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  • Article
    27 február 1997

    Figures from the Confederation of Norwegian Business and Industry (
    Næringslivets Hovedorganisasjon or NHO) show that over 530,000 working days
    were lost in industrial conflict during the 1996 wage negotiations. These
    figures cover only private sector companies which are members of NHO, but
    nearly all industrial conflicts in 1996 took place within this area. This is
    the highest number of working days lost since 1986, when Norway experienced a
    major lockout in the private sector. In 1996, lawful strikes accounted for
    all the lost working days, and the number of working days lost in strikes
    alone (ie, excluding lock-outs) is thus the highest since the 1930s. The
    major strikes all came in the private sector and among unions affiliated to
    the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge, or
    LO). The Government did not, as often before, intervene to stop strikes with
    compulsory arbitration. Three strikes accounted for the majority of lost
    working days. These came in the metal industry, the hotel and restaurant
    industry and in the electrical installation industry.

  • Article
    27 február 1997

    Late in 1996, Parliament passed legislation providing for changes in the
    Employment Security Act that aroused the anger of the trade unions. Although
    most of the new provisions apply from 1 January 1997, the most controversial
    modification, in Section 2 of the Act, will not come into force until 1 July.
    This will give trade unions and employers more time to adapt to the new rule
    in the legislation which deals with the level of central bargaining and
    collective agreements.

  • Article
    27 február 1997

    In January 1997, the cement company, Blue Circle (BCC), and two of Britain's
    largest trade unions, the Transport and General Workers Union (TGWU) and the
    General Municipal and Boilermakers Union (GMB), agreed what has been
    described as a "ground breaking" deal which gives a guarantee of job
    security, in return for pay restraint and more flexible working arrangements.
    Both the unions and the Labour Party see the agreement as a model for future
    employee relations, which could go some way towards reviving the fortunes of
    the British economy.

  • Article
    27 február 1997

    The Institute for Economics and Social Science (Wirtschafts- und
    Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut, WSI) has recently published its annual
    examination of the previous collective bargaining round. It paints a rather
    mixed picture of 1996, a year in which collective bargaining was overshadowed
    by continuing relatively poor economic performance and a further increase in
    unemployment. GDP grew by only 1.4% over the year, while at the end of the
    year more than 4 million people were officially registered as unemployed.

  • Article
    27 február 1997

    Some Portuguese sectors have been characterised by a widespread move away
    from standard, regular and permanent jobs towards temporary forms of
    employment, including irregular and casual work, homeworking and certain
    forms of self-employment. These developments are the result of an interplay
    between macroeconomic conditions, company strategy and labour legislation.
    However, pressure is mounting amongst the social partners to counter further
    fragmentation of standard employment statuses.

  • Article
    27 február 1997

    For the first time since 1960, the Belgian social partners have failed to
    reach an intersectoral pay agreement and have instead accepted government
    imposition of measures on employment and maximum pay increases. This
    development runs counter to all traditions of free collective bargaining and
    the autonomy of both sides of industry. It also appears to reinforce the
    trend towards sector-level bargaining, away from intersectoral or
    central-level bargaining, thereby widening the disparities between strong and
    weak sectors.

  • Article
    27 február 1997

    In recent years pressure has mounted on all parties involved to rethink and
    revise the traditional policies and practices of Greek industrial relations
    as well as to promote social dialogue between employers and employees. As a
    result of changing conditions, some believe that a new era in industrial
    relations and social dialogue has been inaugurated in Greece.

  • Article
    27 február 1997

    The issue of wage flexibility as a means of promoting employment growth was
    initially put forward by the ex-president of Confindustria (the most
    important Italian employers' association), Luigi Abete, as a problem which
    had not been adequately dealt with in the 1993 income policy agreement. CISL,
    one of the three main trade union confederations, later took up the wage
    flexibility issue and proposed flexibility in starting wages (the so-called
    "entrance salary") as a means of tackling the extremely serious employment
    crisis in some southern regions of Italy.

  • Article
    27 február 1997

    The majority of Norwegian wage agreements are of two years' duration, and the
    current settlements will expire during 1998. However, issues relating to
    remuneration will be renegotiated at central level in 1997. Most of the
    agreements between LO (the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions or
    Landsorganisasjonen i Norge) and NHO (the Confederation of Norwegian Business
    and Industry or Næringslivets Hovedorganisasjon) in the private sector
    expire on 31 March 1997, and bargaining is expected to commence in mid-March.
    Agreements in the public sector expire one month later. The social partners
    have not yet specified their demands, but all the central parties have held
    initial bargaining conferences. In this feature, we describe the economic
    climate in Norway prior to the wage negotiations, examine the provisional
    demands the social partners have put forward, and comment on these demands in
    the light of the existing social pact between the central labour market
    parties in Norway, the so-called "Solidarity Alternative"
    (Solidaritetsalternativet).

  • Article
    27 február 1997

    On 19 February, the Government presented a bill to Parliament, proposing
    modifications in the legislation concerning the granting of workers' claims
    in case of their employer's insolvency. There is no doubt that it will be
    passed by Parliament. This will then be the second time the legislation has
    been modified in order to comply with EU Council Directive 80/987/EEC on this
    subject.

Series

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

  • European Jobs Monitor

    This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2016

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2015

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 1996

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2001

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2000

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Company Survey 2004

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2009

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2013

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.

Forthcoming publications