Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, r...Read more
Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, regular articles on working life in Europe, presentations, working papers providing background material to ongoing or already concluded research, and reports arising from ad hoc requests by policymakers. Other corporate publications include annual reports, brochures and promotional publications. Web databases and online resources such as data visualisation applications are available in Data and resources.
In June 1999, the social partners in the woodworking and furniture sector of
Italy's north-eastern regions signed an agreement which aims at modifying the
pay system through a lower tax levy, and at introducing flexible working
hours. This new inter-regional collective bargaining level represents a
further development of the Italian bargaining process.
In April 1999, the Dutch social partners reached agreement within the Labour
Foundation on a framework for the further individualisation of terms of
employment. Whilst the essential lines of collective agreements will be
retained under the Foundation's recommendations, certain conditions of
employment may be swapped within a company on a "multiple-choice" basis.
Over the two-year period 1997-9, the social partners in Vienna and its city
government have joined forces to develop a more innovative approach to
Austria's most problem-ridden and least responsive labour market. In 1997 it
contained more than half of the unemployed people whose unemployment lasted
longer than 12 months and 42% of those whose unemployment lasted more than
six months. The number of people registered as unemployed at some time over
the year had risen by 1.4% over the 1996 level and made up 23% of the
Austrian total, roughly equivalent to the capital's share in employment.
However, the average number of people registered as unemployed stood at 29%
of the Austrian total. Employment kept being created outside the city limits,
centred in particular on the airport and the shopping and business parks.
Industrial employment was continually being relocated to "greenfield" sites.
No end to these structural disadvantages seemed in sight.
On 4 June 1999, CGT and CFDT, the majority trade unions at France's SNCF rail
network, signed an agreement with the management on the reduction of working
time. This agreement, rejected by the other unions, had been the subject of a
referendum among the company's staff organised by management and the two
In May 1999, in response to a request from the Greek government,
representatives of trade unions and employers' organisations lodged their
proposals for the 1999 National Action Plan (NAP) on employment to implement
the EU Employment Guidelines. Here we focus on the proposals aimed at
encouraging the adaptability of businesses and their employees.
In June 1999, Spanish unions called a strike to demand the implementation of
the 1998-2005 coal mining plan, signed in July 1997. The strike received
massive support among the 20,000 coal miners, but the government criticised
the unions for exaggerating the problems.
Two mediators, Mr Ingemar Mundebo and Mr Gunnar Samuelsson, had been having
intense contacts throughout a week in the middle of June with the pay
negotiators from the Coach Employers' Association (Bussarbetsgivarna, BUA)
and the Swedish Transport Workers' Union (Svenska
Transportarbetareförbundet, Transport). Transport had given notice of a ban
on overtime and a boycott of any new charter tourist traffic. The industrial
action was due to commence on 22 June 1999.
On 14 June 1999, the UK government launched a new, non-statutory code of
practice to encourage employers to adopt policies designed to avoid age
discrimination in employment. The code - Age diversity in employment -
covers good practice in six areas of the employment "cycle", urging employers
June 1999 saw the conclusion of new national agreements for Italy's key
metalworking and food industries. The most innovative aspects of the deals
concern pay increases, the role of Rsu representative bodies in decentralised
bargaining, and the reduction and management of working time.
In anticipation of a debate scheduled for the end of June 1999 in the Lower
House of the Dutch Parliament, the Netherlands' largest employers'
association, VNO/NCW, is pushing for fundamental change in the social
security structure. It believes that the new system should offer a flat-rate
benefit at subsistence level as a safety net. In addition, employees should
be assigned "personal responsibility" and have the option of taking out
additional insurance against loss of income.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
This policy brief investigates the evolution of female labour market participation in the last decade and calculates the monetary cost of the persisting gender employment gap to Europe in that period. The analysis also highlights the disproportionate effects that the current COVID-19 crisis is having on working women and how this threatens decades of gains achieved in gender equality.
The long-term care (LTC) sector employs an increasing share of workers in the EU, with increasing shortages. The LTC workforce is mainly female and a relatively large and increasing proportion is 50 or older. Migrants are often concentrated in certain LTC jobs. This report maps the working conditions, the nature of employment and the role of collective bargaining in the sector. It also discusses policies to make the sector more attractive, combat undeclared work and to improve the situation of a particular vulnerable group of LTC workers: live-in carers.
Member States are autonomous when it comes to the design of their social protection systems. However, EU recommendations and treaties oblige them to address the convergence of these systems and policies with other Member States. At the same time, convergence may also come about as a result of economic integration and endeavours to reduce social imbalances. This report looks at the main long-term trends in social protection expenditure and performance across the Member States to assess the extent to which they are converging in this policy area.
Social, economic and technological changes are giving rise to new forms of employment. These differ from 'traditional' work either in the relationship between employer and employee or in the unconventional work patterns and places of work that characterise them. While these new forms of employment can contribute to more inclusive labour markets, legalise undeclared work and offer preferential working conditions, some also raise concerns about, for example, job quality and representation. This report updates Eurofound's 2015 mapping of emerging trends.
New digital technologies have expanded the possibilities of employee monitoring and surveillance, both in and outside the workplace. In the context of the increasing digitalisation of work, there are many issues related to employee monitoring that warrant the attention of policymakers. There are the often-cited privacy and ethical concerns but also important implications for worker–employer relations, as digitally enabled monitoring and surveillance inevitably shift power dynamics in the workplace.
How can working conditions be improved to make work more sustainable over the life course? This question has been the guiding principle for analysis of the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey data during the period of Eurofound’s work programme for 2017–2020. This flagship report brings together the different research strands from this work and gives a comprehensive answer to the question. It includes an analysis of trends in working conditions, examining whether these are the same for all workers or whether inequalities between different groups of workers are increasing.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the local and regional administration sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
This flagship report consolidates findings in the industrial relations field from research conducted by Eurofound over the course of its multiannual work programme for 2017–2020. It considers the strengths and weaknesses of European social dialogue, including the linkages with national social dialogue and the capacity constraints of the actors. A national comparative analysis draws on projects that have mapped the key features of national industrial relations systems.
This report builds on Eurofound's existing research on social mobility, assessing the distribution and transmission of wealth in Member States. It examines the roles of inheritance and household debt in explaining the transmission of advantage or disadvantage between the generations across Member States. The analysis is based on Eurosystem's Household Finance and Consumption Survey (HFCS).
This report analyses the involvement of the national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, and their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs) and other key policy documents of the European Semester cycle.