744 items found

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  • Flexible Beschäftigungsverhältnisse, Arbeitsqualität und -beziehungen

    'Flexible' Beschäftigungsverhältnisse sind ein Phänomen auf europäischen Arbeitsmärkten, dem in den letzten Jahren immer mehr Aufmerksamkeit zuteil wird und das Gegenstand zahlreicher gesetzlicher Vorschriften ist - zumindest auf Ebene der Europäischen Union. Flexible Beschäftigungsverhältnisse können im allgemeinen Sinne als eine Beschäftigungsform definiert werden, die nicht auf einem unbefristeten und fortlaufenden Arbeitsvertrag beruht, sondern zeitlich begrenzt ist; die wichtigsten Formen sind Beschäftigung mit befristeten Arbeitsverträgen, Leiharbeit sowie Gelegenheits- bzw. Saisonarbeit. In dieser Vergleichsstudie, deren Grundlagen die Beiträge der nationalen Zentren der Europäischen Beobachtungsstelle für die Entwicklung der Arbeitsbeziehungen (EIRO) in den EU-Mitgliedstaaten und Norwegen darstellen, sollen der Zusammenhang zwischen flexiblen Beschäftigungsverhältnissen und der 'Qualität' des Arbeitslebens untersucht sowie dessen Behandlung bei den Arbeitsbeziehungen betrachtet werden. Zunächst geht es um zeitlich befristete Beschäftigungsverhältnisse, wobei genauere Informationen über Leiharbeit in einer früheren Vergleichsstudie der EIRO enthalten sind - TN9901201S [1]. [1]
  • Debate continues over proposed Labour Code

    Over the second half of 2002, the industrial relations agenda in Portugal has been dominated by the government's proposal for a Labour Code, which would replace most current labour legislation by bringing existing provisions together in a single text. At the same time, current provisions would be amended in a variety of areas. This article reviews the initial stage of the debate, which ended in November with the submission of a draft to parliament, and highlights the main proposals relating to individual employment law.
  • Social partner involvement in the 2002 NAP

    This feature examines social partner involvement in Portugal's 2002 National Action Plan (NAP) for employment. It is one of a set of similar features for all the EU Member States, written in response to a questionnaire
  • The regulation of collective disputes

    The Collective Bargaining Act (No. 2/1991 in the Collection of Laws), as amended, defines how collective disputes between employers and trade unions can arise, regulates the conduct of industrial action, and provides for mediation and arbitration procedures in advance of any action.
  • The development and current situation of employers' organisations

    The legal framework of the industrial relations system is changing in Slovenia. The most important of these changes will be the adoption of a new Law on Collective Agreements by parliament, most probably in the first half of 2003. However, as well as this legislative change, employers' organisations and trade unions also need to accept the principles of a democratic society and market economy. So far, trade unions have been more successful in accepting these principles - eg through the introduction of voluntary membership, the regulation of union representativeness and the introduction of more decentralised and confederal internal organisational structures and decision-making (SI0210102F [1]) - than have employers' organisations. This is quite understandable in view of the prolonged process of privatisation. Nevertheless, in the processes of collective bargaining, participation, resolution of labour disputes and tripartite cooperation, trade unions need representative and legitimate partners on the employer side. [1]
  • Strike legislation and trends examined

    This article examines the legislation governing strikes in Slovenia and recent developments in strike activity.
  • New minimum wage legislation criticised by unions

    In October 2002, the Polish parliament passed a new law on the minimum wage, which should come into force in early 2003. The new legislation increases the minimum wage, amends the way in which it is set, and sets a lower rate for recent school-leavers. The trade unions have been very critical of the new provisions.
  • Controversy over abolition of pre-retirement allowance

    In late 2001, one of the statutory instruments accompanying Poland's national budget for 2002 abolished the 'pre-retirement allowance', which allowed people meeting certain age and employment requirements to cease work before retirement age. No new benefits of this sort are now being paid, although the payment of pre-retirement allowances allocated in the past is being continued. As of August 2002, almost 350,000 registered unemployed people were collecting such benefits. The amendment of the pre-retirement benefit laws has been challenged before Poland's Constitutional Tribunal independently by four parties, including the country's two principal trade union organisations, OPZZ and NSZZ Solidarność.
  • Labour costs analysed

    Labour costs in Poland account for a relatively small share of the overall costs of production, with the share of net wages being especially low. This results from the comparatively high tax burden on labour. The actual level of labour costs depends, first of all, on the branch of the economy, followed by the size of the enterprises involved and their ownership status. The highest wages in Poland, and consequently also the highest labour costs, are still found in mining, despite recent restructuring. Poland has much lower labour costs than the EU Member States or the USA, but higher than those in some neighbouring central European countries.
  • New rules to tackle gender discrimination at work

    Despite a long-standing prohibition of gender-based discrimination at work in Poland, the evidence indicates that discrimination against women remains widespread, while it has been very difficult for victims of discrimination to seek legal redress. Amendments made to the Labour Code in 2002 seek to tackle these problems, including by making it easier to bring court cases.