Representativeness of the social partners: Gas sector

  • National Contribution:

  • Observatory: EurWORK
  • Topic:
  • Industrijski odnosi,
  • Representativeness,
  • Date of Publication: 04 veljače 2008



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This report examines the operations of the social partner organisations and collective bargaining in the gas sector. The first part outlines the general economic background. The next part analyses the social partner organisations in the Member States of the European Union, with the exception of Cyprus. Particular emphasis is placed on membership of social partner organisations, their role in collective bargaining and public policy, and their national and European affiliations. The third and final part of the report examines the relevant European associations, in particular the composition of their membership and their capacity to negotiate. The aim of the EIRO series of studies on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and supranational social partner organisations in the field of industrial relations in selected sectors. The impetus for these studies arises from the goal of the European Commission to recognise the representative social partner organisations to be consulted under the EC Treaty provisions. Hence, this study is designed to provide basic information required to establish sectoral social dialogue.

The study was compiled on the basis of individual national reports submitted by the EIRO correspondents. The text of each of these national reports is available below. The national reports were drawn up in response to a questionnaire and should be read in conjunction with it.

Download the full report (685KB PDF)

National contributions may be available


Objectives of study

The aim of this representativeness study is to identify the relevant national and supranational associations – the trade unions and employer organisations – in the field of industrial relations in the gas sector, and show how these actors relate to the sector’s European interest associations of labour and business. The impetus for this study and for similar studies in other sectors arises from the aim of the European Commission to identify the representative social partner organisations to be consulted under the provisions of the EC Treaty. Hence, the study aims to provide the basic information needed to set up sectoral social dialogue. The effectiveness of the European social dialogue depends on whether its participants are sufficiently representative in terms of the sector’s relevant national actors across the EU Member States. Therefore, only European organisations which meet this precondition will be allowed to join the European social dialogue.

Against this background, the study will first identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations, subsequently analysing the structure of the sector’s relevant European organisations, in particular their membership composition. This involves clarifying the unit of analysis at both the national and European level of interest representation. The study includes only organisations whose membership domain is ‘sector-related’ (see below). At both the national and European levels, a multiplicity of associations exists which are not considered to be social partner organisations as they essentially deal with industrial relations. Thus, there is a need for clear-cut criteria which will enable analysis to differentiate the social partner organisations from other associations.

As regards the national level associations, classification as a sector-related social partner organisation implies fulfilling one of two criteria: the associations must either be a party to sector-related collective bargaining or a member of a sector-related European association of business or labour that is on the Commission’s list of European social partner organisations consulted under Article 138 of the EC Treaty and/or that participates in the sector-related European social dialogue. Taking the affiliation to a European social partner organisation as a sufficient criterion for determining a national association as a social partner implies that such an association may not at all be involved in industrial relations in its own country. Hence, this selection criterion may look odd at first glance. However, if a national association is a member of a European social partner organisation, it becomes involved in industrial relations matters through its membership in the European organisation. Furthermore, it is important to know whether the national affiliates to the European social partner organisations are engaged in industrial relations in their respective country. Affiliation to a European social partner organisation and/or involvement in national collective bargaining are of the utmost importance to the European social dialogue, since they are the two constituent mechanisms that systematically link the national and European level.

As far as the selection criteria for the European organisations are concerned, the study includes any other sector-related European association which has under its umbrella sector-related national social partner organisations as defined above, in addition to the European social partner organisations. Therefore, the objective to identify the sector-related national and European social partner organisations is both ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’.

Definitions

For the purpose of this study, the gas sector is defined in terms of the classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE), to ensure the cross-national comparability of the research findings. More specifically, the gas sector is defined as NACE 40.2, that is, the manufacture of gas as well as the distribution of gaseous fuels through mains. The data on the United Kingdom (UK) refer only to offshore gas production and supply, not mainland distribution, except of the employment data provided in Table 1.

The domains of the trade unions and employer organisations and scope of relevant collective agreements are likely to vary from this precise NACE demarcation. The study thus includes all trade unions, employer organisations and multi-employer collective agreements which are ‘sector-related’ in terms of any of the following four aspects or patterns:

  • congruence – the domain of the organisation or scope of the collective agreement must be identical with the NACE demarcation, as specified above;
  • sectionalism – the domain or scope covers only a certain part of the sector, as defined by the aforementioned NACE demarcation, while no group outside the sector is covered;
  • overlap – the domain or scope covers the entire sector plus parts of one or more of other sectors. However, it is important to note that the study does not include general associations which do not deal with sector-specific matters;
  • sectional overlap – the domain or scope covers part of the sector plus parts of one or more of other sectors.

At European level, the European Commission established a European Social Dialogue Committee for the gas sector in early 2007. The European Union of the Natural Gas Industry (Eurogas), the European Mine, Chemical and Energy Workers’ Federation (EMCEF), and the European Federation of Public Service Unions (EPSU) participate in the sector’s European social dialogue. Thus, affiliation to one of these European organisations is a sufficient criterion for considering a national association as a social partner organisation. However, it is worthwhile noting that the constituent criterion is one of sector-related membership. This is important in the case of EMCEF and EPSU due to their multi-sectoral domain. This study will include only organisations affiliated to EMCEF and EPSU whose domain relates to the gas sector.

Collection of data

The collection of quantitative data, such as those on membership, is essential for investigating the representativeness of the social partner organisations. Unless otherwise cited, this study draws on the country studies provided by the EIRO national centres. It is often difficult to find precise quantitative data. In such cases, rough estimates are provided rather than leaving a question blank, given the practical and political relevance of this study. However, if there is any doubt over the reliability of an estimate, this will be noted.

Quantitative data, as documented in the country studies, stem from three main sources:

  • official statistics and representative survey studies;
  • administrative data, such as membership figures provided by the respective organisation, which are then used for calculating the density rate on the basis of available statistical figures on the potential membership of the organisation;
  • personal estimates made by representatives of the respective organisation.

While the data sources of any economic figures cited in the report are generally statistics, the figures relating to the organisations are usually either administrative data or estimates. Furthermore, it should be noted that several country studies also present data on trade unions and business associations that do not meet the above definition of a sector-related social partner organisation, in order to give a complete picture of the sector’s associational ‘landscape’. It is not always the case that these meet the above definition of a sector-related social partner organisation. For the above substantive reasons, as well as for methodological reasons of cross-national comparability, such trade unions and business associations will not be considered in this report.

Structure of report

The study consists of three main parts, beginning with a brief summary of the economic background of the sector. The report then analyses the social partner organisations in all EU Member States, with the exception of Cyprus, including Bulgaria and Romania, which acceded to the EU on 1 January 2007. In other words, the study covers - 26 European countries. The third part of the study looks at the representative associations at European level. Each section will contain a brief introduction which explains the concept of representativeness in greater detail, followed by the study findings. Because representativeness is a complex issue, it requires separate consideration of national and European levels for two reasons. Firstly, account has to be taken of the method used by national regulations and practices to capture representativeness. Secondly, the national and European organisations differ in their tasks and scope of activities. The concept of representativeness must thus be suited to this difference.

Finally, it is important to note the difference between the research and political aspects of this study. While it provides data on the representativeness of the organisations under consideration, this report does not reach any definite conclusion on whether the representativeness of the European social partner organisations and their national affiliates is sufficient for admission to the European social dialogue. The reason for this is that defining criteria for sufficient representativeness is a matter for political decision rather than an issue of research analysis.


Economic background

From the late 1990s, the regulatory context of the gas sector has been changing considerably as a direct consequence of Council Directive 98/30/EC (196 Kb PDF) concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas. This directive was devised to establish a competitive natural gas market as an important element of the completion of the internal energy market in Europe. Concomitant deregulation of market entry and liberalisation of services meant that a sector, which was originally organised as a type of state monopoly in many countries, underwent a major restructuring process. In several cases, this restructuring process was accompanied by full or partial privatisation of the former state-owned\ suppliers. Nevertheless, these suppliers still have a very strong market position, as is the case of other formerly sheltered sectors whose product markets were deregulated in connection with EU measures to complete the single market.

The findings in Tables 1 and 2 give a general overview of labour market development in the gas sector from the early 1990s to the early 2000s, presenting a number of indicators which are important in terms of industrial relations and social dialogue. In almost all of the Member States, the number of companies increased, reflecting thus the liberalisation of the energy and notably gas market. Available data on the level of total employment and the overall number of employees do not show a clear trend, as the number of countries recording a decrease in employment is almost equal to those registering an increase. In the majority of countries, the number of employees comes close to the total level of employment. This finding indicates that the gas sector is generally characterised by relatively large companies as well as by standard employment relationships. Table 1 also shows that the gas sector represents a rather small sector of the European economy: its share in both aggregate employment and overall number of employees is below 1% in the majority of the countries surveyed.

Table 1: Total employment in gas sector, 1993 and 2004
 

Number of companies

Total employment

Male employment

Female employment

 

1993

2004

1993

2004

1993

2004

1993

2004

AT

n.a.

37

n.a.

2,957

n.a.

2,409

n.a.

548

BE

1

4

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

BG

1

2

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

CZ

n.a.

n.a.

4,874

4,707

2,735

2,663

2,138

2,044

DE

n.a.

462a

n.a.

12,000a

n.a.

12,000a

n.a

0

DK

32

39

1,726

1,728a

1,132

1,159a

594

569 a

EE

n.a.

27a

n.a.

400 a

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

EL

1

1b

n.a.

1,849b

n.a.

1,849b

n.a.

0

ES

n.a.

51a

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

FI

1

7

48

25

n.a.

18

n.a.

7

FR

n.a.

29

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

HU

n.a.

33a

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

IE

1

6

750

950

n.a.

660

n.a.

290

IT

401f

475g

29,828f

32,248g

23,600f

25,512g

5,030f

5,437g

LTc

n.a.

276

n.a.

29,500

n.a.

23,100

n.a.

6,400

LUc

58d

73e

1,406d

1,572e

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

LV

n.a.

1a

n.a.

1,328a

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

MT

1

1

n.a.

116

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

NLi

130

550b

26,800j

24,000j

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

PL

61

6

42,000

30,000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

PTg

n.a.

n.a.

546f

3,507g

463f

2,857g

83f

650g

ROc

245

478

165,000

135,000

128,500

135,000

36,500

35,000

SE

10

4

102

125

n.a.

125

n.a.

17

SI

7d

7a

800d

259a

642d

259a

158d

64a

SK

1

12

n.a.

8,991

n.a.

8,991

n.a.

2,155

UK

n.a.

114h

n.a.

31,500

n.a.

31,500

n.a.

2,465

Notes: n.a. = not available, a = 2005, b = 2006, c = NACE 40 and 41, d = 1995, e = 2002, f = 1991, g = 2001, h = including oil, i = NACE 40, j = full-time equivalents.

