Minimum wages in Belgium exist at national and sectoral levels and are the outcome of collective bargaining. The national minimum wage typically lags behind sectoral minimum wages in Belgium, and policymakers have been concerned about the relative decrease in the national minimum wage compared with the national median wage, which was also noted during the preparation of the EU Directive on Adequate Minimum Wages.
On 31 August 2022, a new decree on minimum wages was published in Cyprus after a long and arduous process of negotiations and social dialogue. The ministerial decree, which came into effect on 1 January 2023, established a national minimum wage in Cyprus for the first time, a groundbreaking and controversial development that drew a multitude of reactions from social partners on both sides of industry.
Italy has no minimum wage prescribed by law. Minimum wages are set through collective agreements at sectoral level, and the majority of employees in Italy are covered by a collective bargaining agreement in which wages are set. This article outlines the latest positions (2023) of the government and the parliament regarding the introduction of a statutory minimum wage.
The European Green Deal binds the European Union to becoming a climate-neutral territory by 2050. As part of this, the European Climate Law (June 2021) commits the EU to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% (compared with 1990 levels) by 2030. To achieve this, a fundamental transformation of core production–consumption systems such as energy, mobility and food is necessary. Europe is in the process of rethinking and reshaping its development and economic policies, investing in research and technologies, and transforming Europeans’ understanding of progress and how to measure it.
Za prelazak EU-a na klimatski neutralno gospodarstvo potrebna je prava, čista industrijska revolucija. U ovom se izvješću istražuju moguće socioekonomske posljedice takvih temeljnih promjena za različite europske regije i skupine stanovništva, u skladu s pristupom koji se temelji na predviđanju. Provedeno je povezivanje s dionicima i stručnjacima, usmjereno na scenarije, kako bi se bolje razumjele nove gospodarske i društvene nejednakosti na razini EU-a i na regionalnoj razini.
Kao odgovor na rat koji Rusija vodi protiv Ukrajine, EU je aktivirao Direktivu o privremenoj zaštiti za osobe koje su pobjegle iz zemlje, što im je omogućilo da se nastane u EU-u i ostvare pristup osnovnim javnim uslugama i tržištu rada. Do proljeća 2023. više od 4,5 milijuna osoba iskoristilo je Direktivu o privremenoj zaštiti ili slične nacionalne sustave zaštite u EU-u. Agencija Europske unije za temeljna prava provela je 2022. internetsku anketu među osobama raseljenima iz Ukrajine. Eurofound je analizirao rezultate ankete o njihovim iskustvima prilikom traženja pristupa zaposlenju.
Pitanje nepristupačnosti cijena stanovanja izaziva veliku zabrinutost u EU-u. Ona je uzrok beskućništvu, nesigurnosti stanovanja, financijskom opterećenju i neprimjerenim uvjetima stanovanja. Osim toga, ona je razlog zbog kojega mladi ljudi ne napuštaju roditeljski dom. Svi ti problemi negativno utječu na zdravlje i dobrobit ljudi, stvaraju nejednakosti u pogledu životnih uvjeta i mogućnosti, uzrokuju troškove zdravstvene skrbi, smanjuju produktivnost i nanose štetu okolišu.
Pojam „hibridni rad” postao je popularan s porastom učestalosti rada na daljinu tijekom pandemije bolesti COVID-19, kada su poduzeća i zaposlenici počeli raspravljati o načinima organizacije rada nakon krize. Pojam se sve više upotrebljava za situacije u kojima se rad (koji je moguće obaviti na daljinu) obavlja s dviju lokacija: na uobičajenom mjestu rada (obično u prostorijama poslodavca) i od kuće (kao što je to bilo tijekom pandemije) ili na drugim lokacijama. Međutim, koncept hibridnog rada i dalje je nejasan te mu se pripisuju različita značenja.
The rise of the platform economy during the last decade is one of the main disrupting forces for European labour markets. While standard employment remains the norm, platforms are expanding their reach and diversifying into novel business models. In doing so, they are also attracting an increasing number of women. This policy brief investigates why women are joining the platform economy and how the motivations to perform work on platforms differ between genders.
Europe Day is a celebration of unity, solidarity and harmony. While we may not have had much to celebrate this past year, one thing we can be proud of is how Europe has come together in the face of large-scale challenges and threats, showing that solidarity is the key to resilience and resolve.
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
The report maps trends in income inequality and examines the situation of the middle classes in the EU during 2020, the year most associated with the COVID-19 lockdowns. It charts developments in the size and composition of middle-class households across countries, identifies those that suffered disproportionately in 2020. Taking a longer lens, the report describes the evolution of income inequalities over the last 15 years, comparing the Great Recession (2007–2009) with the COVID-19 pandemic, and outlines the trends both between and within Member States.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the chemical sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the chemical sector in the EU Member States.
This report explores the implications of the right of all EU citizens to live independently. It investigates the barriers faced by people who wish to live independently, and the situation of people at risk of living in institutional settings. It maps the various measures taken by EU Member States to foster independent living and autonomy. The report also includes policy pointers to support future decision-makers and provides a review of lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic.