dual System (of Vocational Training)  (Duales
System), practical vocational training  in Germany is given at work in the
participating employer's establishment, backed up by statutory theoretical
training and general education provided in vocational training school  s.
The characteristic feature of the system is that the provision of knowledge
and skills is linked to the acquisition of the required job experience.
With 270,000 persons either on early retirement, unemployed or otherwise
excluded from the labour market, theSocial Democrat-led Government is anxious
to involve the social partners in producing workable alternatives for job
creation for these groups of workers, rather than simply paying lip-service
to the idea. In the 1995 collective bargaining round, the social partners
were invited to elaborate on social clauses in their collective agreements.
Accordingly, 90% of the bargaining units in the are covered by the LO trade
union confederation and DA employers' confederation agreed on what have
become known as "Social Chapters", which contain framework provisions on job
creation on special terms of employment - ie, content of work, working hours
and pay - to be negotiated and elaborated upon at local and company level.
Similarly, the bargaining parties in government employment agreed on Social
Chapters in their 1995 collective agreements. Employees in local government
at regional and municipal level were also covered by a framework agreement
negotiated in May 1996.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
This report explores the drivers of economic and social convergence in Europe, using a selected set of economic and social indicators to examine trends in the performance of individual Member States. It also investigates what role the Economic and Monetary Union plays in convergence, particularly in southern and eastern Member States. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on convergence is analysed and initial conclusions are drawn about the impact of EU recovery packages and their ability to prevent divergence.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the textiles and clothing sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the textiles and clothing sector in the EU Member States.
This report analyses how working conditions, job quality and working life outcomes – such as work–life balance, health and well-being, and sustainability of work – changed between February 2020 and spring 2021. Following up on responses to the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) 2020, it explores the differences between three distinct groups of workers: those teleworking during the COVID-19 pandemic, those who continued to work on their employers' premises as frontline staff, and those who were furloughed or worked reduced hours.
With the expansion of telework and different forms of hybrid work as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important for policymakers to consider both the opportunities and the negative consequences that may result. This report will explore potential scenarios for such work. In doing so, it will identify trends and drivers, and predict how they might interact to create particular outcomes and how they are likely to affect workers and businesses. Policy pointers will outline what could be done to facilitate desirable outcomes and to avoid undesirable ones.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the professional football sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the professional football sector in the EU Member States.
Building on previous work by Eurofound, this report will investigate intergenerational dynamics over time. During the 2008 double-dip recession, worrying intergenerational divides appeared in many Member States, and while some of the economic and social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is universal, early data suggests disparities across demographic cohorts. Eurofound will examine how different age groups may have been affected in terms of their health, labour market participation, quality of life and financial needs, both in the short term and in the long term.
The urban-rural divide in EU countries has grown in recent years, and the depopulation of certain rural areas in favour of cities is a challenge when it comes to promoting economic development and maintaining social cohesion and convergence. Using data from Eurofound and Eurostat, this report will investigate the trends and drivers of the urban-rural divide, in various dimensions: economic and employment opportunities, access to services, living conditions and quality of life.
Adequate, affordable housing has become a matter of great concern, with an alarming number of Europeans with low or lower household incomes unable to access any, especially in capital cities. Housing was a key factor in people’s experience of the COVID-19 pandemic: its quality and level of safety significantly affected how lockdowns and social distancing measures were experienced, with those who had no access to quality housing at higher risk of deteriorating living conditions and well-being.
The use of artificial intelligence, advanced robotics and the Internet of Things technologies in the workplace can bring about fundamental changes in work organisation and working conditions. This report analyses the ethical and human implications of the use of these technologies at work by drawing on qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders, input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents and Delphi expert surveys, and case studies.