Source: EIRO National centres, 2006

Table 2: Total employees in gas sector, 1993 and 2004
 

Total employees

Male employees

Female employees

Total sectoral employees as % of total employment in economy

Total sectoral employees as % of total employees in economy

  1993 2004 1993 2004 1993 2004 1993 2004 1993 2004
AT

n.a.

2,948

n.a.

2,402

n.a.

546

n.a.

0.08

n.a.

0.09

BE

992

982

825

766

167

216

n.a.

n.a.

0

0

BG

~1,500

~1,900

n.a.

~1,250

n.a.

~650

< 0.1

< 0.1

< 0.1

< 0.1

CZ

4,239

3,890

2,309

2,079

1,929

1,812

0.28

0.25

0.32

0.29

DE

n.a.

18,103a

n.a.

13,336a

n.a.

4,767a

n.a.

< 0.1a

n.a.

0.07a

DK

1,726

1,728a

1,132

1,159a

594

569a

0.07

0.06

0.07

0.07

EE

n.a.

400 a

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

0.07a

n.a.

0.07a

EL

n.a.

1,849b

n.a.

1,849b

n.a.

0b

n.a.

0.04

n.a.

0.03a

ES

4,154a

5,733a

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

0

0

FI

48

19

n.a.

15

n.a.

4

0

0

0

0.10

FR

n.a.

25,547

n.a.

20,054

n.a.

5,493

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

0.07

HU

11,908

13,392a

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

0.42

0.48a

IE

n.a.

850

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

0.05

n.a.

0.06

IT

29,264f

30,377g

24,100f

25,028g

5,150f

5,349g

0.2f

0.2g

0.3f

0.3g

LTc

n.a.

25,633a

n.a.

19,321a

n.a.

6,312a

n.a.

2.1

n.a.

2.6a

LUc

1,397d

1,562e

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

0.01d

0.01e

0.01d

0.01e

LV

n.a.

1,306a

n.a.

887a

n.a.

419a

n.a.

0.14a

n.a.

0.14a

MT

n.a.

85

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

0.08

n.a.

0.07

NLi

23,800g j

19,600j

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a

0.46

n.a.

PL

42,000

30,000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

0.27

0.22

0.27

0.27

PTg

510f

3,191g

430f

2,592g

80f

599g

0.01f

0.08g

0.02f

0.08g

ROc

164,000

132,000

129,000

98,000

36,000

34,000

0.02

0.02

0.04

0.03

SE

102

125

n.a.

83

n.a.

17

n.a

0

n.a.

0

SI

802d

311a

643d

247a

159d

64a

0d

0a

0d

0a

SK

n.a.

8,980

n.a.

6,825

n.a.

2,155

n.a.

0.45

n.a.

0.47

UK

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Notes: n.a. = not available, a = 2005, b = 2006, c = NACE 40 and 41, d = 1995, e = 2002, f = 1991, g = 2001, h = including oil, i = NACE 40, j = full-time equivalents.

Source: EIRO National centres, 2006


National level of interest representation

In many of the EU Member States, statutory regulations explicitly refer to the concept of representativeness, when assigning certain rights of interest representation and public governance to trade unions and/or employer organisations. The most important rights addressed by such regulations include: formal recognition as a party to collective bargaining; extension of the scope of a multi-employer collective agreement to employers not affiliated to the signatory employer organisation; and participation in public policy and tripartite bodies of social dialogue. Under these circumstances, representativeness is normally measured by the membership strength of the organisations. For instance, statutory extension provisions usually allow for extending a collective agreement to unaffiliated employers only when the signatory trade union and employer organisation represent 50% or more of the employees within the agreement’s domain (see Institut des Sciences du Travail (IST), Collective agreement extension mechanisms in EU member countries, Catholic University of Louvain, Typescript, 2001).

As outlined above, the representativeness of the national social partner organisations is pertinent to this study in connection with the capacity of their European umbrella organisations for participation in the European social dialogue. Hence, the role of the national actors in collective bargaining and public policymaking constitutes another important component of representativeness. The effectiveness of the European social dialogue tends to increase with growing ability of the national affiliates of the European organisations to regulate the employment terms and to influence national public policies affecting the sector.

As cross-national comparative analysis shows (see Traxler, F., ‘The metamorphoses of corporatism’, European Journal of Political Research, Vol. 43, No. 4, 2004, pp. 571–598), a generally positive correlation emerges between the bargaining role of the social partners and their involvement in public policy. Social partner organisations that are engaged in multi-employer bargaining are involved in state policies to a significantly greater extent than their counterparts in countries where multi-employer bargaining is lacking. The explanation for this finding is that only multi-employer agreements matter in macroeconomic terms, setting an incentive for governments to persistently seek the cooperation of the social partner organisations. If single-employer bargaining prevails in a country, none of the collective agreements will have a noticeable effect on the economy, due to their limited scope. As a result, the basis for generalised tripartite policy concertation will be absent.

In summary, representativeness is a multi-dimensional concept that embraces three basic elements: 1) the membership domain and membership strength of the social partner organisations; 2) their role in collective bargaining; and 3) their role in public policymaking.

Membership domains and strength

The membership domain of an organisation, as formally established by its constitution or name, demarcates its potential members from other groups which the organisation does not claim to represent. As explained above, this study considers only organisations whose domain relates to the gas sector. For reasons of space, it is impossible to outline in detail the domain demarcations of all of the organisations. Instead, the report notes how they relate to the sector by classifying them according to the four patterns of ‘sector-relatedness’, as specified earlier. Regarding membership strength, a differentiation exists between strength in terms of the absolute number of members and strength in relative terms. Research usually refers to relative membership strength as ‘density’, in other words the ratio of actual to potential members.

Furthermore, a difference also arises between trade unions and employer organisations when it comes to measuring membership strength. Trade union membership simply means the number of unionised persons. In addition to taking the total membership of a trade union as an indicator of its strength, it is also reasonable to break down this membership total by sex. However, the case of employer organisations is more complex since they organise collective entities, namely companies that employ employees. Hence, in this instance, two possible measures of membership strength may be used – one referring to the companies themselves, and the other to the employees working in the member companies of an employer organisation.

For a sectoral study such as this, measures of membership strength of both the trade unions and employer organisations have also to take into account how the membership domains relate to the sector. If a domain is not congruent with the sector demarcation, the organisation’s total density – that is density referring to its overall domain – may differ from sector-specific density – that is density referring to the sector. This report will first present the data on the domains and membership strength of the trade unions and will then look at data on the employer organisations.

Trade unions

The trade union data on both the domains and membership strength are shown in Table 3. This table lists all of the trade unions meeting the two criteria for classification of a sector-related social partner organisation, as set out earlier. Estonia is the only EU Member State where no sector-related trade union exists. In all of the other countries, a small number of trade unions – that is 6.0% – have defined their domain in a way which is congruent with the sector definition, such as the Hungarian Federation of Gas Industry Trade Union (Gázipari Szakszervezeti Szövetség, GSS) and the Romanian Federation of Trade Unions in the Gas Sector (Federatia Sindicatelor ‘Gaz-Romania’, FSGR). This underlines the fact that statistical definitions of business activities, such as the NACE classification, are rather different from the lines along which employees identify common interests and group together in trade unions.

Therefore, trade union domain demarcations in the gas sector most frequently result in overlap or sectional overlap, amounting to 42.2% in each of the two cases. Overlaps arise from fairly differing modes of domain demarcation, such as general cross-sectoral domains – the General Workers’ Union (GWU) of Malta, for example – or various forms of multi-sector domains, covering contiguous sectors, namely the broader energy sector, as does the Belgian Confederation of Christian Trade Unions – Gas and Electricity (Confédération des Syndicats Chrétiens/Algemeen Christelijk Vakverbond – Gas et Electricité, CSC/ACV-G&E) for example. Overlaps in multi-sector domains often occur in combination with other related industries, such as chemicals and mining, including: the Finnish Chemical Workers’ Union (Kemianliitto, CWU); the three Italian trade unions, the Chemicals, Energy and Manufacturing Federation (Federazione Italiana Lavoratori Chimici Energia Manifatture, Filcem), the Energy, Chemicals and Allied Industries Federation (Federazione Energia Moda, Chimica e Affini, Femcal) and the Italian Chemicals, Energy and Manufacturing Union (Unione Italiana Lavoratori Chimica Energia Manifatturiero, Uilcem); and the French Mining and Energy Workers’ Federation affiliated to the General Confederation of Labour (Fédération Nationale des Mines et de l’Énergie–Confédération générale du travail, FNME-CGT).

Sectional overlaps usually stem from domain demarcations which focus on certain categories of employees which are organised across several or all sectors of the economy. Such employee categories are specified according to various parameters, such as high educational and professional qualifications, distinct occupations or employment status. For example, the Danish Confederation of Professional Associations (Akademikernes Centralorganisation, AC) represents managers, academics and other university graduates in distinct professions, the Danish Union of Electricians (Dansk El-Forbund, DEF) groups together workers in electrical trades, and the following three trade unions represent white-collar workers – the Union of Salaried Private Sector Employees, Graphical Workers, Journalists and Paper Workers (Gewerkschaft der Privatangestellten, Druck, Journalismus und Papier, GPA-DJP) in Austria, the Union of Commercial and Clerical Employees (Handels og Kontorfunktionærernes Forbund, HK) in Denmark and the Swedish Association for Service and Communication (Facket för Service och Kommunikation, SEKO).

Reflecting the sector’s roots in state-controlled or public-owned undertakings, overlap or sectional overlap also results from the presence of trade unions whose domains include broader areas of the public sector such as, for example, the civil servant’s trade union Abvakabo and the public sector union CNV Publieke Zaak in the Netherlands and the Swedish Union for Publicly and Privately Employed Salaried Employees (SKTF) in Sweden. Finally, sectionalism representing 9.6% of the cases relates to the existence of company trade unions in several countries like Greece, Poland, and Slovenia. The former or still existing monopoly structure of the gas sector is an important reason for company unionism.

Table 3: Interest representation of trade unions, 2004–2005

Country

Domain cover- age

Membership

Density

Collective bargain- ing

Consul- tation

National and European affiliationsb

Members

Female member- shipa

Domain

Sector

AT                

- GPA-DJP

SO

276,000a

42.0%

22.0%

30%

Yes

yes

ÖGB, UNI Europa, EFFAT

- GMTN

SO

236,671a

17.5%a

80%

80%

yes

yes

ÖGB, EFFAT, EMF, ETUF-TCL, EMCEF

- GdC

SO

31,250

13.9%

65%

n.a.

yes

yes

ÖGB, EMCEF

- GdG

SO

163,000a

50.5%

81%

n.a.

yes

yes

ÖGB, EPSU, ETF

BE                

- CSC/ ACV-G&E

O+

6,216

n.a.

