Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, r...Read more
Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, regular articles on working life in Europe, presentations, working papers providing background material to ongoing or already concluded research, and reports arising from ad hoc requests by policymakers. Other corporate publications include annual reports, brochures and promotional publications. Web databases and online resources such as data visualisation applications are available in Data and resources.
Over 2001 and 2002, a number of industrial tribunal rulings have highlighted
the 'abusive' use of temporary agency work in the French automobile industry.
The use of agency workers is widespread in this sector, and tribunals have
found that in some cases this has exceeded the bounds of the law.
Uil, one of Italy's three main trade union confederations, held its 13th
national congress in March 2002 in Turin. The congress was dominated by the
conflict between the unions and the government on the latter's proposals for
reform of the labour market, the pension system and the tax system. Debate at
the congress also highlighted the political divisions between the three union
On 26 March 2002, the Swedish government announced that it had decided to
support a proposal from the board of the Swedish-based telecommunications
company Telia AB for a merger with the Finnish-owned Sonera Oyj. The merger
will involve a share exchange, with the current Telia shareholders owning 64%
of the new company and current Sonera shareholders 36%. The merged company
would be the largest telecommunications operator in the Nordic countries and
the Baltic states. Currently, the Swedish state owns 70% of Telia, and the
Finnish state 53% of Sonera. The Swedish state would own 45% of the new
merged company, and the Finnish state 19%. Telia currently has about 34,000
employees and Sonera 10,000.
In March 2002, a Finnish parliamentary working group on adult education and
training submitted a proposal for raising education and skill levels. The SAK
trade union confederation finds the proposal significant from the perspective
of helping employees cope at work and improving employment opportunities. The
TT employers' confederation has presented its own programme for raising the
level of 'know-how' in Finland.
Disputes over general practitioners' consultation fees continued in France in
March 2002. An agreement on new rates signed in January by the CNAMTS
sickness insurance funds and one of the two general practitioners'
associations was rejected by other association, which has continued to
organise action, such as refusing to work on-call at night or at weekends.
Furthermore, a minority of doctors are systematically charging fees in excess
of the going rate. Meanwhile, the authorities are continuing to establish a
new system of organising the relationship between the sickness insurance
funds and doctors, and disputes in other parts of the health sector are still
at serious levels.
The second annual programme of work based on the Foundation's four-year programme 2001-2004: analysing and anticipating change to support socio-economic progress. The principles of the programme include developing and consolidating the main areas of activity: research / development, debate / discussion, information / dissemination; and strengthening core areas of expertise - working conditions, living conditions and industrial relations.
On 5 March 2002, the Minister of Local Government and Regional Development,
Erna Solberg, announced that the government would bring before parliament a
proposal for compulsory arbitration legislation to end the national strike by
nurses initiated on 22 January (NO0202102N ). After the announcement, the
striking nurses went back to work on the following day. The minister based
the decision on a report by the Norwegian Board of Health, stating that the
national health authorities could no longer rule out the possibility that
continued strike action would pose a threat to public health. It is estimated
that approximately 16,000 planned operations, tests and treatment sessions
were delayed as a direct result of the industrial action.
In 2002, the Norwegian government approved measures to increase the number of
women on the executive boards of both state-owned and private companies.
Within one year, the government will ensure that at least 40% of the members
of the boards of state-owned enterprises are women. Private companies have
until 2005 to increase their share of women on their boards to an acceptable
level - ie at least 40%. If this goal is not achieved, regulations setting
quotas will come into force in the private sector. If, however,
satisfactorily levels of women's participation are reached, the regulations
will not take effect.
In the early months of 2002, various Italian internet and other 'new economy'
businesses reacted to the crisis in the sector by threatening job losses or
closures. As a consequence, workers approached the trade unions and resorted
to innovative forms of action and communication. Are we therefore witnessing
the birth of industrial relations in a sector to date largely based on the
individual employment relationship?
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
This policy brief investigates the evolution of female labour market participation in the last decade and calculates the monetary cost of the persisting gender employment gap to Europe in that period. The analysis also highlights the disproportionate effects that the current COVID-19 crisis is having on working women and how this threatens decades of gains achieved in gender equality.
The long-term care (LTC) sector employs an increasing share of workers in the EU, with increasing shortages. The LTC workforce is mainly female and a relatively large and increasing proportion is 50 or older. Migrants are often concentrated in certain LTC jobs. This report maps the working conditions, the nature of employment and the role of collective bargaining in the sector. It also discusses policies to make the sector more attractive, combat undeclared work and to improve the situation of a particular vulnerable group of LTC workers: live-in carers.
Member States are autonomous when it comes to the design of their social protection systems. However, EU recommendations and treaties oblige them to address the convergence of these systems and policies with other Member States. At the same time, convergence may also come about as a result of economic integration and endeavours to reduce social imbalances. This report looks at the main long-term trends in social protection expenditure and performance across the Member States to assess the extent to which they are converging in this policy area.
Social, economic and technological changes are giving rise to new forms of employment. These differ from 'traditional' work either in the relationship between employer and employee or in the unconventional work patterns and places of work that characterise them. While these new forms of employment can contribute to more inclusive labour markets, legalise undeclared work and offer preferential working conditions, some also raise concerns about, for example, job quality and representation. This report updates Eurofound's 2015 mapping of emerging trends.
New digital technologies have expanded the possibilities of employee monitoring and surveillance, both in and outside the workplace. In the context of the increasing digitalisation of work, there are many issues related to employee monitoring that warrant the attention of policymakers. There are the often-cited privacy and ethical concerns but also important implications for worker–employer relations, as digitally enabled monitoring and surveillance inevitably shift power dynamics in the workplace.
How can working conditions be improved to make work more sustainable over the life course? This question has been the guiding principle for analysis of the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey data during the period of Eurofound’s work programme for 2017–2020. This flagship report brings together the different research strands from this work and gives a comprehensive answer to the question. It includes an analysis of trends in working conditions, examining whether these are the same for all workers or whether inequalities between different groups of workers are increasing.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the local and regional administration sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
This flagship report consolidates findings in the industrial relations field from research conducted by Eurofound over the course of its multiannual work programme for 2017–2020. It considers the strengths and weaknesses of European social dialogue, including the linkages with national social dialogue and the capacity constraints of the actors. A national comparative analysis draws on projects that have mapped the key features of national industrial relations systems.
This report builds on Eurofound's existing research on social mobility, assessing the distribution and transmission of wealth in Member States. It examines the roles of inheritance and household debt in explaining the transmission of advantage or disadvantage between the generations across Member States. The analysis is based on Eurosystem's Household Finance and Consumption Survey (HFCS).
This report analyses the involvement of the national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, and their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs) and other key policy documents of the European Semester cycle.