The dawn of 2022 brought muted optimism to a Europe beginning to emerge from the COVID-19 pandemic, and the progress of vaccination programmes worldwide brought hope. Government and EU support during the pandemic had kept unemployment at bay, averting the widescale collapse of businesses. In step with the EU’s plans for the year, Eurofound’s focus was firmly on a post-pandemic Europe: the recovery and the twin transition to a green and digital economy. All this changed with Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the start of a war of aggression. The EU and its institutions were compelled to respond rapidly.
Europe faces a winter of uncertainty and potentially discontent. The cost of living is rising rapidly and the spectre of recession looms.
Economic concerns are affecting citizens’ trust in institutions. Research by Eurofound has indicated a decrease in trust in national institutions across the European Union – including in governments, healthcare systems and the police.
U ovom je izvješću predstavljeno Eurofoundovo istraživanje o radu na daljinu tijekom pandemije bolesti COVID-19 2020. i 2021. U njemu se istražuju promjene u učestalosti rada na daljinu, radni uvjeti zaposlenika koji rade od kuće i izmjene propisa kojima se rješavaju pitanja povezana s tom organizacijom rada. Rezultati upućuju na nagli porast rada na daljinu koji je potaknut pandemijom: u 2021. dvoje od desetero europskih zaposlenika radilo je na daljinu, što je brojka koja najvjerojatnije ne bi bila dosegnuta prije 2027. da nije nastupila pandemija.
Anketa Život, posao i COVID-19, koju je Eurofound prvi put pokrenuo početkom 2020., ima za cilj obuhvatiti širok utjecaj pandemije na rad i živote građana EU-a. Peti krug Eurofoundove ankete provedene u proljeće 2022., također ukazuje na novu neizvjesnu stvarnost zbog rata u Ukrajini, rekordno visoke inflacije i naglog porasta životnih troškova. U okviru pilot-istraživanja Europska zaklada za osposobljavanje (ETF) provela je kraću verziju upitnika u 10 susjednih zemalja Europske unije (EU).
Eurofound’s European Restructuring Monitor database reveals the impact of the energy crisis on employment in the EU. Following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, energy prices have hit record highs. The European Commission imposed sanctions and limitations on the import of oil and gas from Russia, which has reacted by reneging on supply commitments to many Member States. Compared to other countries, market disruption has been especially acute in the EU, given the bloc’s overdependence on Russian energy supply.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the electricity sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
U izvješću se analizira uloga socijalnog dijaloga i kolektivnog pregovaranja u rješavanju izazova s kojima se suočavao sektor civilnog zrakoplovstva tijekom pandemije bolesti COVID-19. Uključenost socijalnih partnera u definiranje mjera uvedenih radi ublažavanja negativnih učinaka pandemije razlikuje se među europskim zemljama. Socijalni dijalog i kolektivno pregovaranje imali su istaknutu ulogu u većini zemalja, dok je u drugima njihova uloga bila više ograničena.
U ovom se izvješću analizira uloga socijalnog dijaloga i kolektivnog pregovaranja u rješavanju izazova u bolničkom sektoru koji su nastali ili se pogoršali zbog pandemije bolesti COVID-19. Također se istražuje jesu li postojeći socijalni dijalog i postupci kolektivnog pregovaranja na nacionalnoj razini prilagođeni rješavanju tih novih izazova. Istraživanje je uključivalo i pregled literature kako bi se kontekstualizirala strukturna obilježja bolničkog sektora i analizu političkih inicijativa za upravljanje krizom provedenih u 27 država članica EU-a i Norveškoj.
Ovo se izvješće provodi u kontekstu trogodišnjeg pilot-projekta (2021. – 2023.), „Uloga minimalne plaće u uspostavi univerzalnog jamstva za rad”, koji je Europska komisija povjerila Eurofoundu. Naglasak je na 3. modulu projekta, kojim se istražuju minimalne plaće i drugi oblici plaća za samozaposlene osobe. Zbog zahtjevnih uvjeta s kojima se suočavaju određene skupine samozaposlenih radnika pojedine su države članice uspostavile neke zakonske oblike minimalne plaće za određene kategorije samozaposlenih osoba ili raspravljaju o njihovu predlaganju.