44%

38%

yes

yes

CSC/ACV, EMCEF*, EPSU*

- CGSP/ ACOD-Gas

O+

4,705

n.a.

34%

20%

yes

yes

FGTB/ABVV, EPSU

- CGSLB/ ACLVB-G&E

O+

324

n.a.

34%

1.5%

yes

yes

CGSLB/ACLVB, EMCEF*

BG                

- NFL

S

n.a.

33%

n.a.

n.a.

yes

n.a.

CITUB, EMCEF

- NCF

S

n.a.

33%

n.a.

n.a.

yes

n.a.

CL Podkrepa, EMCEF

CZ                

- UNIOS

O+

16,135

45.2%

n.a.

91.9%

yes

no

ČMKOS, EPSU

- OsT

C+

900

n.a.

n.a.

23.1

yes

no

DE                

- ver.di

SO+

2,359,392a

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

yes

yes

DGB, EPSU

- IGBC

SO+

748,852a

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

yes

yes

DGB, EMCEF

DK                

- Dansk Metal

SO

138,948

5%

80%

85%

yes

yes

LO, EMF, EPSU, EMCEF*

- DEF

SO+

30,016

1%

75%

85%

yes

yes

LO, EMCEF

- 3F

O

350,444

32%

70%–75%

85%

yes

yes

LO, EFBWW, EFFAT, ETF, UNI Europa, EPSU, EMCEF*

- HK

SO+

362,299

74%

45%–50%

65%

yes

yes

LO, DKK, ETF, UNI Europa, EMCEF*

- TL

SO+

30,413

41%

n.a.

80%

yes

yes

UNI Europa, EPSU

- AC

SO

165,905

42%

99%

99%

yes

yes

Eurocadres, EPSU*, EMF*

EE                

EL                

- SEDEPA

S

339

28.6%

100%

100%

yes

no

EMCEF*

ES                

- FIA-UGT

O+

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

10.5

yes

n.a.

UGT, EMCEF

- FITEQA-CC.OO

O+

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

yes

n.a.

CC.OO, EMCEF

- FESIQ-CGT

O+

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

yes

n.a.

n.a.

- ELA-STV-Gas

S+

86

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

yes

n.a.

ELA-STV, EMCEF, EPSU

FI                

- CWU

O+

48,760

52.0

88.0

100.0

yes

yes

SAK, EMCEF, ETUF-TCL

- TU

SO+

125,722

45.5

79.0

70.0

yes

yes

STTK, EMCEF, UNI, EFBWW, EMF, EFFAT, ETF

FR                

- FCE-CFDT

O+

62,000

26.0

n.a.

n.a.

yes

yes

CFPT, EMCEF

- FNME-CGT

O+

71,809

21.0

n.a.

n.a.

yes

yes

CGT, EMCEF, EPSU

- FNEM

O+

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

yes

yes

CGT-FO, EMCEF, EPSU

- UNSPIEG

O+

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

yes

n.a.

CFTC, EMCEF*, EPSU*

- FIEG

SO+

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

yes

yes

CFE-CGC, CEC

HU                

- GSS

C

3,055

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

yes

yes

ASZSV, EMCEF*

- MOL BS

SO

1,800

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

yes

yes

MSZOSZ

IE                

- SIPTU

O+

200,000

n.a.

90%

53%

yes

yes

ICTU, EPSU, EMCEF

- Amicus

O+

52,590

n.a.

75%

18%

yes

yes

ICTU

- ATGWU

O+

42,122

n.a.

90%

5%

yes

yes

ICTU, EPSU

- TEEU

SO+

37,025

n.a.

90%

9%

yes

yes

ICTU

IT                

- FILCEM

O+

165,869

10%–15%

21%

26%

yes

no

CGIL, EPSU, EMCEF

- FEMCA

O+

134,621

25%–30%

8%

12%

yes

no

CISL, EPSU, EMCEF, ETUF

- UILCEM

O+

78,500

10

10%

12%b

yes

no

UIL, EMCEF, EPSU

LT                

- LCPDPSF

O+

3,000

50%

30%

10%

yes***

no

LPSK

- LD-TUs

C+

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

yes

no

n.a.

- LVPPF

SO+

3,000

25%

~ 40%

8%

yes***

no

LPSK, EPSU

LU                

- SSE

O+

3,000

n.a.

n.a.

6.4%

yes

no

OGB-L, EPSU*, EMCEF*

- LCGB

O+

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

yes

yes

EPSU, EMCEF

LV                

- LAKRS

O

16,059

45.8%

64%

39%

yes

yes

LBAS, EPSU, EFFAT

MT                

- GWU

O+

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

99%

yes

yes

EMCEF, ETF, EFFAT, EPSU, EMF, ETUF-TCL, UNI,

EURO-WEA, FERPA

- EPOU

SO+

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

85%

yes

yes

NL                

- Abvakabo

O+

365,000

51%

25%

n.a.

yes

no

FNV, EPSU

- CNV Publieke Zaak

O+

79,000

33.33%

n.a.

n.a.

yes

no

CNV, EPSU

- VMHP-N

SO+

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

yes

no

MHP, Eurocadres*

- FNV-BG

O+

465,144

21%

n.a.

n.a.

yes

no

FNV, EMCEF, EPSU

- CNV Bedrijven-bond

O+

90,000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

yes

no

CNV, EMCEF

- VHP-G+

S+

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

yes

no

- De Unie

SO

100,000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

yes

no

PL                

- PZZ Kadra

O+

1,000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

yes

no

Federation of Trade Unions, EMCEF

- SGiE

O+

8,370

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

yes

no

NSZZ Solidarnosc, EMCEF

- FZZGNiG

O+

8,000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

yes

no

OPZZ, EMCEF

- ZZP PGNiG S.A.

S+

500

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

yes

no

PT                

- SINQUIFA

SO+

8,268a

30%a

16.1%a

6.3%

yes

no

CGTP, EMF*

- SINORQUIFA

SO+

4,336a

19%a

8.5%

0.4%

yes

no

CGTP, EMF*

- SIESI

SO+

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

1.1%

yes

no

CGTP

- SINDEL

O+

9,200

33%

n.a.

0.1%

yes

no

UGT, EMCEF, EPSU

- SINDEQ

O+

7,000

n.a.

13.7%

0.1%

yes

no

UGT, EMCEF

- SITESE

SO+

11,000

n.a.

n.a.

0.4%

yes

no

UGT, UNI

RO                

- FSGR

C+

25,000

28%

95%

n.a.

yes

no

CNSLR, EMCEF, EPSU

- FSGMM

S+

1,000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

yes

no

BNS, EPSU

SE                

- CF

SO+

120,000

29%

n.a.

40%

yes

no

EMCEF

- SEKO

SO+

149,000

30%

n.a.

9%

yes

no

EMCEF, EPSU

- SKTF

SO+

170,000

75%

n.a.

5%

yes

no

EPSU, Eurocadres

- SIF

SO+

355,000

38%

n.a.

27%

yes

yes++

TCO, Eurocadres, EMCEF

SI                

- SDE

O+

7,443

17%

n.a.

11.0

yes***

no

ZSSS, EPSU, EMCEF

- SDP

S+

90

n.a.

70%

n.a.

yes

no

SDE, ZSSS

SK                

- POZ

C

3,463

30%

38.6%

38.6%

no

yes++

KOZ SR, EPSU

UK                

- Amicus

SO+

1,200,000a

n.a.

n.a.

13%

yes

yes

TUC, EPSU, EMCEF

- TGWU

SO+

800,000

n.a.

66%

n.a.

yes

yes

TUC, EPSU, EMCEF

- Balpa

SO

9,000

< 1%

95%

n.a.

yes

yes

TUC

- RMT

SO

75,000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

yes

yes

TUC

- Numast

SO

19,000

1.5%

75%

n.a.

yes

yes

TUC

- GMB

SO+

650,000

40%

n.a.

n.a.

yes

yes

TUC, EPSU, EMCEF

- OILC

SO

1,200

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

yes

yes

–––

- Prospect

SO

102,000

2%

n.a.

n.a.

no

n.a.

EPSU

- Unison

O+

1,400,000

70%

n.a.

n.a.

yes

yes

TUC, EPSU

Notes: See Annex for list of abbreviations and full names of organisations.

n.a. = not available, * = indirect affiliation via higher-order national organisation or affiliates, ** = national affiliations in italics, only cross-sectoral (i.e. peak-level) organisations are listed, and for the European level sector-related organisations only, *** = indirect involvement via lower-level affiliates.

+= domain overlap, ++ = indirect consultation via peak organisation.

a= 2006, b = figure probably inflated.

O = overlap, SO = sectional overlap, S = sectionalism, C = congruence

Source: EIRO National centres, 2006

As the domains of the trade unions often overlap with the demarcation of the sector, they also overlap with one another in most countries. The results in Table 3 also illustrate these inter-union domain overlaps, which may be considered as endemic. In the majority of countries, the domain of any sector-related trade union overlaps with the domain of all of the other unions in the sector. Depending on the scale of mutual overlap, this results in competition between the trade unions for members.

Looking at the membership data of the trade unions, the proportion of female members appears to be notably less than that of male members in most of the unions for which membership figures by sex are available (Table 3). However, a few of the trade unions show a female membership rate exceeding 50%. Such findings are surprising and do not reflect the sector’s gender composition, as the majority of employees working in the gas sector are men in almost all of the countries (Table 1). When analysing these findings, it appears that the domain of all of the trade unions recording a majority of female members is overlapping or partly overlapping in relation to the sector demarcation. Hence, the predominance of female members in these trade unions is likely to originate in areas of their domains other than the gas sector.

Membership is usually voluntary in the trade unions. However, all of the Irish trade unions in the gas sector, with the exception of Amicus, can rely on closed shop arrangements, stipulating that employees, if covered by certain pay grades, must be unionised.

The absolute numbers of the trade union members differ widely. Their records range from more than two million members to fewer than one hundred members. This considerable variation reflects differences in the size of the economy and the comprehensiveness of the membership domain, rather than in the trade unions’ ability to attract members. Therefore, density is a more appropriate measure of membership strength for a comparative analysis. Domain density is 50% or higher in the case of 57% of the trade unions which document figures on density (Table 3). Almost half of all the unions – that is 45.7% – gather 70% or more of the employees within their domain while only 11.4% of the trade unions organise fewer than 15% of the employees within their domain. Most of the remaining trade unions – that is 31.4% – record a density of in between 15% and 49% of their potential members. Overall, domain density is rather high.

