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  • Article
    27 Meitheamh 1999

    In anticipation of a debate scheduled for the end of June 1999 in the Lower
    House of the Dutch Parliament, the Netherlands' largest employers'
    association, VNO/NCW, is pushing for fundamental change in the social
    security structure. It believes that the new system should offer a flat-rate
    benefit at subsistence level as a safety net. In addition, employees should
    be assigned "personal responsibility" and have the option of taking out
    additional insurance against loss of income.

  • Article
    27 Meitheamh 1999

    The reduction of taxation on labour and other non-wage labour costs has been
    part of the European Commission's strategy to raise employment for almost
    five years, as it is considered that high non-wage labour costs, particularly
    on low-paid labour, are leading to high rates of unemployment among
    low-skilled workers and are encouraging clandestine, undeclared activity. The
    Commission's 1999 Broad Economic Policy Guidelines [1] re-emphasised the
    importance of Member States' reducing taxes, particularly on low-paid labour.
    It is intended that this reduction in taxation of labour be offset by new
    taxes or tax increases on environmental pollution, energy or consumption. The
    social partners are similarly called upon to commit themselves to control
    wage and other non-wage costs, as a contribution to the European employment
    strategy. The draft Broad Economic Policy Guidelines estimate that, with an
    average rate of 43% of GDP, the tax burden in the European Union in 13%
    higher than in the USA. The tax burden indeed exceeds 40% in most of the EU
    Member States, with only Ireland being comparable with the USA in this
    respect. Despite the fact that the effective tax rate on labour and the
    labour "tax wedge" have declined in the EU since 1994, the level of the "tax
    wedge" indicates that around 50% of the gross wage is absorbed by taxes in a
    number of EU Member States,


  • Article
    27 Meitheamh 1999

    On 15 June 1999, the Austrian government failed to approve a legislative
    proposal for submission to parliament that would have removed the remaining
    legal differentiation between wage earners and salary earners (AT9801160N
    [1]). The two main distinctions that remain between them relate to
    compensation during sick leave and regulations governing dismissal
    (AT9903138N [2]). The Austrian Trade Union Federation (Österreichischer
    Gewerkschaftsbund, ÖGB) and the Austrian Chamber of the Economy
    (Wirtschaftskammer Österreich, WKÖ) had failed to resolve their own
    differences on the question at a meeting on 9 June. WKÖ had submitted a
    number of counter-demands in exchange for harmonisation, including:


  • Article
    27 Meitheamh 1999

    Two mediators, Mr Ingemar Mundebo and Mr Gunnar Samuelsson, had been having
    intense contacts throughout a week in the middle of June with the pay
    negotiators from the Coach Employers' Association (Bussarbetsgivarna, BUA)
    and the Swedish Transport Workers' Union (Svenska
    Transportarbetareförbundet, Transport). Transport had given notice of a ban
    on overtime and a boycott of any new charter tourist traffic. The industrial
    action was due to commence on 22 June 1999.

  • Article
    27 Meitheamh 1999

    At its congress in June 1999, France's CFE-CGC trade union confederation,
    which represents managerial and professional staff and supervisors, elected a
    new management team. After some years of falling membership and support, the
    confederation sought to present a united front and to refocus on its
    traditional goals and grassroots.

  • Article
    27 Meitheamh 1999

    Denmark is not participating in the third stage of EU Economic and Monetary
    Union (EMU), which has seen the introduction of the euro single currency.
    This is one of the consequences of the country's initial "no" vote on the
    Maastricht Treaty in a 1992 referendum, which led to Denmark having a number
    of reservations inserted in the Treaty, including non-participation in the
    third stage of EMU. A subsequent referendum resulted in a majority in favour
    of the modified version of the Treaty among the otherwise "EU-sceptic" Danish

  • Article
    27 Meitheamh 1999

    Speaking at the national conference of the British Chambers of Commerce (BCC)
    on 3 June 1999, Stephen Byers, the trade and industry secretary, devoted his
    speech to the issue of regulation and the Labour government's commitment to
    reduce the burden of regulation on business, including employment
    legislation. He said that "getting regulation right" was a major priority for
    the government, and that an essential element of this was to avoid burdening
    businesses - especially small businesses - with unnecessary regulation.

  • Article
    27 Meitheamh 1999

    From 1 July 1999, Dutch employers must comply with obligations stemming from
    the Flexibility and Security Act. Following three consecutive contracts,
    temporary agency workers must be offered a permanent contract. However, in
    anticipation, temporary work agencies began dismissing staff in June. The FNV
    union confederation has condemned the mass dismissals.


  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

Forthcoming publications