Crowd production of training data: The role of online-work in training autonomous vehicles

This study of Hans-Böckler-Stiftung looks at the increased demand for precise trainings data in the artificial intelligence (AI) industry. The data are needed to train cars that can drive autonomously. Humans deliver these data via specialised online platforms who focus on quality control and provide the necessary equipment and training for the generation of training data. The study looks at workers on these specialised platforms, with a focus on platforms operating in Germany. 

Schmidt, Florian. (2019). Crowdproduktion von Trainingsdaten: Zur Rolle von Online-Arbeit beim Trainieren autonomer Fahrzeuge. Study 417, Hans-Böckler-Stiftung.


  • Research publication
  • Germany
  • Yes
  • transport
  • On-location platform-determined higher-skilled work
  • platform characteristics, skills and skills development
  • German
  • Hans-Böckler-Stiftung (Research institute)
  • Qualitative research
  • 2019
  • Open access
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