When comparing the density ratio referring to the trade unions’ domain on aggregate with that referring to the gas sector, it tends to be lower in the gas sector. Sectoral density stands at 70% or higher in the case of 27.3% of the trade unions for which data are available, and 4.6% of trade unions document densities ranging from 50% to 70%. Some 45.5% of the trade unions show a sectoral density below 15%, while 22.7% of the unions represent in between 15% and 49% of the sector’s employees. The lower sectoral density relative to the aggregate density is also evident in those trade unions for which figures on both measures are recorded. In most of these cases, sectoral density is more or less below the density on aggregate, although a significant number of trade unions also show the reverse relationship between the two densities. Taking the sector’s small size into consideration, these findings imply that the gas sector is usually not trade unions’ membership stronghold, neither in absolute nor in relative terms. However, anecdotal evidence from the country reports suggests that unionisation rates are rather high in the former monopoly suppliers and in those companies that were or still are owned by the state. In comparison with many other sectors of the economy, the gas sector’s trade unions seem to be very strong, as the very high levels of collective bargaining coverage also indicate (see below). This strength results from two main sources. On the one hand, the gas sector like the energy sector in general provides other industries as well as households with a key resource – a fact that makes strikes very effective. On the other hand, widespread public ownership of the sector’s companies has been favourable to unionisation.

Employer organisations

Table 4 presents the membership data on employer organisations. For 16 out of the 26 countries surveyed employer organisations are documented. Since 2004, however, this number has declined, because the Romanian Oil and Gas Employer Federation (FFPG) has lost its status as an employer organisation. It is also worth noting that in two of these countries, namely Spain and Hungary, the listed employer organisations do not partake in collective bargaining. In this study, they are classified as social partner organisations only due to their European-level affiliation to Eurogas. This means that half of the 26 countries surveyed have employer organisations engaged in collective bargaining. However, 11 countries do not register any employer organisation that meets the definition of a social partner organisation, as mentioned earlier. This situation does not mean that business has remained unorganised. In general, business interest organisations may also deal with interests other than those related to industrial relations. Organisations specialised in matters other than industrial relations are commonly classified as trade associations (see TN0311101S). Such sector-related trade associations also exist in the gas sector. As far as their national scope of activities is concerned, all of the employer organisations which, according to Table 4, are not involved in collective bargaining primarily or exclusively act as trade associations in their country. It is only the conceptual decision to include all associational affiliates to Eurogas regardless of a role in national bargaining which gives these associations the status of a social partner organisation within the framework of this study. Of the 31 employer organisations listed in Table 4, seven organisations belong to this group.

Table 4: Domain coverage, membership and density of employer organisations, 2004–2005

Country

Domain cover-age

Membership

Density

Typea

Companies

Employees

Companies

Employees

Domain

Sector

Domain

Sector

AT                

- FVMI

SO+

oblig.

24a

3,911a

100%

n.a.

100%

n.a.

- FGW

S+

oblig.

427

4,393

100%

n.a.

100%

n.a.

BE                

- FEBEG

O+

vol.

20

14,681

100%

100%

100%

100%

- Synergrid

O+

vol.

31

n.a.

100%

100%

100%

100%

BG

CZ                

- ČPU

S

vol.

10

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

DE                

- VAEU

SO+

vol.

361a

139,027a

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

- VKA

SO+

vol.

n.a.

2,000,000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

- BGW

O+

vol.

1,300

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

DK                

- DI

O+

vol.

7,000

370,000

n.a.

n.a.

70%

17%

- KL

SO+

vol.

98c

472,000

100%

100%

100%

100%

EE

EL

ES                

- SEDIGAS

O

vol.

49

n.a.

96.1%

96.1%

n.a.

n.a.

FI                

- CIF

O

vol.

375

32,750

40%

43%

80%

79%

FR                

- UNEMIG

S+

vol.

20

23,000

100%

n.a.

100%

n.a.

- UFE

SO+

vol.

n.a.

n.a.

100%

n.a.

100.0%

n.a.

- AFG

S

vol.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

HU                

- GE

S

vol.

7

5,272

19%

18%

81.5%

39.4%

IE

IT                

- ANIGAS

C+

vol.

92

9,060

19%

19%

30%

30%

- ASSOGAS

C+

vol.

98

3,000

21%

21%

10%

10%

- FEDERES= TRATTIVA

C+

vol.

20

5,000

4%

4%

16%

16%

- FEDER= UTILITY

SO+

vol.

522

45,000

26%

41%

39%

43%

LT

LU

LV

MT                

- GRTU

SO

vol.

31

24

100%

100%

100%

100%

NL                

- WENb

O+

vol.

52-55

24,500

n.a.

80%–90%

n.a.

~ 90%

- EnergieNad

O+

vol.

29

n.a.

98%

98%

~ 100%

~ 100%

PL

PT

RO                

- FPPGb

O

vol.

95

70,000

70%

n.a.

80%

n.a.

SE                

- EFA+

SO

vol.

141

18,914

n.a.

50%

n.a.

69%

- KFS+

SO

vol.

550

31,000

n.a.

25%

n.a.

13%

- SGF

SO

vol.

100

n.a.

n.a.

100%

n.a.

100%

SI                

- ZDS

O+

vol.

1,347

204,658

n.a.

28.5

n.a.

90.6%

- GZS

O+

oblig.

n.a.

n.a.

100%

100%

100%

100%

SK

UK                

- COTA

S

vol.

4

3,000

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

1.2%

- UKDCA

SO

vol.

9

6,500

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

5%

Notes: See Annex for list of abbreviations and full names of organisations.

O = overlap, S = sectionalism, SO = sectional overlap, n.a. = not available, oblig. = obligatory membership, vol. = voluntary membership.

a= 2006, b = until 2006, c = municipalities.

* = only sector-related European organisations listed, + = domain overlap, ++ = member companies jointly conduct collective bargaining.

Source: EIRO national centres, 2006

Table 5: Collective bargaining, consultation and national/European affiliations of employer organisations, 2004–2005

Country

Collective bargaining

Consultation

National and European affiliationsa

AT      
- FVMI

voluntary

voluntary

WKÖ

- FGW

voluntary

voluntary

WKÖ, Euroheat & Power, Eurogas

BE      
- FEBEG

voluntary

voluntary

VBO/FEB

- Synergrid

obligatory

n.a.

VBO/FEB, Eurogas

BG

CZ      
- ČPU

voluntary

obligatory

Eurogas

DE      
- VAEU

voluntary

obligatory

BDA

- VKA

voluntary

obligatory

- BGW

obligatory

voluntary

Eurogas

DK      
- DI

voluntary

obligatory

DA

- KL

voluntary

obligatory

CEEP, CEMR, UCLG, ALDA

EE

EL

ES      
- SEDIGAS

obligatory

n.a.

Eurogas, Marcogaz

FI      
- CIF

voluntary

voluntary

EK, CEFIC

FR      
- UNEMIG

voluntary

n.a.

- UFE

voluntary

voluntary

- AFG

obligatory

n.a.

Eurogas

HU      
- GE

obligatory ++

voluntary

Eurogas, GEODE, Marcogaz

IE

IT      
- ANIGAS

voluntary

obligatory

Confindustria, Eurogas

- ASSOGAS

voluntary

obligatory

Confindustria, Eurogas

- FEDERES= TRATTIVA

voluntary

obligatory

Confindustria, Eurogas

- FEDER= UTILITY

voluntary

obligatory

Confservizi, EUREAU, CEDEC

LT

LU

LV

MT      
- GRTU

voluntary

n.a.

NL      
- WENb

voluntary

obligatory

AWVN, VNO-NCW, Eurelectric

- EnergieNad

obligatory

voluntary

VNO-NCW, Eurogas, Eurelectric, Euro Heat & Power

PL

PT

RO      
- FPPGb

voluntaryb

obligatory

CPISC, ACPR

SE      
- EFA+

voluntary

obligatory

- KFS+

voluntary

obligatory

CEEP

- SGF

obligatory

voluntary

Eurogas, ENGVA, AEGPL

SI      
- ZDS

voluntary

obligatory

- GZS

voluntary

obligatory

EICTA

SK

UK      
- COTA

voluntary

voluntary

- UKDCA

voluntary

voluntary

Notes: See Annex for list of abbreviations and full names of organisations; national affiliations in italics.

O = overlap, S = sectionalism, SO = sectional overlap, n.a. = not available.

a= 2006, b = until 2006, c = municipalities.

* = only sector-related European organisations listed, + = domain overlap, ++ = member companies jointly conduct collective bargaining.

Source: EIRO national centres, 2006

In one third of the countries where employer associations exist, only one single employer organisation is established. Pluralist associational systems are thus far less frequent on the employer side than on the side of labour. Regardless of this, the domains of employer organisations tend to be defined in a narrower sense than those of the trade unions, with 32.3% and 35.5% of these organisations showing overlapping domains and partly overlapping domains, respectively. The domains of the two Slovenian employer organisations – namely, the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Slovenia (Gospodarska zbornica Slovenije, GZS) and the Slovenian Employers’ Association (Zdruzenje delodajalcev Slovenije, ZDS) – are cross-sectoral. Alternatively, domain overlaps often result from the fact that employer organisations cover the energy sector as a whole or certain parts of it, such as the electricity subsector. Domain overlaps of this type can be found in Belgium, France and the Netherlands. The Chemical Industry Federation of Finland (Kemianteollisuus, CIF) covers the chemicals industry as well as the gas sector. Sectionalism or sectional overlaps, which occur in the case of broader domain demarcation in terms of the sector classification, are mainly due to the specific organisation of gas extraction and gas distribution on the one hand, such as in Austria and the Czech Republic, and the separate organisation of private and public companies on the other, such as in Denmark, France and Germany. In all, 22.6% of employer organisations are sectionalist with regard to their domain while 9.7% of the organisations have a domain congruent with the sector definition. Three employer organisations rely on obligatory membership due to their public-law status as chambers of commerce: the Austrian Petroleum Industry Association (Fachverband der Mineralölindustrie, FVMI) and the Association of Gas and District Heating Supply Companies (Fachverband der Gas- und Wärmeversorgungsunternehmen, FGW), as well as the Slovenian GZS. However, due to recent legislation GZS must become a voluntary employer organisation within the next three years.

As regards the two chamber organisations, the density is, by law, 100% in terms of both companies and employees. Nevertheless, density is also very high in most voluntary employer organisations, with the notable exception of the UK organisations. A relatively high density in organisations with voluntary membership is particularly true in terms of the density of employees covered. Some 73.3% of employer organisations for which related data are available cover at least 70% of the employees relative to their domain, and 52.6% of organisations do so relative to the sector. The comparable figures for density in terms of companies are 57.1% and 43.8%, respectively. In most of these cases, density amounts to 100%. Overall, sectoral density in terms of employees is not lower than domain density, which is in direct contrast with the trade union density levels. One reason for this is that the domain of the employer organisations is more tailored to the sector demarcation. The fact that density in terms of companies tends to be lower than density in terms of employees indicates that the tendency of companies to associate increases with company size.