Stroga javnozdravstvena ograničenja koja su vlade uvele 2020. radi kontrole pandemije bolesti COVID-19 naglo su promijenila radni vijek i nastavila su ga oblikovati tijekom sljedeće dvije godine. U razdoblju od ožujka do studenoga 2021. u 36 zemalja provedeno je više od 70 000 intervjua u okviru Europskog telefonskog istraživanja o radnim uvjetima (EWCTS), visokokvalitetnog istraživanja koje se temelji na vjerojatnosti. Cilj je bio pružiti detaljnu sliku radnog vijeka Europljana u tom izvanrednom razdoblju.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
This paper provides an analytical summary of state of the art academic and policy literature on the impact of climate change and policies to manage transitions to a carbon neutral economy on employment, working conditions, social dialogue and living conditions. It maps the key empirical findings around the impact of climate change and the green transitions on jobs, sectors, regions and countries in Europe, identifying the opportunities and risks that climate change policies bring to European labour markets.
As part of its response to Russia’s war on Ukraine, the EU swiftly activated its Temporary Protection Directive for those fleeing the conflict in Ukraine – enabling displaced persons to settle in the EU and have access to the labour market and basic public services. This policy brief highlights the main barriers encountered by these refugees (over 5 million people to date) when seeking a job and provides suggestions on how to facilitate their integration.
With the expansion of telework and different forms of hybrid work as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important for policymakers to consider both the opportunities and the negative consequences that may result. This report will explore potential scenarios for such work. In doing so, it will identify trends and drivers, and predict how they might interact to create particular outcomes and how they are likely to affect workers and businesses. Policy pointers will outline what could be done to facilitate desirable outcomes and to avoid undesirable ones.
Living and working in Europe, Eurofound’s 2022 yearbook, provides a snapshot of the latest developments in the work and lives of Europeans as explored in the Agency’s research activities over the course of 2022. Eurofound’s research on working and living conditions in Europe provides a bedrock of evidence for input into social policymaking and achieving the Agency’s vision ‘to be Europe’s leading knowledge source for better life and work’.
The term ‘hybrid work’ became popular due to the upsurge of telework during the COVID-19 pandemic. The term has been increasingly used to refer to situations in which (teleworkable) work is performed both from the usual place of work (normally the employer’s premises) and from home (as experienced during the pandemic) or other locations. However, the concept of hybrid work is still blurry, and various meanings are in use. This topical update brings clarity to this concept by exploring available information from recent literature and the Network of Eurofound Correspondents.
Housing affordability is a matter of great concern across the EU. Poor housing affordability leads to housing evictions, housing insecurity, problematic housing costs and housing inadequacy. These problems negatively affect health and well-being, create unequal living conditions and opportunities, and come with healthcare costs, reduced productivity and environmental damage. Private market tenants face particularly large increases in the cost of housing.
Eurofound's annual review of minimum wages reports on the development of statutory and collectively agreed minimum wages across the EU and the processes through which they were set. The focus of this year’s report is on the impact of high inflation on the setting of minimum wage rates. In addition, new figures on the net value of minimum wages are presented, along with the latest policy-relevant research in the EU Member States and Norway.
Building on previous work by Eurofound, this report will investigate intergenerational dynamics over time. During the 2008 double-dip recession, worrying intergenerational divides appeared in many Member States, and while some of the economic and social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is universal, early data suggests disparities across demographic cohorts. Eurofound will examine how different age groups may have been affected in terms of their health, labour market participation, quality of life and financial needs, both in the short term and in the long term.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an extraordinary level of provision of social services across the EU. Healthcare and care providers carried much of the burden and, together with essential services, played a crucial role in getting citizens through the crisis. This report explores how public services adapted to the new reality and what role was played by the digital transformation of services. The aim is to contribute to the documentation and analysis of changes in funding, delivery and use of healthcare and social services during the pandemic.
Are the policies required to meet the commitments outlined under the EU’s plan for a green transition, the Fit-for-55 package, and the associated budgetary commitments – the Green New Deal – likely to lead to positive or negative employment outcomes by 2030? What types of jobs will be created or destroyed? Will shifts in employment be skewed towards the bottom, middle or top of the job–wage distribution? This report aims to provide answers to these questions, using macro-modelled estimates of the likely impacts of these policies on the structure of employment.