Collective bargaining and its actors

Table 3 lists all of the trade unions engaged in sector-related collective bargaining, while Tables 4 and 5 show the corresponding data for employer organisations. Despite the numerous cases of inter-union domain overlapping in countries characterised by a multi-union situation, there are relatively few cases of inter-union competition for bargaining rights. In Portugal, such competition is present in the form of two valid collective agreements covering the sector, one signed by the Federation of Metalworking, Mining, Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Petroleum and Gas Workers’ Unions (Federação Federação Intersindical da Metalúrgia, Minas, Química, Farmacêutica, Petróleo e Gaz, Fequimetal) and the other one by several sector-related trade unions affiliated to the General Workers’ Union (União Geral de Trabalhadores, UGT). Inter-union competition over bargaining rights is also reported for Sweden. In the UK, rivalries exist between trade unions with overlapping domains, which nevertheless bargain jointly with different employer representatives.

Unlike the unions, no competition over collective bargaining rights is documented with regard to the employer organisations. This may change in Slovenia, since GZS has to shift from obligatory to voluntary membership within one year following the parliament’s adoption of the new Law on Chambers of Commerce and Industry (SI0606019I) in May 2006. This may unleash competition among Slovenian employer organisations in the gas sector for members and representational rights. Overall, the gas sector's bargaining system is not beset with problems of inter-associational rivalries.

Table 6 provides an overview of the system of sector-related collective bargaining in the 26 countries under consideration. The standard measure of the importance of collective bargaining as a means of employment regulation calculates the total number of employees covered by collective bargaining as a proportion of the total number of employees within a certain segment of the economy (see Traxler, F., Blaschke, S. and Kittel, B., National labour relations in internationalised markets, Oxford University Press, 2001). Accordingly, the sector’s rate of collective bargaining coverage is defined as the ratio of the number of employees covered by any kind of collective agreement to the total number of employees in the sector.

To delineate the bargaining system, two further indicators are used. The first indicator refers to the relevance of multi-employer bargaining, compared with single-employer bargaining. Multi-employer bargaining is defined as being conducted by an employer organisation on behalf of the employer side. In the case of single-employer bargaining, the company or its subunits are the party to the agreement. This includes cases where two or more companies jointly negotiate an agreement. The relative importance of multi-employer bargaining, measured as a percentage of the total number of employees covered by a collective agreement, therefore indicates the impact of the employer organisations on the overall process of collective bargaining.

The second indicator considers whether statutory extension schemes are applied to the sector. For reasons of brevity, this analysis is confined to extension schemes designed to extend the scope of a collective agreement to employers not affiliated to the signatory employer organisation; extension regulations targeting the employees are thus not included in this study. Regulations concerning the employees are not significant to this analysis for two reasons. Firstly, extending a collective agreement to employees who are not unionised in the company covered by the collective agreement is a standard of the International Labour Organization (ILO), aside from any national legislation. Secondly, employers have good reason to extend a collective agreement concluded by themselves, even when they are not formally obliged to do so. Otherwise, their workforce may become motivated to unionise.

In comparison with employee-related extension procedures, schemes that target employers are far more important to the strength of collective bargaining in general and of multi-employer bargaining in particular. This is because employers are capable of refraining from both joining an employer organisation and also from entering single-employer bargaining in the context of a purely voluntary system. Therefore, employer-related extension practices increase the coverage of multi-employer bargaining. Moreover, when it is pervasive, an extension agreement may encourage employers to join the controlling employer organisation; such a move, in turn, enables them to participate in the bargaining process and to benefit from the organisation’s related services in a situation when the respective collective agreement will bind them regardless (see Traxler, F., Blaschke, S. and Kittel, B., 2001).

Since extension schemes can be applied only to multi-employer agreements, the widespread practice of single-employer bargaining limits their use even in cases where labour law provides for such schemes. Pervasive extension practices of multi-employer agreements have been reported for Belgium, Finland, France and Romania, while such practices are rather limited in the Czech Republic. When referring to the aim of extension provisions, that is making multi-employer agreements generally binding, one should also mention the provisions for obligatory membership in the Chambers of Commerce and Industry in Austria and Slovenia. These chambers also create an extension effect, since they are parties to multi-employer bargaining in their respective country. Another functional equivalent to statutory extension schemes can be found in Italy. According to the country’s constitution, minimum conditions of employment must apply to all employees. The labour court rulings relate this principle to the multi-employer agreements, such that they are seen as being generally binding (see IST, 2001).

Table 6: System of sectoral collective bargaining, 2004–2005

Country

Collective bargaining coverage (CBC)

Proportion of multi-employer bargaining (MEB) as % of total CBC

Extension practices

AT

100%

60%

(pervasive)

BE

100%

100%

pervasive

BG

30%

0%

none

CZ

100%

100%

limited

DE

>90%

n.a.

none

DK

85%

100%

none

EE

0%

none

EL

100%

0%

none

ES

90%

0%

none

FI

100%

100%

pervasive

FR

100%

83.6%

pervasive

HU

41%

50%

none

IE

83%

0%

none

IT

100%

100%

(pervasive)

LT

100%

0%

none

LU

6.7%

0%

none

LV

100%

0%

none

MT

>72%

0%

none

NL

~ 92%b

~ 94.5%b

none

PL

80%

0%

none

PT

11%

0%

none

RO

80%–90%

100%

pervasive

SE

100%

100%

none

SI

100%

MEB prevailing

(pervasive)

SK

99%–100%

0%

none

UK

70%a

SEB prevailing

none

Notes: Collective bargaining coverage means employees covered as a percentage of the total number of employees in the sector. Multi-employer bargaining is noted relative to single-employer bargaining (SEB). Extension practices include functional equivalents to extension provisions, namely obligatory membership and labour court rulings; cases of functional equivalents appear in parentheses.

a= offshore only, b = energy sector.

Source: EIRO national centres, 2006

Collective bargaining coverage

In terms of the gas sector’s collective bargaining coverage, 19 of the 26 countries for which national figures are documented register a very high coverage rate of 80% or more of employees. In this respect, Estonia is the most notable exception in that collective bargaining is completely absent in the Estonian gas sector due to a lack of sector-related trade union organisations. In four of the countries surveyed, namely Bulgaria, Hungary, Luxembourg and Portugal, the coverage rate is below 50%. In Romania, the future of collective bargaining remains uncertain, after the sector’s employer organisations lost their bargaining mandate in 2004.

Depending on national circumstances, a combination of factors account for the generally high coverage rates: namely, multi-employer bargaining coincides with a high density of trade unions and/or employer organisations, as is the case in Denmark and the Netherlands. Belgium, France and Finland are countries with a high bargaining coverage backed by both high density rates and pervasive extension practices. In the case of Austria and Slovenia, obligatory membership in the employer organisations works as a functional equivalent to pervasive extension. While bargaining coverage is generally very high in countries with prevalent multi-employer bargaining, a greater variance exists across countries operating under single-employer bargaining. In such circumstances, bargaining coverage ranges from 6.7% as seen in Luxembourg to 100% as seen in Greece. Overall bargaining coverage in systems of single-employer bargaining is contingent on trade union density which interacts with the economic concentration of a sector. Unionisation generally increases with company size (see Visser, J., ‘Trends in trade union membership’, in OECD Employment Outlook 1991, Paris, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 1991). The relatively high economic concentration of the gas sector in terms of employment therefore contributes to both unionisation and collective bargaining coverage; it also explains why bargaining coverage is very high in countries with predominant single-employer bargaining.

Overall, the relative importance of multi-employer bargaining can be roughly estimated in all of the countries surveyed, with the exception of Germany. Multi-employer bargaining prevails in 11 countries, including Romania, compared with the 12 countries characterised by predominant single-employer bargaining. In Hungary, multi and single-employer bargaining account for approximately the same proportion of employees covered. It should be noted, however, that multi-employer bargaining does not mean sector-level bargaining in all of these cases. In Slovenia, for instance, the gas sector is covered by an all-encompassing central collective agreement. Furthermore, multi-employer bargaining is often supplemented by company bargaining.

In Germany, besides the multi-employer agreements and single-employer agreements, a hybrid form of collective agreement exists which is almost unique. In the case of the following energy supply companies, RWE, E.On Ruhrgas and Vattenfall and their subsidiaries, the respective collective agreements are concluded between the employer organisation and a trade union. While these collective agreements could be defined as company agreements, a representative of the United Services Union (Vereinte Dienstleistungsgewerkschaft, ver.di) believes that these agreements are sectoral collective agreements. The trade union representative argues that they cover a wide range of local and regional subsidiaries including some companies formerly owned by local municipalities.

No data are available on the number of employees covered by either single-employer agreements or multi-employer agreements. In Germany, it is to be assumed that the number of employees covered by either single-employer agreements or the RWE, E.On Ruhrgas or Vattenfall collective agreements is greater than the number of employees covered by the traditional form of multi-employer agreements.

Participation in public policymaking

Interest associations may partake in public policy in two basic ways: they may be consulted by the authorities in matters affecting their members; or they may be represented on ‘corporatist’, in other words tripartite, committees and boards of policy concertation. This study considers only cases of consultation and corporatist participation that are suited to sector-specific matters. Consultation processes are not necessarily institutionalised, meaning that the organisations consulted by the authorities may vary according to the issues being addressed and over time, depending on changes in government. Moreover, the authorities may initiate a consultation process on an occasional rather than a regular basis. Given this volatility, Tables 3–5 designate only those sector-related trade unions and employer organisations that are usually consulted.

Trade unions

The system of reiterated consultation applies to trade unions in the vast majority of countries for which data are available: some14 out of the 23 countries surveyed report regular consultation processes with trade unions. Since a multi-union system is established in almost all of the countries, it is possible that the authorities may prefer to consult certain trade unions or that the unions compete for participation rights. However, in most countries where a noticeable practice of consultation is found, any of the existing trade unions can take part in the consultation processes. Therefore, inter-union conflicts over participation in public policy are not a prominent issue.

Employer organisation

Due to their monopoly-like position in many countries, any conflict over participation rights is absent in the case of the sector-related employer organisations. In nine of the 15 countries, for which data are available, employer organisations have regular access to consultation in sector-related matters. In the multi-associational system of Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden, not all of the system’s associations are consulted. In most countries where employer organisations co-exist with trade unions, consultation rights are equally weighted for the two sides of industry. Of the 14 countries for which information on consultation is reported for organised business and labour, representatives of both sides of industry partake in consultation procedures in eight countries, while neither side participates in four countries. Asymmetrical consultation practices are established in Denmark and the Netherlands. In those countries where no employer organisations are considered to be a social partner organisation in the sense of the aforementioned definition, business is not necessarily excluded from consultation procedures. Under these circumstances, sectoral trade associations may be consulted. In Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden, only those associations that qualify as a social partner organisation due to their affiliation to Eurogas are consulted on behalf of business. Otherwise, they would belong to the group of trade associations only. This finding suggests that consultation in the gas sector deals with product market interests rather than labour market interests. In addition to the various business associations, large companies may directly be involved in consultation procedures, in particular when policymaking follows the pattern of a ‘company state’ rather than that of an ‘associative state’ (see Grant, W., Business and politics in Britain, London, Macmillan, 1987).

Tripartite participation

Turning from consultation to tripartite participation, the research reveals that genuinely sector-specific tripartite bodies are established in only a few of the countries, namely Austria, Belgium, France, Portugal, Romania and Slovenia. Hence, Table 7 which summarises the main properties of the active tripartite boards of public policy also includes those bodies specialised in the energy sector. All of these tripartite committees are statutory bodies, with the exception of the Slovenian Economic Social Committee for Energy which exists on the basis of a bipartite social partner agreement. Most of these bodies concentrate on product market regulation, with the aim of supporting efforts to liberalise the sector. Only the tripartite boards of Romania and Slovenia also focus on labour market issues. With regard to the composition of these bodies, cross-sectoral peak organisations often participate instead of or together with sector-related associations on both sides of industry. The strong presence of peak organisations underlines the product-market focus of these boards. It is an important task of these tripartite bodies to reconcile the sector’s companies’ interests with those of their customers, including industrial consumers of other sectors of the economy. As a consequence, associations representing various consumer groups are also members of the tripartite board in Belgium and Portugal. In France and Portugal, company representatives are appointed to the board in addition to representatives of the sector’s organisations.

Table 7: Tripartite sector-specific boards of public policy

Country

Name of body and scope of activity

Origin

Participants

Trade unions

Business associations

AT

Gas advisory committee on any matters of gas

Statutory

ÖGB

WKÖ

BE

Commission for the regulation of electricity and gas*

Statutory

CSC/ACV, FGTB/ABVV, CGSLB/ACLVB

FEB/VBO, UNIZO, FEBEG, INTERREGIES, INTERMIXT, FEBELIEC

plus consumer organisations

FR

Higher Energy Council on any matter of energy

Statutory

FNME-CGT, FCE-CFDT, FNEM-FO, FIEG-CFE-CGC

UFE, other business associations and company representatives

PT

Advisory board on the regulation of the energy sector

Statutory

CGTP, UGT

CIP, CCP, CAP, CTP

plus other associations, companies and consumer organisations

RO

Social dialogue committee

Statutory

FSGR, FSGMM

FPPG

SI

Economic Social Committee for Energy dealing with the sector’s labour market issues

Agreement

SDE, SPES

GZS, ZDS

Notes: * Including boards which also cover (other parts of) the energy sector. See Annex for list of abbreviations and full names of organisations.

Source: EIRO National centres, 2006


European level of interest representation

At European level, eligibility for consultation and participation in social dialogue is linked to three criteria, as defined by the Commission. Accordingly, a social partner organisation must have the following attributes:

  • be cross-industry, or relate to specific sectors or categories and be organised at European level;
  • consist of organisations that are themselves an integral and recognised part of Member States’ social partner structures, which have a capacity to negotiate agreements and which are representative of all Member States, as far as possible;
  • have adequate structures to ensure the effective participation in the consultation process.

In terms of social dialogue, the constituent property of these structures is the ability of an organisation to negotiate on behalf of its members and to conclude binding agreements. In light of this, the following section on the European organisations of the gas sector will analyse the organisations’ membership domain, the composition of their membership and their ability to negotiate.

Membership domain

As already mentioned, this study focuses on the European Mine Chemical and Energy Workers’ Federation (EMCEF), European Federation of Public Service Unions (EPSU) and Eurogas in the course of its ‘top-down’ review of the European-level social partner organisations. ‘Bottom-up’ information on other European associations is derived from the European affiliations of the sector’s national industrial relations actors.

According to its constitution, the membership domain of EMCEF comprises workers in sectors such as: mining, mineral oil, gas, energy, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, rubber, plastics, glass, ceramics, cement, quarries, pulp, paper, waste disposal, environmental and other related industries. EPSU embraces national, regional and local government bodies, as well as related international organisations and public undertakings engaged in the following fields: production, distribution and supply of electricity, gas and water; health, environmental and social services; and educational, cultural and recreational services. As a result, the domain of EMCEF overlaps relative to the sector, while the domain of EPSU overlaps in terms of a section. The domain of Eurogas largely corresponds with the sector’s demarcation, as this oganisation represents the natural gas industry. Eurogas is based on a dual structure of membership in that it organises both business associations and companies.

Membership composition

In terms of the membership composition of EMCEF, EPSU and Eurogas, it should be noted that these organisations also cover countries other than the 26 EU Member States examined in this study. However, this report only looks at the membership composition of the 26 countries under examination, of which Estonia lacks any sector-level social partner organisation. Furthermore, the overview will be limited to those organisations affiliated to EMCEF and EPSU whose domain is related to the gas sector insofar as these organisations gather employees of the gas sector as members.

Table 8 lists the members of EMCEF and shows that in five countries, namely the Czech Republic, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia and Slovakia, no national trade unions are affiliated to EMCEF. In many of the countries surveyed, several trade unions are members of EMCEF. Overall, EMCEF has 42 direct trade union affiliations from the 26 EU Member States surveyed. EPSU members from these countries are shown in Table 9. EPSU has 38 trade union affiliations from 20 countries. Between them, EMCEF and EPSU cover all of the 26 countries, with the exception of Estonia where no gas sector-related trade union is established. Around 74% of the trade unions listed in Table 3 are affiliated to EMCEF and/or EPSU. As far as available data on trade union membership provide sufficient information on the unions’ relative strength in their country, it appears that EMCEF and EPSU cover the sector’s most important labour representatives. However, some exceptions exist where important national sector-related trade unions are not covered at European level, including trade unions in Austria, Hungary, Ireland, Lithuania, the Netherlands and Portugal. Nonetheless, other important sector-related trade unions of these countries are represented at European level. All sector-related members of EMCEF are involved in collective bargaining, which is also the case of all sector-related EPSU members, with the exception of its Slovakian member, the Gas Industry Trade Union Association (Plynárenský odborový zväz, POZ). This means that neither EMCEF nor EPSU have a sector-related member engaged in collective bargaining in Slovakia.

Table 8: Members of EMCEF, 2006a

Country

Members

AT

GMTN*, GdC*

BE

CSC/ACV MECC (CSC/ACV-G&E)*, CGSLB/ACLVB (CGSLB/ACLVB -G&E*)

BG

NFL*, NCF*

CZ

–––

DE

IGBCE*

DK

DEF*, CO Industri (Dansk Metal*, HK*, 3F*)

EE

–––

EL

PFEPPRCI (SEDEPA)*

ES

FIA-UGT*, FITEQA-CCOO*, ELA-STV*

FI

TU*, CWU*

FR

FCE-CFDT*, FNME-CGT*, FNEM-FO*, CMTE-CFTC (UNSPIEG)*

HU

VDSZ (GSS)*

IE

SIPTU*

IT

UILCEM*, FEMCA-CISL*, FILCEM-CGIL*

LT

–––

LU

OGB-L (SSE)*, LCGB*

LV

–––

MT

GWU*

NL

FNV-BG*, CNV Bedrijvenbond*

PL

SGiE*, FZZGNiG*, PZZ Kadra*

PT

SINDEL*, SINDEQ*

RO

FSGR*

SE

CF*, SEKO*, SIF*

SI

SDE*

SK

–––

UK

GMB*, TGWU*, Amicus*

Notes: a List is confined to the sector-related trade unions of the 26 countries under examination. See Annex for list of abbreviations and full names of organisations.

* Involvement in sector-related collective bargaining.

** Associations in brackets are sector-related trade unions listed in Table 3 which are indirectly affiliated to EMCEF via national higher-order organisations.

Source: EIRO national centres, 2006

Table 9: Members of EPSU, 2006a

Country

Members

AT

GdG*

BE

GNC-CNE (CSC/ADV-G&E)*, CGSP/ACOD-G*

BG

–––

CZ

UNIOS*

DE

ver.di*

DK

Dansk Metal*, 3F*, TL*, DJØF (AC*)

EE

–––

EL

–––

ES

ELA-STV*

FI

–––

FR

FNME-CGT*, FNEM-FO*, CMTE-CFTC (UNSPIEG)*

HU

–––

IE

SIPTU*, ATGWU*

IT

FILCEM-CGIL*, FEMCA-CISL*, UILCEM*

LT

LVPPF*

LU

CGTL (SSE)*, LCGB*

LV

LAKRS*

MT

GWU*

NL

Abvakabo*, FNV-BG*, CNV Publieke Zaak*

PL

–––

PT

SINDEL*

RO

FSGR*, FSGMM*

SE

SEKO*, SKTF*

SI

SDE*

SK

POZ

UK

GMB*, TGWU*, Amicus*, UNISON*, PROSPECT

Notes: a List is confined to the sector-related trade unions of the 26 countries under examination. See Annex for list of abbreviations and full names of organisations.

* Involvement in sector-related collective bargaining.

** Associations in brackets are sector-related trade unions listed in Table 3 which are indirectly affiliated to EPSU via national higher-order organisations.

Source: EIRO national centres, 2006

Table 10 lists the members of Eurogas. Of the 26 countries examined in this study, Eurogas has 21 countries under its umbrella through either associational members or company members from these countries. The five following countries – Bulgaria, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Malta, and Romania – do not have any member affilliated to Eurogas. In terms of the type of membership, 11 countries – Denmark, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Slovakia and the UK – are covered exclusively via affiliated companies, while three countries – the Czech Republic, Hungary and Sweden – are linked to Eurogas through associations only. In the remaining six countries of this study – Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Spain – both companies and associations are covered by Eurogas.

Such a membership structure raises the question of how Eurogas relates to the aforementioned Commission criterion of representativeness. The latter requires European associations to cover organisations which are themselves an integral and recognised part of Member States’ social partner structures and have the capacity to negotiate agreements. In this respect, Eurogas lacks membership in Hungary, since neither an employer organisation engaged in collective bargaining nor any companies are affiliated. A problem of representativeness arises in countries where no employer organisation with a bargaining mandate is affiliated to Eurogas, while collective bargaining in these countries occurs predominantly or exclusively at multi-employer level. This situation applies to Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Romania, Sweden and Slovenia. In this context, Eurogas members may have a role in industrial relations only when signing supplementary company agreements or when being affiliated to a national employer organisation, such that the organisation’s goal formation and bargaining strategies can be influenced. If single-employer bargaining prevails, the question is whether the bargaining companies are members of Eurogas. Leaving aside those countries that are not covered by Eurogas, this involves the following seven countries – Greece, Ireland, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. In these countries, the key bargainers are under the umbrella of Eurogas, while in Luxembourg only one of the bargaining companies is a member of Eurogas, and for Spain no information on this question is available.

Table 10: Members of Eurogas, 2006a

Country

Members

Associations

Companies

AT

FGW*

OMV

BE

Synergrid

Electrabel, Distrigas, CREG

BG

–––

–––

CZ

ČPU*

–––

DE

BGW

E.ON, VNG, WINGAS

DK

–––

DONG, HNG

EE

–––

–––

EL

–––

DEPA

ES

SEDIGAS

GasNatural

FI

–––

Gasum

FR

AFG

GDF

HU

GE

–––

IE

–––

BGE

IT

–––

ENI

LT

–––

–––

LU

–––

SOTEG

LV

–––

–––

MT

–––

–––

NL

EnergieNed

Gasunie Trade & Supply

PL

–––

PGNiGa

PT

–––

Galp Energia

RO

–––

–––

SE

SGF

–––

SI

–––

Geoplin

SK

–––

SPP

UK

–––

BP, Centrica

Notes: a List is confined to the sector-related trade unions of the 26 countries under examination. See Annex for list of abbreviations and full names of organisations.

* Involvement in sector-related collective bargaining.

** Associated member.

Source: EIRO national centres, 2006

Capacity to negotiate

The third criterion of representativeness at the European level relates to the ability of organisations to negotiate on behalf of their own members. EMCEF, EPSU, and Eurogas are mandated by their member organisations to negotiate in European social dialogue matters. In order to evaluate the weight of EMCEF, EPSU and Eurogas in European social dialogue, other European organisations that may be representative bodies of the sector will also have to be considered. Following a ‘bottom-up’ approach, this can be achieved by reviewing the European organisations to which the sector-related trade unions and employer organisations are affiliated.

In relation to the trade unions, these affiliations are listed in Table 3. The findings show that European organisations other than EMCEF and EPSU represent only a small number of both sector-related trade unions and countries. They include the following organisations: European Metalworkers’ Federation (EMF) and UNI Europa, each of which has seven affiliations covering seven countries; the European Federation of Trade Unions in Food, Agriculture and Tourism (EFFAT), with six affiliations from five countries; the European Transport Workers’ Federation (ETF), with five affiliations covering four countries; the European Trade Union Committee for Textiles, Clothing and Leather (ETUF-TCL), with four affiliations from four countries; the Council of European Professional and Managerial Staff (Eurocadres), with four affiliations covering three countries; the European Federation of Building and Woodworkers (EFBWW), with two affiliations from two countries; and the European Regional Organisation of the International Federation of Workers’ Education Associations (EURO-WEA) and the European Federation of Retired and elderly People (Fédération Européenne des Retraités et des Personnes âgées, FERPA), each of which has one affiliation. Although the list of affiliations in Table 3 may be incomplete, this review underlines the status of EMCEF and EPSU as the sector’s main labour representatives, all the more since many of the above affiliations to other European organisations reflect the overlapping domains of the affiliates rather than a real reference of the affiliations as such to the gas sector.

An overview of the European membership of employer organisations can be derived from Table 4. It shows that organisational links of the sector-related employer organisations with European federations other than Eurogas are rather rare and highly diversified. Such affiliations involve 14 European federations and only four of these federations record more than one company affiliation: the international association for district heating, district cooling and combined heat and power, Euroheat & Power, the European Centre of Enterprises with Public Participation and of Enterprises of General Economic Interest (CEEP) and the technical association of the European natural gas industry, Marcogaz, each of which have two affiliations from two countries. The association of the electricity industry in Europe, Eurelectric, has two affiliations from one country. Hence, Eurogas is obviously the most important voice of business in the gas sector.


Commentary

Like other sectors that were sheltered from competition in product markets, the gas sector has been undergoing major economic restructuring in the wake of measures devised to make the internal market complete. Unlike other previously sheltered sectors, economic restructuring in the gas sector did not trigger dramatic changes in the national industrial relations systems. Only two country studies report major alterations with rather contrasting implications for organised industrial relations. In Italy, market liberalisation led to a more homogenous associational system as a result of mergers on both sides of industry. Market liberalisation also homogenised the bargaining system in that one single collective agreement, first signed in 2002, replaced the fragmented bargaining system that had existed until that time. In Romania, two major companies left the sector’s employer organisation, FPPG, following their privatisation. As a consequence of this, FPPG lost its status as a representative association and, concomitantly, its right to conclude collective agreements. Hence, multi-employer bargaining has faded away.

The fact that the sector’s national industrial relations systems have proved stable despite profound economic changes reflects their extraordinary organisational strength. As outlined above, union density is very high. The same can be said about employer organisations where they exist. The sector’s organisational strength is also evident from the comparatively high level of collective bargaining coverage. A comparison with recent figures on cross-sectoral collective bargaining coverage in the EU25 Member States (see Marginson, P., Traxler, F., ‘After enlargement: preconditions and prospects for bargaining coordination’, Transfer, Vol. 11, 2005, pp. 423–438) indicates that the gas sector’s bargaining coverage is more or less higher in 16 out of the 20 countries for which comparable data are available. Only in Estonia, Luxembourg and Portugal, the sector’s bargaining coverage is lower than that of cross-sectoral bargaining.

As already mentioned, organisational strength stems from the sector’s profile as a supplier of energy, often in combination with public ownership. Strong unionisation in connection with the existence of large companies has paved the way for single-employer bargaining in many countries. In this context, employers have refrained from setting up employer organisations equipped with a bargaining mandate. In a number of countries, however, multi-employer bargaining, conducted by employer organisations, prevails. Overall, almost as many countries operate under predominant multi-employer bargaining as countries with prevalent single-employer bargaining. This ‘dual’ bargaining structure of the sector makes it difficult to form a coherent structure for representing the sector’s employers at European level. Regardless of this, Eurogas is certainly the most relevant EU-wide representative organisation of the sector’s employers. With regard to labour representation, the sector’s bargaining structure is also ‘dual’ in that unionisation relates to either sector-related demarcations or public ownership. This gives rise to the existence of two important EU-wide labour representative organisations: EMCEF and EPSU. Both are unmatched as the European spokespersons of the gas sector’s employees, as no other European organisation exists which can compare with them in terms of organising relevant sector-related trade unions across the European Member States.


Annex: List of abbreviations

Country Abbreviation Full name
Austria (AT)

FGW

Association of Gas and District Heating Supply Companies

 

FVMI

Austrian Petroleum Industry Association

 

GdC

Union of Chemical Workers

 

GdG

Municipal Employees’ Union

 

GMTN

Metalworking, Textiles, Agriculture and Food-processing Union

 

GPA-DJP

Union of Salaried Private Sector Employees, Graphical Workers, Journalists and Paper Workers

 

ÖGB

Austrian Federation of Trade Unions

 

OMV

Leading Oil and Gas Group in Central Europe

 

WKÖ

Chamber of the Economy

Belgium (BE)

CGSLB/ACLVB

Federation of Liberal Trade Unions of Belgium

 

CGSLB/ACLVB-G&E

Federation of Liberal Trade Unions of Belgium – Gas and Electricity

 

CGSP/ACOD-G

General Public Service Federation - Gas

 

CSC/ACV

Confederation of Christian Trade Unions

 

CSC/ACV-G&E

Confederation of Christian Trade Unions – Gas and Electricity

 

CSC/ACV MECC

Confederation of Christian Trade Unions – Energie Chemie

 

CNE-GNC

Centrale Nationale des Employés-Groupement National des Cadres

 

CREG

Commission for the Regulation of Electricity and Gas

 

FEB/VBO

Belgian Federation of Employers

 

FEBEG

Belgian Federation of Electricity and Gas Enterprises

 

FEBELIEC

Federation of Belgian Large Industrial Energy Consumers

 

FGTB/ABVV

Belgian General Confederation of Labour

 

INTERMIXT

Federation of Municipal Mixed-economy Enterprises

 

INTERREGIES

Association of Public Enterprises for Distribution regarding Electricity, Gas and Telecommunications

 

Synergrid

Belgium Federation of Electricity and Gas Operators

 

UNIZO

Organisation of the Self-Employed

Bulgaria (BG)

CITUB

Confederation of Independent Trade Unions in Bulgaria

 

CL Podkrepa

Confederation of Labour Podkrepa

 

NCF

National Chemistry Federation

 

NFL

National Federation of Labour

Czech Republic (CZ)

ČMKOS

Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions

 

ČPU

Czech Gas Union

 

OsT

Trade Union Transgas

 

UNIOS

 
Denmark (DK)

3F

United Federation of Danish Workers

 

AC

Confederations of Professional Associations

 

CO-Industri

Central Organisation of Industrial Employees

 

DA

Confederation of Danish Employers

 

Dansk Metal

Danish Metalworkers’ Union

 

DEF

Danish Union of Electricians

 

DI

Confederation of Danish Industries

 

DKK

Danish Municipal Employees Confederation

 

DONG

DONG Energy

 

HK

Union of Commercial and Clerical Employees in Denmark

 

HNG

HNG Midt-Nord Salg

 

KL

Local Government Denmark

 

LO

Danish Confederation of Trade Unions

 

TL

Danish Association of Professional Technicians

Estonia (EE)

Finland (FI)

CIF

Chemical Industry Federation of Finland

 

CWU

Chemical Workers’ Union

 

EK

Confederation of Finnish Industries

 

Gasum

Gasum Energy Services

 

SAK

Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions

 

STTK

Finnish Confederation of Salaried Employees

 

TU

Union of Salaried Employees

France (FR)

AFG

French Gas Industry Employers’ Association

 

CFDT

French Democratic Confederation of Labour

 

CFE-CGC

French Confederation of Professional and Managerial Staff – General Confederation of Professional and Managerial Staff

 

CFTC

French Christian Workers’ Confederation

 

CMTE-CFTC

Chemical, Mining, Textiles and Energy Workers’ Federation - French Christian Workers’ Confederation

 

CGT

General Confederation of Labour

 

CGT-FO

General Confederation of Labour – Force ouvrière

 

FCE-CFDT

Chemical and Energy Workers’ Federation – French Democratic Confederation of Labour

 

FIEG

Electricity and Gas Workers’ Federation

 

FIEG-CFE-CGC

Electricity and Gas Workers’ Federation – French Confederation of Professional and Managerial Staff – General Confederation of Professional and Managerial Staff

 

FNEM

Energy and Mining Workers’ Federation

 

FNEM-FO

Energy and Mining Workers’ Federation – Force ouvrière

 

FNME-CGT

Mining and Energy Workers’ Federation – General Confederation of Labour

 

GDF

Gaz de France

 

UFE

French Electricity Industry Employers’Association

 

UNEMIG

National Gas Industry Employers’ Association

 

UNSPIEG

National Union of Electricity and Gas Workers’ Branches

Germany (DE)

BDA

German Employers’ Confederation

 

BGW

Bundesverband der deutschen Gas- und Wasserwirtschaft e.V.

 

DGB

Confederation of German Trade Unions

 

E.ON

E.ON Ruhrgas

 

IGBCE

Mining, Chemicals and Energy Industrial Union

 

VAEU

Vereinigung der Arbeitgeberverbände energie- und versorgungswirtschaftlicher Unternehmungen

 

ver.di

United Services Union

 

VKA

Vereinigung kommunaler Arbeitgeberverbände

 

VNG

Verbundnetz Gas

 

WINGAS

Joint venture of Wintershall Holding AG in Kassel, the largest German producer of oil and natural gas, and the Russian company OAO Gazprom

Greece (EL)

DEPA

Public Gas Corporation

 

SEDEPA

Union of DEPA Employees

Hungary (HU)

ASZSV

Alliance of Autonomous Trade Unions

 

GE

Association of Gas Distribution Companies

 

GSS

Federation of Gas Industry Trade Union

 

MOL BS

MOL Mineworkers Union

 

MSZOSZ

National Association of Hungarian Trade Unions

 

VDSZ

Federation of Trade Unions of the Chemical, Energy and Allied Workers

Ireland (IE)

Amicus

Amicus the Union Ireland

 

ATGWU

Amalgamated Trade and General Workers Union

 

BGE

Bord Gais Eireann

 

ICTU

Irish Congress of Trade Unions

 

SIPTU

Services Industrial Professional and Technical Union

 

TEEU

Technical, Engineering and Electrical Union

Italy (IT)

ANIGAS

National Association of Gas Operators

 

ASSOGAS

National Association of Private Employers of Gas and Auxiliary Services

 

CGIL

General Confederation of Italian Workers

 

CISL

Italian Confederation of Workers’ Unions

 

Confindustria

General Confederation of Italian Industry

 

Confservizi

Services Confederation

 

ENI

Integrated Energy Company

 

FEDERESTRATTIVA

Italian Extractive Industry Federation

 

FEDERUTILITY

Federation of Energy and Water Companies

 

FEMCA

Energy, Chemicals and Allied Industries Federation

 

FEMCA-CISL

Energy, Chemicals and Allied Industries Federation – Italian Confederation of Workers’ Unions

 

FILCEM

Italian Chemicals, Energy and Manufacturing Federation

 

FILCEM-CGIL

Italian Chemicals, Energy and Manufacturing Federation – General Confederation of Italian Workers

 

UILCEM

Italian Chemicals, Energy and Manufacturing Union

 

UIL

Union of Italian Workers

Latvia (LV)

LAKRS

Latvian Trade Union of Public Service Employees

 

LBAS

Free Trade Union Confederation of Latvia

Lithuania (LT)

LCPDPSF

Lithuanian Chemical Industrial Workers Trade Union Federation

 

LD-TUs

Lithuanian Gas – Trade Unions

 

LPSK

Lithuanian Trade Union Confederation

 

LVPPF

Lithuanian Service Workers Trade Union

Luxembourg (LU)

CGTL

General Confederation of Labour Luxembourg

 

LCGB

Luxembourg Christian Trade Union Confederation

 

OGB-L

Luxembourg Confederation of Independent Trade Unions

 

SOTEG

Société de Transport de Gaz, Soteg S.A.

 

SSE

SSE Transco Limited

Malta (MT)

EPOU

Enemalta Professional Officers Union

 

GRTU

General Retailers and Traders Union

 

GWU

General Worker’s Union

Netherlands (NL)

Abvakabo

Public Service Workers’ Union

 

AWVN

General Industrial Employers’ Association

 

CNV

National Federation of Christian Trade Unions

 

De Unie

General Independent Union

 

EnergieNed

Federation of Energy Companies in the Netherlands

 

FNV

Dutch Trade Union Federation

 

FNV-BG

FNV Allied Industry, Food, Services and Transport Unions

 

Gasunie Trade and Supply

Trading company Gasunie Trade and Supply, to be renamed GasTerra

 

MHP

 
 

VHP-G

Union for Managerial and Executive Staff in the Gas Sector

 

VMHP-N

 

VNO-NCW

Confederation of Netherlands Industry and Employers

 

WENb

- Werkgeversvereniging Energie- en Nutsbedrijven

Poland (PL)

FZZGNiG

Federation of Oil and Gas Extraction Trade Unions

 

NSZZ Solidarnosc

NSZZ Solidarity

 

OPZZ

All Poland Alliance of Trade Unions

 

PGNiG

Polish Oil and Gas Company

 

PZZ Kadra

Kadra Trade Union Association, National Oil and Gas Extraction Section

 

SGiE

National Secretariat of Mine and Energy Worker’s Union

 

ZZP PGNiG S.A.

PGNiG S.A. Employee Union

Portugal (PT)

CAP

Confederation of Portuguese Farmers

 

CCP

Commerce and Services Employers

 

CGTP

General Portuguese Workers’ Confederation

 

CIP

 
 

CTP

Confederation of Portuguese Tourism

 

FEQUIMETAL

Federation of Metalworking, Mining, Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Petroleum and Gas Workers’ Unions

 

Galp Energia

Petróleos e Gás de Portugal SGPS, S.A.

 

SIESI

Union of Workers in the Electrical Industries in Southern Portugal and Islands

 

SINDEL

National Industry and Energy Union

 

SINDEQ

Democratic Union in Energy, Chemical, Textiles and Other Industries

 

SINORQUIFA

Union of Workers in the Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Petrol, and Gas Industries in Northern Portugal

 

SINQUIFA

Union of Workers in the Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Petrol, and Gas Industries in Central and Southern Portugal and Islands

 

SITESE

Union of Service Workers and Technicians

 

UGT

General Workers’ Union

Romania (RO)

ACPR

Alliance of Employers’ Confederations of Romania

 

BNS

National Trade Union Bloc

 

CNSLR

National Confederation of Free Trade Unions in Romania Brotherhood

 

CPISC

National Employer Confederation of Industries, Services and Commerce

 

FPPG

Oil and Gas Employers’ Federation

 

FSGMM

Methane Gas Mediaş Federation of Trade Unions

 

FSGR

Federation of Trade Unions in the Gas Sector

Spain (ES)

CC.OO

Trade Union Confederation of Workers’ Commissions

 

ELA-STV

Basque Workers’ Union

 

FESIQ-CGT

Federation of Trade Unions of the Chemical Industries of the General Confederation of Labour

 

FIA-UGT

Federation of Similar Industries of the General Workers’ Confederation

 

FITEQA-CC.OO

Federation of Chemicals and Similar of the Trade Union Confederation of Workers’ Commissions

 

GasNatural

GasNatural Spain

 

SEDIGAS

Spanish Gas Association

 

UGT

General Workers’ Confederation

Sweden (SE)

CF

Swedish Association of Graduate Engineers

 

EFA

Employer Association of Energy Companies

 

KFS

Employers’ Organisation for Companies in the Municipal and County Council Sector

 

SEKO

Swedish Association for Service and Communication

 

SGF

Svenska Gas Föreningen

 

SIF

Swedish Union for Technical and Clerical Employees

 

SKTF

Swedish Union for Publicly and Privately Employed Salaried Employees

 

TCO

Swedish Confederation for Professional Employees

Slovenia (SI)

Geoplin

Geoplin d.o.o.Ljubljana

 

GZS

Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Slovenia

 

SDE

Trade Union of Workers in the Energy sector

 

SDP

Trade Union of Plinarna Maribor

 

SPES

Trade Union of Production of Energy Materials

 

ZDS

Association of Employers of Slovenia

 

ZSSS

Association of Free Trade Unions of Slovenia

Slovakia (SK)

KOZ SR

Central Confederation of Trade Unions

 

POZ

Gas Industry Trade Union Association

 

SPP

Slovak Gas Industry

United Kingdom (UK)

Amicus

Amicus the Union United Kingdom

 

Balpa

British Airline Pilots’ Association

 

BP

BP plc

 

Centrica

Centrica plc

 

COTA

Caterers’ Offshore Traders Association

 

GMB

General and Municipal Boilermakers’ Union

 

Numast

National Union of Maritime, Aviation and Shipping Transport

 

OILC

Offshore Industry Liaison Committee

 

Prospect

Engineers, Scientists, Managers and Specialists’ Union

 

RMT

Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers’ Union

 

TGWU

Transport and General Workers’ Union

 

TUC

Trades Union Congress

 

UKDCA

UK Drilling Contractors’ Association

 

Unison

Public Service Workers’ Union

Europe

AEGPL

European Liquefied Petroleum Gas Association

 

ALDA

Association of the Local Democratic Agencies

 

CEC

European Confederation of Executives and Managerial Staff

 

CEDEC

European Federation of Local Energy Companies

 

CEEP

European Centre of Enterprises with Public Participation and of Enterprises of General Economic Interest

 

CEFIC

European Chemical Industry Council

 

CEMR

Council of European Municipalities and Regions

 

EFBWW

European Federation of Building and Wood Workers

 

EFFAT

European Federation of Trade Unions in Food, Agriculture and Tourism

 

EICTA

European Information, Communications and Consumer Electronics Industry Technology Association

 

EMCEF

European Mine, Chemical and Energy Workers’ Federation

 

EMF

European Metalworker's Federation

 

ENGVA

European Natural Gas Vehicle Association

 

EPSU

European Federation of Public Service Unions

 

ETF

European Transport Workers’ Federation

 

ETUF-TCL

European Trade Union Federation : Textiles, Clothing, Leather

 

EUREAU

European Union of National Associations of Water Suppliers and Waste Water Services

 

Eurelectric

Association of the Electricity Industry in Europe

 

EURO-WEA

European Workers’ Education Associations

 

Eurocadres

ETUC Council of European Professional and Managerial Staff

 

Eurogas

European Union of the Natural Gas Industry

 

Euroheat and Power

International Association for District Heating, District Cooling and Combined Heat and Power

 

FERPA

Federation of Europe Retired Personnel Association

 

GEODE

European Group of the Organisation of Independent Gas Suppliers

 

Marcogaz (MG)

Technical Association of the European Natural Gas Industry

 

UCLG

United Cities and Local Governments

Franz Traxler, Department of Industrial Sociology, University of Vienna

EF/07/71

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